Once he clearly understood the correct method of taming his dynamic mind, he found that it was versatile, energetic, and extremely quick in all circumstance. Eventually working in unison, mindfulness and wisdom blended so well with the citta that they merged to become one with it. Thus strengthened, the citta functioned like a magic crystal ball; and he was fully capable of keeping pace with all the myriad phenomena arising within it. He was also extremely intelligent. Because his rigorous training methods differed significantly from ones practiced by other monks, his style of practice was unique — and incredibly difficult to imitate.
From my own observations, I can unequivocally state: He was a truly noble character with a quick, adventurous mind who trained himself with uncompromising resolve. His Harte Trainingsmethoden were often quite unique. He had an ingenious way of mixing coercive pressure and gentle persuasion to tame a dynamic mind that, at the least lapse of concentration, ventured out to find things that could easily cause him problems.
Unlike so many others, he had to manage without the aid of a wise teacher's proven meditation methods — a disadvantage he often warned others against later on. To his own students he always emphasized his readiness to clarify any problems they experienced in meditation, thus saving them the difficulty of having to waste time as he had in his early years.
This area of Laos abounded in large, ferocious tigers — huge beasts that were considered far more vicious than tigers on the Thai side of the river. Repeatedly they attacked and killed the local inhabitants and then feasted on their flesh. Despite such brutality, those people, mostly of Vietnamese descent, weren't nearly as afraid of tigers as were their Lao and Thai neighbors. Time and again they watched these terrible beasts attack and kill friends and relatives; yet, they seemed indifferent to the carnage.
Having seen a friend killed right in front of them, the flesh torn from the body by a hungry tiger, the people would casually venture back into that same tiger-infested forest the next day, as though nothing had happened. The Lao and Thai communities would have been extremely upset, but the Vietnamese seemed strangely unmoved by such occurrences. Perhaps they were so accustomed to seeing such things that it no longer affected them. The Vietnamese had another strange habit: When they saw a man-eating tiger suddenly leap out to attack one of their companions, no one in the group made any effort to save their friend's life.
They simply abandoned their friend to his fate and ran for their lives. Suppose a group were sleeping in the forest overnight. If a huge tiger leaped into the campsite and dragged one of them away, the others, awakened by the noise, would jump up and run away; and then, calmly find another place close by to sleep. Like children, they acted without much rhyme or reason in these matters. They behaved as though those huge beasts, which had already shown themselves to be so adept at devouring human flesh, were somehow too stupid to do the same to them.
I am also familiar with people who have no proper fear of tigers. When coming to live in our country, they like to settle in dense, overgrown jungle areas abounding in tigers and other wild animal. Venturing deep into the forest in search of timber, they then spend the night there far from the village, showing no signs of fear at all. Even alone, these people can sleep deep in the forest at night without fear. If they wish to return to the village late at night, they have no qualms about walking alone through the dense undergrowth, and back if necessary.
If asked why they aren't afraid of tigers, their response is that, while the huge tigers in their own country have a taste for human flesh, Thai tigers don't; and that they're even scared of people. Conditions can be so dangerous in their homeland that people staying overnight in the forest must build an enclosure to sleep in that resembles a pigsty; otherwise, they might never return home.
Even within the precincts of some village communities, prowling tigers can be so fierce that no one dares leave home after dark, fearing an attack by a tiger leaping out of the shadows. The Vietnamese even chide the Thais for being such cowardly people, always entering the forest in groups, never daring to venture out alone. Camped in the forest, he often saw their tracks and heard their roars echoing through the trees at night. However, he never felt personally threatened by such things; they were simply natural aspects of forest life.
When speaking of his excursions crossing the Mekong River, he never mentioned being afraid. He obviously considered such dangers to be a normal part of trekking through the wilds. When I'm walking in meditation in the forest at night, just the occasional roar of a tiger so unsettles me that I can barely manage to keep walking to the end of the track.
I fear coming face to face with one of those beasts — and losing my wits. You see, since becoming old enough to understand such things, I always heard my parents and their neighbors vociferously proclaim that tigers are very fierce animals, and extremely dangerous. This notion has stuck with me ever since, making it impossible not to be terrified of tigers. I must confess that I've never found a way to counteract this tendency. Later, as he developed enough inner stability to withstand both external distractions and those mercurial mental traits that were so much a part of his character, he walked down into the central provinces, wandering contentedly across the Central Plains region, living the dhutanga lifestyle until eventually he reached the capital, Bangkok.
Arriving shortly before the rainy season, he went to Wat Pathumwan monastery and entered the retreat there. Life in such favorable locations gave him an excellent, uninterrupted opportunity to fully intensify his spiritual practice. In doing so, he developed a fearless attitude toward his mind and the things with which it came in contact. Using it as the firm basis for his practice, he examined everything from the perspective of Dhamma, continually uncovering new techniques for developing wisdom.
He informed his mentor of developments in his meditation practice, questioning him about doubts he still had concerning the practice of wisdom. His entire stay there was filled with the most unusual experiences, making it a memorable episode in his life. To the best of my recollection, he first arrived at Ban Gluay village, the village nearest the cave and thus close enough to be convenient for almsround. Unfamiliar with the area, he asked the villagers to take him to Sarika Cave. Straightaway they warned him that it was a very special cave possessing numerous supernatural powers, insisting that no monk could possibly live there unless his virtue was pure.
Other monks who had tried to live there quickly fell ill with a variety of painful symptoms — many had even died before they could be brought down for treatment. They told him that the cave was the domain of a spirit of immense size possessing many magical powers. It also had a very foul temper. This giant spirit guarded the cave from all intruders — monks being no exception.
Unexpected occurrences awaited all intruders into the cave, many of whom ended up dead. The spirit delighted in testing any monk who came bragging about his mastery of magic spells for warding off spirits. Invariably, the monk would suddenly fall ill and die a premature death. An ominous dream often accompanied fitful sleep: An enormous black spirit, towering overhead, threatened to drag the dreamer to his death, shouting that it had long been the cave's guardian exercising absolute authority over the whole area, and would allow no one to trespass.
So any trespasser was immediately chased away, for it accepted no authority greater than its own, except that of a person of impeccable virtue and a loving, compassionate heart, who extended these noble qualities to all living beings. A person of such nobility was allowed to live in the cave. The spirit would even protect him and pay him homage, but it did not tolerate narrow-minded, selfish, ill-behaved intruders.
Finding life in the cave a very uncomfortable experience, most monks refused to remain for long; and fearing death, they made a hurried departure. Generally, no one managed a long stay — only one or two days at most, and they were quickly on their way. Trembling and almost out of their minds with fear as they climbed back down, they blurted out something about a fierce, demonic spirit. Scared and chastened, they fled, never to return. Worse still, some who went up to the cave never came down again. Why hadn't they come down again?
He was told that, having died there, they couldn't possibly come back down. They recounted a story of four seemingly competent monks who had died in the cave not long before. Prior to entering the cave, one of them had assured the villagers that he was impervious to fear, for he knew a potent spell that protected him against ghosts and other spirits, plus many other potent spells as well. He was convinced no spirit could threaten him.
Warning him repeatedly about the dangers, the villagers tried to discourage his intentions, but he reiterated that he had no fear and insisted on being taken to the cave. The villagers were left with no other choice, so they showed him the way.
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Once there, he came down with a variety of afflictions, including high fevers, pounding headaches, and terrible stomach pains. Sleeping fitfully, he dreamt that he was being taken away to his death. Over the years, many different monks had tried to live there, but their experiences were strikingly similar. Some died, others quickly fled. The four most recent monks died within a relatively short period. The villagers couldn't guarantee that their deaths were caused by a malevolent spirit; perhaps there was another reason. But they had always noticed a powerful presence connected with the cave.
Local people weren't so bold as to challenge its power, for they were wary of it and envisioned themselves being carried back down in critical condition — or as corpses. They assured him that such things happened so often it frightened them to think about it. For this reason, they warned any monk or lay person who came to search the cave for magical objects or sacred amulets. Whether the cave actually contained such things is another matter; but, the fact that some people liked to claim their existence meant that those with a penchant for sacred objects inevitably went there to search for them.
The villagers themselves had never seen such objects in the cave; nor had they seen those seeking them encounter anything but death, or narrow escapes from death. Live or die, he wanted to put himself to the test, and so discover the truth of those stories. The scary tales he heard didn't frighten him in the least. In truth, he saw this adventure as a means to arouse mindfulness, an opportunity to acquire many new ideas for contemplation.
