Bones become more brittle and may break more easily. Overall height decreases, mainly because the trunk and spine shorten. Breakdown of the joints may lead to inflammation, pain, stiffness, and deformity. Joint changes affect almost all older people. These changes range from minor stiffness to severe arthritis. The posture may become more stooped bent. The knees and hips may become more flexed. The neck may tilt, and the shoulders may narrow while the pelvis becomes wider.
Movement slows and may become limited. The walking pattern gait becomes slower and shorter.
Walking may become unsteady, and there is less arm swinging. Older people get tired more easily and have less energy. Osteoporosis is a common problem, especially for older women. Bones break more easily. Compression fractures of the vertebrae can cause pain and reduce mobility.
Muscle weakness contributes to fatigue, weakness, and reduced activity tolerance. The risk of injury increases because gait changes , instability, and loss of balance may lead to falls. Some older people have reduced reflexes. This is most often caused by changes in the muscles and tendons, rather than changes in the nerves. Decreased knee jerk or ankle jerk can occur. Some changes, such as a positive Babinski reflex , are not a normal part of aging. Involuntary movements muscle tremors and fine movements called fasciculations are more common in the older people.
Older people who are not active may have weakness or abnormal sensations paresthesias. People who are unable to move on their own, or who do not stretch their muscles with exercise, may get muscle contractures. Exercise is one of the best ways to slow or prevent problems with the muscles, joints, and bones. A moderate exercise program can help you maintain strength, balance, and flexibility. Exercise helps the bones stay strong.
It is important to eat a well-balanced diet with plenty of calcium. Women need to be particularly careful to get enough calcium and vitamin D as they age. Postmenopausal women and men over age 70 should take in 1, mg of calcium per day. Women and men over age 70 should get international units IU of vitamin D daily.
If you have osteoporosis, talk to your provider about prescription treatments. The assembly takes 30 minutes and the cushion fabric can be easily removed for cleaning. The overall purchase and delivery experience was great and I will certainly purchase from this store again.
Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints
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Jefferson's Old Bones | American Scientist
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make old bones
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