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Colored Shadows: Light & Color Science Activity | Exploratorium Teacher Institute Project
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- Material surfaces cast shadows when they obstruct light sources..
Rich and carefully-sculpted songs that cross-wire country and roots music with jazz, samba, and more. Cicatriz EP by A. The man behind Fulton Lights presents his latest EP of warm-hued indie rock, all Americana thump and heartfelt melancholy. We think that the horizontal matching bias is less effective when it is decomposed and solely measured. In the reclining-on-the-left-side condition, head-centric right is above in the gravitational frame. Thus, there may be a conflict between the gravitational below-shadow bias and the head-centric right-shadow bias.
Conversely, in the reclining-on-the-right-side condition, the head-centric right corresponded to the gravitational below. Thus, the possible shadow bias directions i. There should be no effect of gravitation in the supine condition, because the gravitational, head-centric-horizontal, and head-centric-vertical axes were mutually perpendicular. This could be because the left—right axis is better defined when gravitation is involved in spatial cognition. One could argue that making the head-centric and gravitational axes perpendicular by looking down the facing-up display is a more ecologically valid condition than the present supine condition.
However, we thought that some observers would find it difficult to retain the body posture of lying on the stomach during a block. To reduce observer load, we used a supine posture. It is possible that this nonecological condition might enhance or reduce the effect of the head-centric or gravitational frame. The loss of right-shadow bias in the supine condition might indicate this influence. The effect of ecological validity on cast-shadow matching should be tested in a further experiment.
In short, the light-from-above assumption in the head-centric frame of reference is robust irrespective of body posture head orientation when observers interpret ambiguous cast shadows.
A small right-shadow bias was also found. This may reflect a horizontal component of the tilted axis of the light-from-above assumption. There may be a possible interaction between head-centric and gravitational frames in cast-shadow matching. The results of the two experiments demonstrated some directional bias characteristics of the cast-shadow-matching process.
The first characteristic is the presence of a light-from-above-left assumption, although there were large individual differences in preferred lighting direction as shown in Figure 2. The second is that the light-from-above-left assumption is mainly based on the head-centric frame of reference.
The third is the possibility of interaction between the head-centric and gravitational frames of reference. These characteristics may be common to both shading and cast-shadow processing and suggest that the lighting assumption is shared by both processes. The mechanism underlying the tilt of assumed lighting direction from the top remains to be elucidated in both the shape-from-shading and cast-shadow-matching paradigms.
In Experiment 1, we were unable to test the effect of handedness because only one participant was left-handed. The effect of handedness on shadow matching remains an open question. All our participants were Japanese. In Japan, there are two types of books or notebooks: those that can be read or written in from right to left and those that can be read or written in from left to right.
Thus, the leftward bias for first-language Japanese participants could be weaker than that for first-language English participants. This lighting direction is intended to be convenient for right-handed people and ensures that the right hand does not cast a shadow onto books or notebooks. This could constitute a leftward bias of lighting as a cultural practice.
However, we could not find a Japanese study that precisely estimated the assumed lighting direction in relation to shape from shading or cast-shadow matching. Sawada and Kaneko confirmed the light-from-above bias in the shape-from-shading paradigm. Inoue and Watanabe showed that perceived depth was greater when a highlight was positioned at an upper location inside a circular form than when it was positioned at a lower location.
Although both studies demonstrated the light-from-above assumption, the assumed lighting direction was not precisely assessed. The effects of cultural factors on assumed lighting direction is still unclear. Thus, cast-shadow interpretation may depend more on the visual frame of reference. This possibility should be investigated in the future. In this study, we investigated preferred lighting direction only in horizontal and vertical dimensions, not including the front—rear dimension.
However, it would be feasible to position a light source in three dimensions. The light source was always assumed to be positioned on the viewer side of the screen in our experiments. This is a problem partly shared with previous studies conducted within the shape-from-shading paradigm. In this study, cast shadows could also change position according to the change in distance between the light source and the disk and also the distance between the disk and the wall.
Our results indicated some preference for the light-source direction. One of the next challenges is to incorporate the depth dimension into the present paradigm. Tomomi Koizumi studied perception of cast shadow under the supervision of Hiroyuki Ito and gained her master's degree in design from Kyushu University.
She currently works at Benesse Style Care Co. Hiroyuki Ito is a distinguished professor of psychology at Kyushu University. His research interests are depth perception, motion perception, visual illusions, and visuomotor coordination. He received his Ph. D in Engineering from Chiba University in His research interests are vision, color sciences, and their application to design and engineering.
His research interests are visual attention and illusory self-motion perception vection. Erika Tomimatsu studied visual perception under the supervision of Hiroyuki Ito and gained her doctor's degree in design from Kyushu University. Her research interests are motion illusions and time perception. Before conducting Experiment 1, we conducted an experiment similar to Experiment 1 except that the directional conditions were halved.
The results confirmed that these luminance conditions were sufficient to measure the effect that we planned to investigate.
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However, it is possible that better luminance and contrast combination conditions for this experiment exist. We confirmed that the produced gray-level profile was consistent with that produced using Gaussian filtering with ImageJ NIH. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Iperception v. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Email: pj. Received Feb 10; Accepted Jul 2. Abstract Assumed lighting direction in cast-shadow interpretation was investigated. Keywords: three-dimensional perception, depth, frames of reference, light. Introduction Shading and cast shadows are known as pictorial depth cues. Experiment 1 Methods Subjects Eleven students mean age, The correlation between the partial visibility functions of different occluders cannot be predicted easily, but can sometimes be approximated or bounded 45 , 5. As a consequence, the shadow of the union of the objects can be larger than the union of the shadows of the objects see Figure 2.
This effect is quite real, but is not very visible on typical scenes, especially if the objects casting shadows are animated. Research Members Publications. Introduction Importance of Shadows Hard vs.