He possessed the courage to face whatever was to happen, as befits someone genuinely interested in seeking the truth. So in his own unassuming way, he informed the villagers that, although the stories were very frightening, he still would like to spend some time in the cave. Assuring them that he would hurry back down at the first sign of trouble, he asked to be escorted to the cave, which they obligingly did. The environment around the cave was secluded and very quiet, disturbed only by the natural sounds of wild animals foraging for food in the forest.
He passed the first few nights contentedly; but on subsequent nights he began to suffer stomach pains. Although such pains were nothing new, this time the condition grew steadily worse, eventually becoming so severe that he sometimes passed blood in his stool. Before long his stomach refused to digest food properly it simply passed straight through. This made him reflect on what the villagers had said about four monks dying there recently. If his condition didn't improve, perhaps he would be the fifth. When lay people came to see him at the cave one morning, he sent them to look in the forest for certain medicinal plants that he had previously found beneficial.
They gathered various roots and wood essences which he boiled into a potion and drank, or else ground into powder, drinking it dissolved in water. He tried several different combinations of herbs, but none relieved his symptoms. They worsened with each passing day. His body was extremely weak; and though his mental resolve was not greatly affected, it was clearly weaker than normal.
As he sat drinking the medicine one day, a thought arose which, prompting a self-critical examination, reinforced his resolve:. Once he became fully aware of his predicament, he made an emphatic decision. From that day on he would treat his stomach disorder using only 'the therapeutic properties of Dhamma'. If he lived, so much the better; if he died, then so be it. Conventional types of treatment proving ineffective, he determined to stop taking all medicines until he was cured by Dhamma's therapeutic powers, or else died there in the cave. With this firm resolution in mind, he reminded himself:.
With this solemn determination, he stopped taking all medicines and began earnestly focusing on meditation as the sole remedy for all spiritual and bodily ailments. Discarding concern for his life, he let his body follow its own natural course, turning his attention to probing the citta — that essential 'knowing nature' which never dies, yet has death as its constant companion. He set to work examining the citta , using the full powers of mindfulness, wisdom, faith and perseverance that he had been developing within himself for so long. The seriousness of his physical condition ceased to interest him; concerns about death no longer arose.
He directed mindfulness and wisdom to investigate the painful feelings he experienced, making them separate the body into its constituent elements, and then thoroughly analyzing each one. He examined the physical components of the body and the feelings of pain within it. He analyzed the function of memory which presumes that one or another part of the body is in pain. Through this process, he succeeded in fully disengaging the body from the severe pain caused by his stomach disorder until he understood, with absolute clarity, just how they are interrelated.
At that moment of realization, his citta 'converged' into complete calm — a moment that saw his spiritual resolve immeasurably strengthened, and his bodily illness totally vanish. The illness, the pain, the mind's preoccupations - all disappeared simultaneously. This 'luminous' citta then left the confines of his body and immediately encountered an enormous, black man standing fully thirty feet tall. The towering figure carried a huge metal club — twelve feet long and thick as a man's leg.
The metal club resting on his shoulder was so huge that a single blow from it would have been enough to pound a large bull elephant into the earth. He reminded the giant that he had harmed no one while living there; that he had caused no trouble deserving of such deadly punishment. The giant replied by saying that he had long been the sole authority guarding that mountain and would never allow anyone to usurp that authority. He felt compelled to take decisive action against all intruders.
I came to carry on the noble work of spiritual development, for I aim to usurp the authority that the kilesas exercise over my heart. Harming a virtuous monk in any way is an absolutely despicable act. I am a disciple of the Lord Buddha, that supremely pure individual whose all-powerful loving compassion encompasses the whole of the sentient universe. Does the great authority you boast give you power to override the authority of Dhamma, and of kamma — those immutable laws that govern the existence of all living beings?
Thus, he banished from his heart all thoughts of beating or killing other people. You think you're so smart, have you ever given any thought to taking decisive action against the kilesas in your heart?
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You don't possess the authority needed to rid yourself of evil, so you use the fires of magic against others, unaware that you're actually burning yourself. You are creating very grave kamma indeed. As though that weren't bad enough, you want to attack and kill someone who represents the virtues of Dhamma which are central to the world's well-being. How can you ever hope to lay claim to laudable virtues, when you insist on engaging in evil behavior of such unparalleled brutality? I have come here with the purest intentions — to practice Dhamma for my own spiritual benefit, and the benefit of others.
Despite that, you threaten to pound me into the ground, giving no thought to the consequences of such an evil deed. Don't you realize that it will drag you into hell where you will reap the terrible misery you have sown? Rather than feel concerned for myself, I feel very sorry for you — you've become so obsessed with your own authority that it's now burning you alive. Can your potent powers withstand the effect of the grave act you are about to commit? You say you exercise sovereign authority over this mountain, but can your magic powers override Dhamma and the laws of kamma? If your powers really are superior to Dhamma, then go ahead — pound me to death!
I'm not afraid to die. Even if I don't die today, my death remains inevitable. For the world is a place where all who are born must die — even you, blinded as you are by your own self-importance. You are not above death, or the laws of kamma that govern all living beings. He stood so completely still that if he were a human being we would say that he was so frightened and ashamed he could scarcely breath.
But this was a special nonhuman being, so he didn't in fact breathe. Suddenly, the contrite spirit flung the metal club down from his shoulder and spontaneously transformed his appearance from a huge, black creature into a devout Buddhist gentleman with a mild, courteous demeanor. Here is the gist of what he said:. I immediately noticed a strange and amazing radiance extending out all around you, a brilliance unlike anything I had ever seen. It created such a profound impact that in your presence I felt weak and numb.
I couldn't do anything — so captivated was I by that radiant glow. Still, I didn't know what it was, for I had never before experienced anything like it. Rather, they stemmed from a long-held belief that I possess unrivaled authority over nonhuman beings, as well as humans with evil intent who lack moral principles. Such authority can be imposed on anyone, at any time; and that person will be powerless to resist. This arrogant sense of self-importance led me to confront you. Feeling vulnerable, I didn't want to lose face.
Even as I threatened you, I felt nervous and hesitant, unable to act on my threat. It was merely the stance of someone accustomed to wielding power over others. Please be compassionate enough to forgive my rude, distasteful behavior today. I don't wish to suffer the consequences of evil anymore. As it is now, I suffer enough. Any more, and I won't have the strength to bear it. You have an nonphysical body, so you needn't experience the human hardships of hunger and fatigue.
You aren't burdened having to make a living as people here on earth are, so why do you complain about suffering? If a celestial existence isn't happiness, then which type of existence is? The spirit replied: "On a superficial level, perhaps, celestial beings with their ethereal bodies do actually experience more happiness than humans, whose bodies are much grosser. But speaking strictly in spiritual terms, a celestial being's ethereal body still suffers a degree of discomfort proportionate to the refined nature of that state of existence.
This discussion between spirit and monk was far too profound and complex for me to capture its every detail here, so I hope the reader will forgive me for this shortcoming. As a result of the discussion, the mysterious celestial being, showing great respect for the Dhamma he heard, affirmed his devotion to the three refuges: Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha. In truth, he was not some mysterious being with a huge, black body — that was merely a guise. He was the chief leader of all the terrestrial devas living in that region. The stomach disorder that was troubling him so much when he sat down at dusk had completely disappeared by that time.
Forgoing sleep, he continued striving in his practice until dawn. Instead of feeling tired after a night of exertion, his body was more energetic than ever. He had passed a night full of many amazing experiences: He witnessed Dhamma's powerful ability to tame an unruly spirit, transforming arrogance into faith; his citta remained in a serenely calm state for many hours, savoring that wonderful sense of happiness; a chronic illness was completely cured, his digestion returning to normal; he was satisfied that his mind had acquired a solid spiritual basis — one he could trust, thus dispelling many of his lingering doubts; he realized many unusual insights he had never before attained, both those that removed defilements and those that enhanced the special understanding which formed an intrinsic part of his character.
During the months that followed, his meditation practice progressed smoothly, accompanied always by indescribable peace and tranquillity. With his health back to normal, physical discomforts no longer troubled him. Sometimes, late at night, he met with gatherings of terrestrial devas who came from various places to visit him. On nights when no visitors came, he enjoyed himself practicing meditation. He felt this Dhamma to be so very profound that he understood how difficult it was going to be to practice it to perfection, and to fully realize its essential truths.
