In an effort to save the species, these last ferrets were captured and placed in a captive breeding program, which has been highly successful in expanding the population. Black-footed ferret kits raised as part of the captive breeding program. Photo by Kimberly Tamkun, U. These efforts have resulted in the successful reintroduction of the ferret at 28 sites across its historic range. Perhaps the most meaningful and symbolic of these efforts occurred this week, when black-footed ferrets finally returned home to the ranch in Meeteetse, where they were rediscovered 35 years ago.
working ferrets handling with nets guns and dogs Manual
A black-footed ferret is reintroduced in Wyoming. But what was once considered the last holdout of the black-footed ferret will now be the beginning of an anticipated stronghold. This reintroduction represents a triumph in endangered species conservation -- and another wildlifewin. Cheetah A. Caracal C.
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Bay cat C. European wildcat F. Ocelot L. Serval L. Canadian lynx L. Pallas's cat O. Marbled cat P. Fishing cat P. Cougar P. Jaguarundi H. Lion P. Clouded leopard N. Family Viverridae. Binturong A. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Otter civet C. Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Banded linsang P. African civet C. Abyssinian genet G. Central African oyan P. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Family Eupleridae. Fossa C. Eastern falanouc E. Malagasy civet F. Ring-tailed mongoose G.
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. Narrow-striped mongoose M. Brown-tailed mongoose S. Suborder Caniformia cont. Giant panda A. Sun bear H. Sloth bear M. Spectacled bear T. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Hooded skunk M. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Ring-tailed cat B. White-nosed coati N. Western mountain coati N. Kinkajou P. Crab-eating raccoon P. Red panda A. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E.
Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Walrus O. Hooded seal C.
Ferrets & Ferreting - A Practical Manual on Breeding, Managing, Training and Working Ferrets
Bearded seal E. Grey seal H. Ribbon seal H. Leopard seal H. Weddell seal L. Crabeater seal L. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Ross seal O. Harp seal P. Spotted seal P. Caspian seal P. Family Canidae includes dogs. Short-eared dog A. Side-striped jackal C. Crab-eating fox C. Maned wolf C. Dhole C. Culpeo L.
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African wild dog L. Raccoon dog N. Bat-eared fox O. Bush dog S. Gray fox U. Bengal fox V. Family Mustelidae. Bornean ferret-badger M. Tayra E. Wolverine G. American marten M. Fisher P. Lesser grison G. Saharan striped polecat I. Patagonian weasel L. African striped weasel P.
Marbled polecat V. African clawless otter A. Sea otter E. Spotted-necked otter H. North American river otter L. Eurasian otter L. Smooth-coated otter L. Giant otter P. Hog badger A. Japanese badger M. E-mail address: hernest uwyo. Holly B. Email: hernest uwyo. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The ferret Mustela putorius furo was domesticated from European polecats M.
The ferret is now a common pet, a laboratory model organism, and feral ferrets can impact native biodiversity. We hypothesized global ferret trade resulted in distinct international genetic clusters and that ferrets transported to other continents would have lower genetic diversity than ferrets from Europe because of extreme founder events and no hybridization with wild polecats or genetically diverse ferrets.
To assess these hypotheses, we genotyped ferrets at 31 microsatellites from 11 countries among the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia and estimated population structure and genetic diversity. Fifteen M. Our study indicated ferrets exhibit geographically distinct clusters and highlights the low genetic variation in certain countries. Australian and North American clusters have the lowest genetic diversities and highest inbreeding metrics whereas the United Kingdom UK cluster exhibited intermediate genetic diversity.
Notably, Hungarian ferrets had the highest genetic diversity and Hungary is the only country sampled with two wild polecat species. Our research has broad social, economic, and biomedical importance. Ferret owners and veterinarians should be made aware of potential inbreeding depression. Breeders in North America and Australia would benefit by incorporating genetically diverse ferrets from mainland Europe. Laboratories using ferrets as biomedical organisms should consider diversifying their genetic stock and incorporating genetic information into bioassays.
These results also have forensic applications for conserving the genetics of wild polecat species and for identifying and managing sources of feral ferrets causing ecosystem damage. The ferret Mustela putorius furo Linnaeus, was domesticated from the European polecat M. Thus, for ferrets, an assessment of population structure and regional genetic diversity will be of broad social, economic, and biomedical importance. Intercontinental translocations from Europe have not been well recorded, and the current understanding of ferret transportation and domestication relies heavily on transgenerational word of mouth Church, ; Lewington, a and historic letters Buller, Patterns of domestication are also clouded by the historic backcrossing with M.
Our goal was to evaluate the genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in pet ferrets from multiple countries among the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia. We hypothesized global ferret trade resulted in distinct international genetic clusters. We also hypothesized ferrets transported to other continents would have lower genetic diversity than ferrets from Europe because of extreme founder events and no opportunities to hybridize with wild polecats or genetically diverse ferrets.
Our results will be of broad social, economic, and biomedical importance and have direct applications to the ferret industry. Cells for DNA extraction were collected from domestic ferrets M. Samples were collected by coauthors or via collaborating veterinarians between and from personal homes, rescue shelters, or breeders.
Materials and Methods
During that time, cells from a single specimen that died in were collected from an Australian museum. The polecats were sampled from private breeders who had captured the individuals as wild polecats. Any individuals known via breeding programs or suspected by the owners to be hybrids were removed from analyses and were not included in this sample. Two loci were amplified singly, and the other 29 loci were split among seven multiplexes based on fragment size and fluorescent label compatibility Table S2.
Negative controls and positive controls were included with each PCR run. Fragments were visualized with STRand version 2. Heterozygous and homozygous loci were run at least twice or three times, respectively. We used three approaches to assess population structure, including F statistics, Bayesian population assignment models, and a discriminant analysis of principal components DAPC.
First, we ran 15 spatial models allowing K to vary from 1 to All models converged on the same K. Model selection must be used to determine the K with the best fit to the data. We followed developer instructions for determining K and population assignments. First, we ran 10 nonadmixture models for each K from 2 to We ran 10 spatially conditional autoregressive admixture models for each K to the DIC plateau of nonadmixture models. We randomly subsetted the samples from each country to 15, which was the number of wild polecats sampled. We retained all principal components for discriminant analyses.