He felt a sense of satisfaction, thinking how fortunate he was to be able to practice Dhamma and realize its many insights and truths — an amazing feeling. Even though he had yet to reach the ultimate realization, a dream he'd long desired to fulfill, still the spiritual contentment he experienced was very rewarding.
He was sure now that, unless death intervened, his hopes would surely be realized one day. Savoring his contentment, he reflected on the path he took to practice Dhamma and the results he hoped to achieve, proceeding step by step, until he reached a complete cessation of dukkha , eliminating all traces of discontent still existing within his heart.
Just then, a large troop of monkeys came foraging for food in front of the cave. The leader of the troop arrived first, a good distance in front of the rest. The monkey immediately became suspicious of his presence. Nervous, worried about the safety of its troop, it ran back and forth along the branch of a tree, looking warily at him.
Keep searching for food as you please. You can come foraging around here every day if you like. He watched what happened next with a sense of great amusement, combined with sincere compassion. As soon as the leader reached the others, it quickly called out: Goke , hey not so fast! There's something over there. It may be dangerous! Hearing this, all the other monkeys began asking at once: Goke , goke?
Where, where? Or something like that, but in the language of animals, which is an unfathomable mystery to most human beings. Being concerned for the safety of those following behind, it was apprehensive, but also curious to find out what was there. Then, it ran back and informed its friends: Goke , we can go.
Goke , there's no danger. For those of us who don't understand their language, the calls they send back and forth to one another are merely sounds in the forest, much like the bird calls we hear every day. In the beginning when the lead monkey first spotted him, it hurried back to its troop, warning its friends to take care and pay careful attention to what it had to say. Although it communicated this message in the goke goke sounds that monkeys make, the essential meaning was clear to the others: Hey, stop! Not so fast! There's danger up ahead. Hearing the warning, the others began wondering what danger there was.
First, one asked: Goke , what is it? Then, another asked: Goke , what's the matter? The lead monkey answered: Goke gake , there's something up there — it may be dangerous. The others asked: Goke , where is it? The leader replied: Goke , right over there. The sounds made by this large troop of monkeys, as they questioned and answered one another, reverberated through the whole forest.
First, one called out in alarm; then another, until monkeys, large and small, ran frantically back and forth, seeking answers about their situation. Fearful of the possible danger they all faced, they yelled excitedly to one another in a state of general confusion — just as we people tend to do when confronted with an emergency. Their leader was obliged to speak up and to try to clarify the situation, cautioning them: Goke gake , everyone wait here first while I go back and check to make sure.
With these parting instructions, it hurried back to look again. Then, it hurriedly returned to its troop and announced: Goke gake , we can go now, it's not dangerous. There's no need to be afraid. As monkeys tend to do when their curiosity is aroused, the troop was jumping about through the trees. The goke gake sounds of their queries echoed through the forest: What is it? What's it doing here? The sounds of their replies reverberated in the agitated tone of animals needing to find out what's going on.
He wanted to emphasize the points of interest for his audience, and thus clearly indicate their significance. He said that wild monkeys tend to panic when sensing danger because, for ages, human beings have used various brutal methods to kill these animals in countless numbers.
So monkeys are instinctively very distrustful of people. The flow of an animal's consciousness infuses the different sounds it makes with the appropriate meaning — just as human verbal expressions are determined by the flow of human consciousness. So, it is just as easy for monkeys to understand the meaning of their common sounds, as it is for people to understand the same language. Each sound that issues from an animal's flow of consciousness is attuned to a specific meaning and purpose.
These sounds communicate a clear message, and those who are listening invariably comprehend their precise meaning. So, even though it has no discernible meaning for human beings, when monkeys emit a sound like goke , they all understand its intended meaning, since this is the language monkeys use to communicate. Much the same applies to people of different nationalities, each speaking their own native language. Just as most nations around the world have their own specific language, so too each species of animal has its own distinct means of communication. Whether animals and humans can comprehend each others' language ceases to be an issue when we accept that each group has the prerogative to decide on the parameters of its speech and the manner in which it is conducted.
Finally overcoming their fears, the monkeys roamed freely in the area around the cave, foraging for food as they pleased. No longer were they on guard, wary of the threat of danger. Ordinarily, animals of all kinds feel comfortable living in places where monks have taken up residence, for animals are quite similar to human beings in emotion. They simply lack the same predominant authority and intelligence that humans possess. Their level of intelligence extends only to the tasks of searching for food and finding a place to hide in order to survive from day to day.
Seated in meditation focusing on body contemplation, his citta 'converged' into a state of such total calm that it appeared completely empty. At that moment, he felt as though the whole universe had ceased to exist. Only emptiness remained — the emptiness of his citta. Emerging from this profound state, he contemplated the teaching of the Lord Buddha which prescribed the means for removing the defiling pollutants that exist in the hearts of all living beings — a knowledge arising from the incisive genius of the Lord Buddha's wisdom.
The more he contemplated this matter, the more he understood the amazing sagacity of the Buddha — and the more profoundly saddened he was by his own ignorance. He realized the paramount importance of proper training and instruction. Even such common bodily functions as eating food and relieving ourselves must be taught to us. We learn to perform them properly by undergoing training and instruction.
Washing and dressing ourselves, in fact all of our daily activities, must be learned through education — otherwise, they will never be done correctly. Worse than doing them incorrectly, we may end up doing something seriously wrong, which could have grievous moral consequences. Just as it's necessary to receive training in how to take care of our bodies, so it is essential to receive proper guidance in how to take care of our minds.
If our minds don't undergo the appropriate training, then we're bound to make serious mistakes, regardless of our age, gender, or position in society. The average person in this world resembles a young child who needs adult guidance and constant attention to safely grow to maturity. Most of us tend to grow up only in appearance. Our titles, our status, and our self-importance tend to increase ever more; but the knowledge and wisdom of the right way to achieve peace and happiness for ourselves and others, don't grow to maturity with them; nor do we show an interest in developing these.
Consequently, we always experience difficulties wherever we go. At that moment, the old monk's mind was completely distracted by thoughts of the past concerning the affairs of his home and family. Just before dawn, he focused his citta once again, only to find the old monk still busy making plans for his children and grandchildren.
Each time he sent out the flow of his citta to check, he found the monk thinking incessantly about matters concerned with building a worldly life now, and untold rounds of existence in the future. On the way back from his almsround that morning, he stopped to visit the elderly monk and immediately put him on the spot: "How is it going, old fellow? Building a new house and getting married to your wife all over again? You couldn't sleep at all last night.
I suppose everything is all arranged now so you can relax in the evenings, without having to get so worked up planning what you'll say to your children and grandchildren. I suspect you were so distracted by all that business last night you hardly slept a wink, am I right?
Embarrassed, the elderly monk asked with a sheepish smile: "You knew about last night? I'm convinced you were thinking about those things quite deliberately, so preoccupied with your thoughts you neglected to lie down and sleep all night. Even now you continue to shamelessly enjoy thinking about such matters and you don't have the mindfulness to stop yourself. You're still determined to act upon those thoughts, aren't you?
He mumbled something incoherent in a faltering, ghostly sounding voice bordering on madness. So he found an excuse to change the subject, talking about other matters for a while to calm him down, then he returned to the cave. The layman said that he had abruptly left the previous morning, with no intention of returning.
The layman had asked him why he was in such a hurry to leave, and he replied: "How can I stay here any longer? Had he continued lecturing me like that much longer, I'd surely have passed out and died there on the spot. As it was, he stopped and changed the subject, so I managed to survive somehow. How can you expect me to remain here now, after that? I'm leaving today.
Is that why you nearly died, and now feel you can no longer stay here? Can you tell me what they were? Perhaps I can learn a lesson from them. Should anyone ever know, I'd sink into the ground. Without getting specific, I can tell you this much: he knows everything we're thinking. No scolding could possibly be as bad as that. It's quite natural for people to think both good thoughts and bad thoughts.
Who can control them? I know I can't stay on here. Better to go off and die somewhere else than to stay here and disturb him with my wayward thinking. I mustn't stay here, further disgracing myself. Last night I couldn't sleep at all — I just can't get this matter out of my mind. He's not the one at fault. The person at fault is the one who should be disturbed by what he's done, and then make a sincere effort to rectify it. Then you can develop the mindfulness needed to solve this problem, which is much better than running away from it.
What do you say to that? Just thinking that he knows all about me is enough to make me shiver, so how could I possibly maintain any degree of mindfulness? If I remain here any longer, I'll die for sure. Please believe me. Before he left, I asked him where he'd be going. He said he didn't know for sure, but that if he didn't die first, we'd probably meet again someday — then he left. I had a boy send him off. When the boy returned I asked him, but he didn't know, for the elderly monk hadn't told him where he was going.
I feel really sorry for him. An old man like that, he shouldn't have taken it so personally. In truth, seeing the elderly monk's stunned reaction that very first day, he had suspected then that this might happen. After that day he was disinclined to send out the flow of his citta to investigate, fearing he might again meet with the same situation.
In the end, his suspicions were confirmed. He told the layman that he'd spoken with the old monk in the familiar way that friends normally do: playful one minute, serious the next. He never imagined it becoming such a big issue that the elderly monk would feel compelled to abandon his monastery and flee like that.
He was concerned that such an incident might be repeated should he fail to make a point of carefully considering the circumstances before speaking. From that day on, he never cautioned people directly about the specific content of their thoughts. He merely alluded indirectly to certain types of thinking as a means of helping people become aware of the nature of their thoughts, but without upsetting their feelings. People's minds are like small children tottering uncertainly as they learn to walk.
An adult's job is to merely watch them carefully so they come to no harm. There's no need to be overly protective all the time. The same applies to people's minds: they should be allowed to learn by their own experiences. Sometimes their thinking will be right, sometimes wrong, sometimes good, sometimes bad — this is only natural. It's unreasonable to expect them to be perfectly good and correct every time.
He gained many enlightening ideas to deepen his understanding of the exclusively internal aspects of his meditation practice and many unusual insights concerning the great variety of external phenomena he encountered in his meditation. He became so pleasantly absorbed in his practice that he forgot about time: he hardly noticed the days, the months, or the years as they passed. Intuitive insights arose in his mind continuously — like water gently flowing along in the rainy season. On afternoons when the weather was clear, he walked through the forest admiring the trees and the mountains, meditating as he went, absorbed in the natural scenery all around him.
As evening fell, he gradually made his way back to the cave. The cave's surrounding area abounded in countless species of wild animals, the abundant variety of wild plants and fruits being a rich, natural source of sustenance. Animals such as monkeys, languars, flying squirrels, and gibbons, which depend on wild fruits, came and went contentedly. As he watched them foraging for food he became engrossed in their playful antics.
He felt a genuine spirit of camaraderie with those creatures, considering them his companions in birth, ageing, sickness, and death. In this respect, animals are on an equal footing with people. For though animals and people differ in the extent of their accumulated merit and goodness, animals nonetheless possess these wholesome qualities in some measure as well. In fact, degrees of accumulated merit may vary significantly among individual members of both groups. Moreover, many animals may actually possess greater stores of merit than do certain people, but having been unfortunate enough to be reborn into an animal existence, they must endure the consequences for the time being.
Human beings face the same dilemma: for although human existence is considered a higher birth than that of an animal, a person falling on hard times and into poverty must endure that misfortune until it passes — or until the results of that unfortunate kamma are exhausted. Only then can a better state arise in its place. In this way the effects of kamma continue to unfold, indefinitely. He always taught us that the good and the bad kamma , created by each living being, are that being's only true inheritance.
Then for the rest of the evening he concentrated on his meditation practice, alternating between walking and sitting meditation. At the same time, he intensified the development of wisdom by mentally dissecting the different parts of the body, while analyzing them in terms of the three universal characteristics of existence: that is to say, all are impermanent, bound up with suffering, and void of any self.
In this manner, his confidence grew with each passing day. Here is the substance of what was expressed:. Walking meditation must be practiced in a calm, self-composed manner. Use mindfulness to focus your attention directly on the task you have set for yourself. If you're investigating the nature of the khandhas or the conditions of the body, or simply concentrating on a specific Dhamma theme, then make sure mindfulness is firmly fixed on that object.
Don't allow your attention to drift elsewhere. Such negligence is characteristic of one having no solid spiritual basis to anchor him, and thus lacking a reliable inner refuge. Mindful awareness should attend each and every movement in all your daily activities. Don't perform these actions as though you are so sound asleep that you have no mindful awareness of how your body tosses about, or how prolifically your sleeping mind dreams. Going on your morning almsround, eating your food, and relieving yourself: in all such basic duties you should adhere strictly to the traditional practices of the Lord Buddha's Noble disciples.
Never behave as though you lack proper training in the Teaching and the Discipline. This means maintaining mindfulness and wisdom in every posture as a way of eliminating the poisons buried deep within your heart. Thoroughly investigate all the food you eat. Don't allow those foods that taste good to add poison to your mind. Even though the body may be strengthened by food that's eaten without proper investigation, the mind will be weakened by its damaging effects. By nourishing your body with food that is eaten unmindfully, you will, in effect, be destroying yourself with nourishment that depletes your mental vitality.
In the view of the Buddha's Noble disciples, all mental defilements are to be greatly feared. Utmost care should be taken to ensure that the mind does not neglect to check any outflow of the kilesas , for each one acts like a sheet of fire destroying everything in its path. The Noble Dhamma, practiced by all of the Lord Buddha's Noble disciples, emphasizes scrupulous self-discipline at all times and under all conditions — whether walking, standing, sitting, lying down, eating or relieving oneself; and in all of one's conversations and social interactions.
Inattentive, undisciplined behavior is a habit of the kilesas , leading to unwholesome thoughts, and thus, perpetuating the cycle of birth and death. Those wishing to escape from the cycle of rebirth should avoid such deplorable habits. No one wishes to partake of wretched food; no one wishes to reside in a wretched house; and no one wishes to dress in wretched clothes, or even look at them. Generally, people detest and shun wretched things — how much more so a wretched person with a wretched mind. His wretchedness pierces the hearts of good and bad people alike. It pierces the hearts of all devas and brahmas without exception.
Of all the many things that people value and care for in the world, a person's mind is the most precious. In fact, the mind is the foremost treasure in the whole world, so be sure to look after it well. To realize the mind's true nature is to realize Dhamma. Understanding the mind is the same as understanding Dhamma. Once the mind is known, then Dhamma in its entirety is known.
Clearly, the mind is a priceless possession that should never be overlooked. Those who neglect to nurture the special status that the mind has within their bodies will always be born flawed, no matter how many hundreds or thousands of times they are reborn. Once we realize the precious nature of our own minds, we should not be remiss, knowing full well that we are certain to regret it later.
Such remorse being avoidable, we should never allow it to occur. Human beings are the most intelligent form of life on earth. As such, they should not wallow in ignorance. Otherwise, they will live an insufferably wretched existence, never finding any measure of happiness. He engages in work that is pure and blameless; his actions are both righteous and dispassionate. The teaching that I give you is the dispensation of a man of diligence and perseverance, a spiritual warrior who emerged victorious, a preeminent individual who completely transcended dukkha , freeing himself of all fetters.
He attained absolute freedom, becoming the Lord Buddha, the supreme guide and teacher of the three worlds of existence. If you can understand the special value this teaching holds for you, before long you too will have rid yourself of kilesas. I entrust this Dhamma teaching to you in the hope that you will give it the most careful consideration. In that way, you will experience incredible wonders arising within your mind, which by its very nature is a superb and wonderful thing.
He carefully contemplated every aspect of it, isolating each individual point, and then thoroughly analyzed them all, one by one. Hearing their wonderful discourses increased his enthusiasm for meditation, thus greatly enhancing his understanding of Dhamma. Listening intently, his heart completely full, he became so absorbed in Dhamma that the entire physical world, including his own body, ceased to exist for him then.
The citta alone existed, its awareness shining brightly with the radiance of Dhamma. It was only later, when he withdrew from that state, that he realized the oppressive burden he still carried with him: for he became conscious again of his physical body — the focal point where the other four khandhas come together, each one a heavy mass of suffering on its own.
Someone reaching this level of attainment is assured of never being reborn in the human realm, or in any other realm of existence where bodies are composed of the four gross physical elements: earth, water, fire, and air. Should that individual fail to ascend to the level of Arahant before dying, at the moment of death he will be reborn into one of the five Pure Abodes of the brahma world.
Should this disclosure be considered in any way inappropriate, I deserve the blame for not being more circumspect. By that time, amazing insights surfaced nightly in his meditation practice. He became keenly aware of many strange, wonderful things — things he had never dreamed of seeing in his life. On the night that he thought about his fellow monks, his meditation had an exceptionally unusual quality to it. Fully realizing the harmful effects that his own past ignorance had caused him, he was moved to tears.
At the same time, he understood the value of the effort he had struggled so diligently to maintain until he could reap the amazing fruits of that diligence. A deep appreciation for the Lord Buddha's supreme importance arose in his heart; for, it was he who compassionately proclaimed the Dhamma so that others could follow in his footsteps, thus allowing them to understand the complex nature of their own kamma , and that of all other living beings as well.
Thus the vital significance of the Dhamma verse: All beings are born of their kamma and kamma is their one true possession , which succinctly sums up practically all the Buddha's teachings. To accomplish that he would need to pour all his energy into the practice — with unstinting resolve. In the meantime, he was pleased to see that the chronic stomach ailment which he had suffered so long was now completely cured.
More than that, his mind was now firmly anchored to a solid spiritual basis.
Although he had yet to totally eradicate his kilesas , he was sure of being on the right path. His meditation practice, now progressing smoothly, had none of the fluctuations he had experienced earlier. Unlike in the past, when he was groping in the dark, feeling his way along, he now felt certain of the path leading to the highest Dhamma. He was absolutely convinced that one day he would transcend dukkha. His mindfulness and wisdom had reached a stage where they worked ceaselessly in perfect concert.
He never needed to urge them into action. Day and night, knowledge and understanding arose continuously — both internal spiritual insights and awareness of countless external phenomena. The more his mind delighted in such amazing Dhamma, the more compassion he felt for his fellow monks: he was eager to share with them these wondrous insights. In the end, this profound feeling of compassion precipitated his departure from that auspicious cave.
With some reluctance, he eventually left to search out the dhutanga monks he had known previously, when he was living in the Northeast. Several days prior to his departure from Sarika Cave, a group of terrestrial devas , led by the mysterious being he first encountered there, came to hear a discourse on Dhamma. Unwilling to see him depart, the large company of devas who were gathered there beseeched him to stay on for the sake of their long-term happiness and prosperity. Asking for their understanding, he cautioned them against feeling disappointed. He promised that, if the opportunity presented itself in the future, he would return.
The devas expressed their sincere regrets, showing the genuine affection and respect for him they'd always felt. At about ten p. So he focused his citta and sent the flow of his consciousness out to observe him. I myself am a respected teacher, yet I'm inept compared to you — and I feel embarrassed. You truly are a master.
This is exactly how a genuine disciple of the Lord Buddha follows in the footsteps of the Supreme Teacher. Jan Pieter Jans born and died in in Yokohama 1. Christina Jaski Jans, born and died in Yokohama 1. After her death he married a Japanese wife named Orio, nothing else is handed on.
They had one daughter: 2. In she lived in the house of her father at 25 Bluff. She died on October 12, and is buried on the site of all Carst's in the YFC but with a separate tombstone. They had three children: 3. Catto , Leiter der Straits Insurance Co. After his education abroad he returned to Japan in and got employed with Alex. Catto , Manager of Straits Insurance Co. He remained at this company at least until , at this time still residing under the address of his father. Dekker und Wessel de Vos starben. Er starb auf seinem Schiff Argonaut im Hafen von Batavia.
In he founded in Nagasaki together with C.
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This partnership didn't last obviously for long. Dekker and Wessel de Vos died. He probably took this experience as an opportunity to transfer his shares to his sons in He died in on his ship Argonaut in the port of Batavia. Er heiratete Leliane Alida Lels am It seems, he had been in partnership but never lived in Japan and was responsible and organised the business from the Netherlands. He married Leliane Alida Lels on In Japan lebte er mit einer Japanerin zusammen, Omea Taeko, und sie hatten eine uneheliche Tochter, die am He remained in this company until when he left Japan for health reasons.
Later she lived in the Netherlands and died on May 25, in Den Haag. Ab hatte er Prokura. In he was transferred to their branch in Kobe 70 Kyo-machi. From he signed per procuration. Sie wurde der erste Missionar, der von der Frauen-Missions-Gesellschaft der methodistischen Kirche von Kanada nach Japan delegiert wurde; sie traf in Japan am Ihr erster Vertrag lief vom She also began the training of Bible women for the Canadian Mission in Japan.
Additionally to her missionary work she was employed by the Japanese government, Ministry of Education, as English teacher. Her first contract ran from August 1, to July 31, and was prolonged to July 31, Afterwards she went back to Canada and did missionary work among Chinese immigrants in British Columbia until when she returned to Japan. She left Japan on July 31, for Canada, where she also died, nearly aged years. Als O. Von Okayama zogen sie nach Osaka und blieben hier bis Er diente in Tokyo von bis , in Sapporo von bis , in Otaru von bis , in Matsuyama von bis und im Kobe College, Nishinomiya, Danach wirkte er in Davis, Philippinen, von bis , wurde von den Japanern in Santo Tomas, Manila inhaftiert.
Er ging in den Ruhestand und wurde Pfarrer in Plainfield, Connecticut. Er diente im 2. WK in der US-Marine. Referenz: Amherst University. In the same year he was also ordained and appointed missionary to Japan by the American Board Union. He studied there Japanese and they moved on for his new post to Okayama, staying there from to During his stay in Okayama he signed a contract with the Japanese government, Ministry of Education, to teach English.
His contract ran from January 20, to January 20, and was prolonged to January 20, When in O. Gulick came to Okayama to support mission work, they became friends. Even after the end of Gulick's activities in Japan, they kept in touch and maintained a lively correspondence. From Okayama they moved to Osaka staying there until They went back to the USA in and devoted himself as an independent missionary among Japanese migrants in Utah from to He published several books on the history of Christianity in Japan, e.
He was a teacher in middle schools in Osaka from to , and a missionary under the American Board in Japan from to He served in Tokyo from to , in Sapporo from to , in Otaru from to , in Matsuyama from to , and in Kobe College, Nishinomiya, in He then served in Davis, Philippines, from to , and was interned by the Japanese in Santo Tomas, Manila, in He returned to Japan in , served in Nishinomiya from to , in Amagasaki from to , and in Kyoto in He retired in , and was a pastor in Plainfield, Connecticut, after He died on December 11, , in Claremont, California.
He served in the U. Navy during World War II. He left Japan in and retired in Oakland where he also died in Reference: Amherst University. Er wurde von der Methodist Church of Canada zum Priester geweiht. Sie war die Schwester von John W. Nach ihrer Heirat gingen sie nach Japan, wo sie am Sie blieben kurzzeitig in Tokyo, bevor sie als Mitglied der sich selbst finanzierenden Eby-Missions-Gruppe nach Shizuoka gingen.
Seine Frau Willa starb am Haamel , auch ein Mitglied der Methodist Church of Canada. Auch sie gingen wieder nach Japan und trafen am He was ordained by the Methodist Church of Canada. On May 20, he married in Canada, Willa M. She was the sister of John W. Saunby, also a missionary to Japan of the Canadian Methodist Church.
He taught in the public middle school in Shizuoka and later became a regular member of the Canadian Mission. They returned to Canada in because of contention in the Mission and he pastored churches in Canada. His wife Willa died on May 25, On April 20, he married Mary B. Haamel - , also a member of the Methodist Church of Canada.
They went again to Japan and arrived on January 12, Additionally he taught at the Aoyama Gakuin until From to they worked in Hirosaki and afterwards left Japan for Canada. Coates; - Ruth Gwendolen, born on Vom Er lebte mit seiner Frau im Konsulat. Sein Einsatz wurde unterbrochen und er wurde als Konsul in Shanghai berufen.
Brief vom Gerichtshof von Kanagawa-ken vom Castelli, Konsul. Letter of the Judicial Court of Kanagawa-ken dated Castelli, Consul. Legal summons for Pietro Barucca. He resided with his wife in the Consulate. In he also represented Peru as Consul in Yokohama. His tenure was interrupted in by his appointment as Consul in Shanghai. May , Finalmarina, IT Als Italien im 1. Er starb kurz vor Ende des 2.
In he gained admission to the military college in Milan. Later on, in he became a cadet in the Military Academy of Turin; three years later he received his first promotion to Second Lieutenant in the artillery corps. During this function he became observer of the Russo-Japanese War. This was the highest military rank in the Kingdom of Italy. Er trat am Sein Bericht vom Obwohl diese Warnungen in St. Pazifischen Geschwaders. Er telegraphierte dem Zaren, dass er Augenzeuge des Untergangs des russischen Flaggschiffs gewesen war.
Petersburg beigesetzt. After his qualification to mine officer he was commanded to the Black Sea Fleet from and in he returned on the corvette Vitjaz and the gunboat Bobr again to the Far East and the Korean coast. On His report dated Another report Chagin's was written in accordance with he Russian ambassador Baron Rosen and sent on Herein it was stated prophetically, that the antagonism between Japan and Russia over Korea could possibly result in an armed conflict between these two powers.
Though these warnings were seen in St Petersburg, no countermeasures whatsoever were investigated there. In he went back to Russia and was succeeded in Japan by A. This unarmoured and barely armed vessel was classified a warship probably mainly because of budgetary reasons. The journey was, however, interrupted after the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War and the ships became part of the newly formed 2nd Pacifc Squadron.
As the flagship of Rear Admiral Enkvist the Almaz left Liepaja harbour as the first ship of this squadron on 2. After a trip half around the world and after the battle of Tsushima, she finally arrived on Vladivostok, being the only bigger ship to get through. He telegraphed to the Tsar that he had witnessed the sinking of the Russian flagship.
Since he had already departed from England, the card was forwarded to Munich, arrival May 14, This was his last trip to Europe, where he probably prepared his final return to Europe. Bis zu seinem Lebensjahr ging er in Frankreich zur Schule. Dann lebte er zeitweilig ein Jahr in Spanien. Sein erster Vertrag begann am Aber mit seinem Aufenthalt begann er auch Japanisch zu studieren, allerdings nicht umgangssprachlich sondern in Versform. Man kann sich die Schwierigkeit des Lernens auf diese Weise vorstellen, sogar Japaner haben Probleme, Literatur aus dem Jahrhundert zu verstehen.
Als die 2. Douglas am Von bis unterrichtete er Kadetten der Marine-Akademie von Tokyo in Englisch, Basis bildete das Leben von Nelson, wodurch wesentlich der Geist der japanischen Marine geformt wurde. Mason A Handbook for Travellers in Japan Chamberlain starb im Alter von 85 Jahren in der Schweiz. He was brought up speaking French and English, even before moving to Versailles to live with his maternal grandmother in upon his mother's death where he additionally acquired German. He attended the school in France until the age of sixteen; afterwards he lived in Spain temporarily for a year.
Chamberlain had hoped to study at the University of Oxford, but instead he had to start work at the Barings Bank in London. He was entirely unsuited for this work and soon suffered a nervous breakdown. Due to his state of health his doctor advised him to go abroad for a change of air. He decided to go to the Far East and arrived in Japan at the age of twenty-three on May 19, After his arrival he signed a contract with the Japanese government, Ministry of Education, to teach English in the old prefecture Hamamatsu.
His first contract started on August 15, and ran to February 15, and after its extension to August 15, But with his stay he also started to study Japanese, not colloquial Japanese but in verse. His Japanese pupil, Samurai Araki Shigeru, became his teacher. We can imagine how hard it was to study Japanese in such a way. Even Japanese people do not easily understand the literary works of the 10th century.
Doughlas arrived in Japan on July 27, , they took up their service in the Navy Academy. Basil Hall Chamberlain was appointed by Douglas for the language education and the government employed him as English teacher as of September 1, From to he taught cadets of the Tokyo Navy Academy in English by using the Life of Nelson, which was of great benefit to form essentially the spirit of the Japanese Navy. A keen traveller despite chronic weak health, he co-wrote and published with W.
Mason the edition of A Handbook for Travellers in Japan. Chamberlain also translated the works of Fukuzawa Yukichi and other Japanese scholars into English. Chamberlain was a friend of the writer Lafcadio Hearn , once colleague at the University, but the two became estranged over the years. At last, however, he made up his mind in to retire and live at a quiet place near the Lake Geneva in Switzerland.
Chamberlain died at the age of 85 in in Switzerland. He contributed vitally to the culture and civilization of Japan and he will always have an outstanding place in Japanese history. Letter to Basil Hall Chamberlain during his activities in Tokyo. Von links: E. Chiossone, K. From the left: E. Brueck, Sada Seiji director of the engraving department , B. Naumann zusammen. Der Vertrag der ersten Bestellung wurde am Diese sollten dann japanische Stecher ausbilden.
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Aufgrund dieses gesunden Vorschlages entschied die japanische Regierung, Experten aus Europa anzustellen und durch die Beziehungen nach Frankfurt kamen E. Chiossone und zwei Druckspezialisten nach Japan. In einem Memorandum vom Chiossone als Berater der Regierungsdruckerei. Edoardo Chiossone wurde am Beide kamen im Dezember an und wurden von der japanischen Regierung, Ministerium der Finanzen, angestellt.
Sie meisterten alle auftretenden Probleme, auch die, die in Japan bei der Herstellung der Druckfarbe auftraten und entwickelten die notwendigen Verfahren. Man sagt, sie bildeten die erste Generation der Regierungsdruckerei aus. Der Vertrag von B. Liebers endete am Chiossone traf am Im gleichen Monat kamen die bestellten Maschinen in Yokohama an. Sein Vertrag als Leitender Graveur des Papiergeldbureaus wurde am Von bis entstandenen insgesamt Originalplatten und davon stammten Platten von ihm.
Ausgabe: Die beiden Werte zu 25 Sen und 1 Yen von waren bereits von Japanern entworfen worden. Ganzsachen: Postkarten : insgesamt 20, davon 5 Inlandspostkarten , 9 Auslandspostkarten davon 3 Antwortkarten. Die Zuweisung an Chiossone ist nicht gesichert. Die letzten Marken der alten Koban-Serie erschienen am Es war die erste Banknote, die ein solches Portrait zeigt und eine Frau abbildet. Weitere Portraits als Kupfer- oder Stahlstich folgten, wie z. Im Alter von 66 Jahren erlag Chiossone am Sein Nachlassverwalter war ein enger Freund, Luigi Casati.
Chiossone wird auch auf Briefmarken von Japan und Italien geehrt. His final work at art school of Genoa was later awarded a silver medal at the World Exposition in Paris held in He was subsequently appointed as a member at the Academy of Milan at the age of After his study, as of , he entered the atelier of Raffaele Granara and made several engravings of famous art works.
Dissatisfied with the Italian situation he continued to stay in Germany and was hired by Bernard Dondorf. Dondorf was one of the leading engravers of banknotes in DE. In cases of large orders, he worked together with the printing house of C. One of the most important priorities of any government is to produce a reliable currency that cannot be counterfeited.
During the Edo period, the individual domains around the country had issued paper currencies independently of the central government. Part of the process of modernizing the monetary system was to collect all the old domanial currencies and replace them with a single national currency. Copperplate engravers from Kyoto were commissioned to make new banknotes, but the quality of the used paper as well as the engraving and printing techniques was poor.
The new currency could easily be imitated and for this reason its value declined rapidly. The contract of the first order was signed by Maeshima Hisoka in London on November 11, He is regarded as the founder of the modern Japanese postal service. The relation of Chiossone to Japan resulted from his work at Donsdorf. During this time Chiossone also engraved the printing plates for the paper money ordered by the Japanese government. He objected to the printing of national currencies in a foreign country and deplored the tremendous cost involved. Moreover he wanted to eliminate the dependence of state from private companies.
The production of public securities should be exclusively in official hands. Tokuno proposed to import German machinery and German experts to hire as advisors for the paper money office. These should then train and quality Japanese engravers. On this sound advice, the Japanese government decided to hire experts from Europe; through the Frankfurt connections, Edoardo Chiossone and two printing specialists were brought to Japan. Construction of a printing house was begun, and the building designed by the French architect C. It became one of the most highly esteemed examples of Western-style architecture in Tokyo.
The banknotes for Japan engraved by Chiossone had proved very popular, and for this reason, not only the German machinery should be delivered but also the engraver be hired as advisor. Chiossone as advisor of the Government Printing Office. Previously, two other employees of Dondorf had been invited: Bruno Liebers , specialist of relief printing and Karl Anton Brueck , expert of intaglio printing.
Both arrived in December and were employed by the Japanese government, Ministry of Finance. They tackled all occurring problems, also of producing ink within Japan and successfully developed the necessary techniques. It is said, they trained the first generation of the Government Printing Office. The contract of B. Liebers expired on December 19, and he went back to Germany.
Brueck had been employed for a longer period and died in Japan on November 9, Chiossone arrived in Tokyo on January 12, In the same month the machines ordered arrived in Yokohama. In the following years he engraved an enormous number of plates for stamps, revenue stamps and banknotes. From to totally original plates were created and thereof plates originated from him. At first the most important events related to his activities in Japan with special emphasis on postal matters are summarized in chronological order: Issue: The balance of his philatelic activities in the Government Printing Office insatsukyoku : Stamps: 29 stamps within the period of Postal Stationaries: Postcards : totally 20, covering 5 domestic postcards , 9 foreign postcards including 3 reply postcards.
The total number includes 4 cards with changed paper from and the two issues with additional overprint "China" from using the Koban-design. Covers: one type "Koban-design with Guilloche-frame", used for 4 different cover sizes from These four cards cannot definitely be assigned to Chiossone. Sealing Stamp : Official sealing stamp for foreign mails No. The last stamps of the old Koban-issue appeared on October 11, Afterwards, Chiossone didn't create any more dies and plates for postal purposes. The main reason for his employment in Japan was the production of banknotes. In , the first domestically produced banknote by Chiossone appeared.
It was the first banknote to bear such a portrait and depicting a woman. The fine artwork of this banknote was exquisite in its detail, the best of all the notes Chiossone created. This banknote was impervious to counterfeiting and contributed tremendously to enhancing confidence in Japanese currency. His last order he finished was the plate for the Yen - banknote depicting Fujiwara-no Kawatari. In , a school was set up within the printing bureau where Chiossone personally taught drawing and platemaking.
By the time he left the bureau, foreign experts were no longer necessary, since his students had mastered almost all the technology and art required. During his stay in Japan, he created many portraits, above all of leading Japanese people. At the end of he made his first portrait in Japan, an engraving of the German physician Philipp Franz von Siebold. In he received his highest recognition, when he was asked to produce a portrait of the Emperor, to be used as the official state portrait.
So the grand chamberlain Tokudaiji Sanemori arranged that Chiossone should sketch the Emperor at the palace from behind a screen. The strength of that image is a splendid measure of the artist's ability, and it became the basis for many later portraits and the bronze statue of Saigo at the Ueno Park in Tokyo.
His contract in the Government Printing Office expired on August 1, In he retired with Yen taishokukin and an annual pension of 1, Yen. He continued to live in Tokyo and worked as an artist until his death. On April 11, , Chiossone died of heart failure at his home in Tokyo Kojimachi, and was buried at Aoyama Cemetery, where his tomb can still be seen in the foreign section.
His executor was a close friend, Luigi Casati. In his will, he bequeathed part of his assets to poor people in the local community where he had lived. About 14, objects of traditional art and artifacts were donated to his alma mater, Accademia Liguistica di Belle Arti in Genoa. In , the Accademia built a museum dedicated to Chiossone to keep and exhibit the collection. In the collection was moved to the Museo d' Art Orientale where it was housed in a beautiful, newly constructed wing.
Chiossone is honoured in the postage stamps of Italy and Japan. Petersburg magazine "Russkaya Starina" from April The following year the publication of a poem by Khitrovo was banned by the censorship. Frankreich, seit dem Nach dem Vertragsschluss am Die Botschafter begaben sich am Chitrowo war, unter anderem, mit dem Schriftsteller Alexei Konstantinowitsch Tolstoi befreundet. Er hatte dessen Adoptivtochter Sophia Petrowna Bachmetjewa geheiratet und sie hatten vier Kinder.
Ein Sammelband erschien in St. Petersburg, ein weiterer in einem anderen Verlag in Chitrowos Todesjahr. Petersburg Mikhail Alexandrovich Khitrovo was a great-grandson of the famous general Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, which was neither disadvantageous for his career as a cavalry officer nor for his popularity as a poet. As a diplomat he was mainly assigned to the Balkans; he played his most important role, however, in as an ambassador to Japan with the revision of the Sino-Japanese peace treaty of Shimonoseki.
Khitrovo, descendant of an old noble family, first made a military education and then served in the grenadier regiment of the imperial bodyguard, from which he retired in as a cavalry ensign. Reactivated during the Crimean War, he was employed in defence of the Baltic coast and retired in at the age of 20 years. Two years later, he began to work in the Russian Foreign Ministry. He first started as a translator in the Asia Department and then became an officer for special duties. These duties led him above all to the Balkans on the eve of the Russian-Ottoman War. After a first consular employment in the North-Macedonian town of Bitola he became "junior secretary" in and from until the outbreak of war in and the termination of diplomatic relations Russian consul general in Constantinople.
During the war Khitrovo was assigned to Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich the Elder , thereafter he was from diplomatic agent and consul general in Bulgaria, and from in Egypt. In he was an extraordinary ambassador and plenipotentiary minister to the Romanian King Carol I and in envoy to Portugal. In he was transferred to Japan. He worked in Japan from until relieved by the arrival of Baron Roman von Rosen in In Japan, Khitrovo contributed decisively to the enforcement of the "Triple Intervention", which subsequently and sustainably changed the balance of powers established after the Sino-Japanese War by the Treaty of Shimonoseki to the disadvantage of Japan.
It is disputed today whether the plans for revision of this treaty were begun more from the Russian or the German side; anyway, both powers wanted to prevent Japan from getting her first base in mainland China on the Liaodong Peninsula. France, linked to Russia by the "Alliance Franco-Russe" since January 4, , joined in because of loyalty to her ally.
Great Britain refused to take part, the USA remained indifferent.
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No one at that time had any legal or political objection against the attempt of a third party to force, if necessary by military means, the change of a treaty concluded between two parties. The realization of this intervention became the task of the diplomatic representatives in Tokyo. Chitrovo had already in February repeatedly visited the Japanese Foreign Minister Mutsu Munemitsu to gain clarity about Japan's aims. After the treaty had been signed on April 17, , he immediately contacted the German minister Felix von Gutschmid, whom he probably knew from his time as a diplomat in Constantinople.
France was represented by Jules Harmand. The ambassadors went to the Japanese Foreign Ministry on April 23, Mutsu, who had negotiated the Shimonoseki Treaty for his country, was absent. Therefore, the diplomats handed out their statements to the deputy Foreign Minister Hayashi Tadasu. Barely a week after the signing of the treaty, Japan was given the "friendly advice" to return, contrary to Article 3 of the treaty, its claim on the Liaodong peninsula including Port Arthur to China, because otherwise this would represent a constant threat to the Chinese capital. The diplomatic wording of the statements of the Russian and French contradicted crassly to the unconcealed threat with military force by Baron von Gutschmid.
He had a separate statement read by the legation secretary Heinrich Weipert, wherein a "harsh tone" was struck which "poisoned the German-Japanese relations for years". This did, however, by no means guarantee Beijing's security, as it had been declared. On exactly this peninsula, Port Arthur was shortly afterwards transformed into a Russian naval base, and Germany established the "Kwantung Leased Territory", which was put under direct administration of the German "Reichsmarineamt". Khitrovo was, among others, friends with the writer Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy.
He had married Tolstoy's adopted daughter Sophia Petrovna Bakhmeteva in , and they had four children. The mostly patriotic poems coming from Khitrovo's pen were mainly spread orally in the army but were also published in various magazines.
An anthology was edited in in St Petersburg; a second one was printed by another editor in the year of Khitrovo's death. The poem became famous because its first publication, planned for the February issue of the magazine "Russkaya Starina", had been banned by the czarist censorship on January 28, because of an "ironic representation of the work of the Russian soldiers". The decision was made only two days after the new chairman of the Petersburg censorship committee Yevgeny Alexeyevich Kozhukov had taken this office.
Even the direct descent from Field Marshal Kutuzov did not provide any reliable protection against the eagerness and the sharp scissors of the Russian censorship authorities. Christlieb inviting him to an OAG meeting. Christlieb departing Japan. They lived in Tokyo, but he was also responsible for the German-Evangelical Congregation in Yokohama.
Also his wife Kathe Christlieb devoted herself to Christian work. She mainly looked after Japanese women and children, organized the Sunday school and was in charge of several women and domestic circles, supported by Japanese assistants. Thus, the establishment of a charity school in , located next to the Theological Academy, was mainly the result of her initiative and she was also the principle of this school.
Kaethe Christlieb was a nee Donndorf, daughter of the famous sculptor Adolf Donndorf. On March 11, the OAG organised a farewell meeting also for his departure. After his return to Germany he lived and worked at first in Marburg, finally in Berlin. His experiences in Japan were also incorporated in one of his books Die moderne Kultur und die Aufgabe der evangelischen Mission in Japan, Berlin Christlieb mit einer Einladung vom Club Germania. Er hatte immer noch Kontakte mit Japan. Karte von A. Keller vom He always kept contacts to Japan.
Postcard posted by A. Keller on Danach bewarb sie sich um Arbeit bei der American Baptist Missionary Union und wurde als Missionar nach Japan entsandt, wo sie eintraf. Church aus Himeji, vom Church, posted Himeji In January she began her new post at the Union Baptist school at Himeiji where she was appointed the first principal.
She stayed in in this position until when she left Japan for the USA for health reasons. She never returned to Japan and died in Efford, Yokohama B Bluff. Hier arbeitete er nur bis Clare bei J. Efford in Yokohama 50 angestellt. Bereits im Folgejahr wechselte er zu Helm Bros. Privat lebte er ab in Yokohama B Bluff. In he came to Japan and resided with Captain J. Here he worked only to In , H. Clare was employed with J. Efford at Yokohama Already in the following year he joined Helm Bros.
In he prepared another job change; in this year he is not listed at any company in Japan. In he still worked for this firm. Privately he resided as of in Yokohama B Bluff; as of his wife and as of also son Charles joined him. Nach seiner Heirat am Zuerst gingen sie nach Kumamoto, wo auch ihre Eltern arbeiteten und sie blieben hier vier Jahre. Danach zogen sie nach Miyazaki. Seine Frau starb und sie wurde auf dem Friedhof Harunoyama in Miyazaki beigesetzt. Er lebte in Claremont, CA, wo er auch starb. Missionar A. Woodworth schrieb ihm aus Tokyo am Missionary A.
Woodworth wrote to him from Tokyo on March 16, in caring for his health. After his marriage on June 22, to Harriet Gulick, daughter of the missionary O. At first they went to Kumamoto where also her parents worked and they stayed there for four years. Afterwards they moved to Miyazaki in Clark also introduced the bicycle and the automobile to the prefecture.
While lecturing he had already used slides. He invited dignitaries of the prefecture to his home where concerts and other cultural events took place. Thus, Clark played a great role in the cultural development of Miyazaki-ken. His wife died in and she was buried at the Harunoyama Cemetery of Miyazaki. In he retired and returned to the USA. He lived at Claremont, CA, where he also died in According to his will his body was buried beside his wife in Miyazaki.
Voices for the construction of a bronze image of Clark were raised from supporters of the American missionaries. The image shows Clark preaching to two children with a Bible in hands; it was unveiled at the Children's Park at Sakae-machi near Miyazaki Prefectural Office. Clark in Miyazaki, Ankunft Clark at Miyazaki, arrival on Clark-Biographie von John M. Maki - Front cover of the W. Clark-Biography John M. Maki - Zur Erinnerung an den Jahrestag der Ankunft von W.
Clark at Hitsujigaoka observation hill was unveiled in Freiwilligen-Regiment von Massachusetts und stieg bis zum Rang eines Oberst. William S. Penhallow, begleitet. Sie starteten am 1. Juni in San Francisco und landete in Yokohama am Sie kamen am Clark erhielt von Kuroda K. Brooks, der als 3. Dozent des Clark-Teams in Sapporo im Februar eintraf. Am Ende seines Aufenthalts erhielt er noch einen bezahlten Auftrag vom Kaitakushi , bei der amerikanischen Konservenindustrie die Verarbeitung von Lachs zu untersuchen und einen entsprechenden Bericht dem Kaitakushi zu senden.
Nach seinem Abschied ging er nach Hakodate, wo er an Bord eines englischen Schiffes nach Nagasaki reiste. Nach einigen erfolglosen Projekten wurde er schwer krank, anscheinend durch ein Herzleiden. Er starb an seinem Herzleiden, das ihn so lange zu Hause in Gefangenschaft gehalten hatte. He returned to Williston Academy to teach for two years and afterwards he went to Germany for a graduate study.
He enrolled in at Georgia Augusta University in Goettingen and earned a doctorate in with a dissertation on "Chemistry of Meteorites". He returned to a professorship at Amherst College in analytical and agricultural chemistry and an instructorship in German. Clark's adoptive father-in-law, Samuel Williston, would prove to be an important sponsor to his career. Williston was Amherst College's primary benefactor, and a highly influential figure in western Massachusetts.
After the outbreak of the Civil War he became a Major in the 21st Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers and rose to the rank of Colonel. In April he resigned his commission and returned to Amherst. An Agricultural College was built in Amherst MAC and the school was opened in with Clark being appointed its president after he had resigned from Amherst College after 15 years on its faculty.
At the MAC he taught gardening and biology and his teaching was popular among the students. But he stepped down as the president after eight years because he was confronted with the school administration. The first director of the Kaitakushi was Kuroda Kiyotaka , who believed that agriculture would form the basis of Hokkaido's development.
Mori Arinori of the staff of the Japanese Embassy proposed the Government to establish such an agriculture college as the MAC to teach agriculture and military training. Clark was proud that this College was chosen as a model school for the Sapporo Agriculture College and he was invited as advisor. He thought that this new job was a good opportunity to raise the evaluation of the MAC. Clark accepted the advisory position of Sapporo Agriculture College planned by the Japanese government. On March 3, Clark signed a contract in Washington for his mission to Japan. At this time, Mori had already been gone from Washington for almost 3 years and so the Japanese signatory was his successor, Yoshida Kiyonari.
His contract contained the following main provisions: 1 the period of service was to be from May 20, to May 19, 2 he was to be Assistant Director, President and Professor of Agriculture, Chemistry, Mathematics, and the English Language at the proposed college 3 he was to work six hours every day, excepting Sundays and Japanese resting days 4 his compensation amounted to 7, Clark, Vice President, gave a speech calling on the students to maintain good health, be restrained in their emotions and behavior, cultivate habits of obedience and diligence, and acquire the knowledge and technological expertise needed to pursue various fields of study.
On September 8, , five weeks after his arrival in Sapporo, Clark addressed an important memorandum to Kuroda K. The farm should be operated in such a way that income from the sale of livestock and produce could be used to defray the farm expenses. Clark soon won from Governor Kuroda not only approval of the experimental farm, but also the responsibility for managing it.
The foreign professor to control the farm turned out to be his former student William P. Brooks who arrived in Sapporo as third lecturer of the Clark-staff in February, He was also on contract with the Japanese government and all three served Clark exceedingly well during his eight months in Sapporo after Clark's departure all three remained at the Sapporo Agricultural College. Clark's most profound impact, however, was on the thinking and mental development of his students.
Among the graduates of the second class, not taught directly by Clark but affected by his strong influence, belong e. On April 16, Clark rode away from Sapporo and he left behind a long and almost incredible list of jobs completed. He carried out all academic responsibilities, became a principal adviser to the Kaitakushi on agricultural and other matters with the full confidence and support of Kuroda Kiyotaka; he established an experimental farm as an integral part of the new agricultural college, and a meteorological station. Furthermore he carried out research reports on forest products, cattle food, salt beef, beer, leather, the instruction of new seeds and breeds of livestock and horses, etc.
At the end of his stay he agreed with the Kaitakushi to write a report on the salmon canning industry in the USA with the Kaitakushi paying the expenses of an inspection trip to Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River, then still a centre of the salmon canning industry. He started soon after his arrival in San Francisco. After his farewell he went to Hakodate where he boarded an English ship for Nagasaki. Arriving in Tokyo on May 17, he spent on a series of farewell dinners at one of which he and Kuroda K. He continued for almost 3 years to work on behalf of the Kaitakushi.
The financial difficulties of the MAC continued to grow and relations between him and his board of trustees deteriorated steadily which led to his resignation early in After some unsuccessful projects he became seriously ill, apparently of a heart ailment. For the almost four years that remained of his life, ill health kept him in virtual seclusion. In he died from his heart disease which had kept him in confinement in his home for so long. He died completely out of the public eye, although he is perhaps the most widely known among the Japanese of all the Japan helpers.
Er arbeitete hier bis und wurde dann nach China versetzt. Charles Dickens war ein Freund und besuchte Rushton viele Male. He worked there until , afterwards he was shifted to China. Charles Dickens was a friend and visited Rushton many times. He conceived some ideas for his novel Great Expectations whilst at Rushton. After his death in he bequeathed his substantial art collection including Japanese art objects to the British Museum of London.
In dieser Firma erhielt er Prokura und wurde er Partner. At this company he was authorized to sign per procuration in and became partner in As of also his wife Maria lived in Kobe, they had one child, who attended the German school in Kobe. In they still lived in Kobe. Er besuchte das Gymnasium in Potsdam und Dessau, wo er am Sein Studium wurde vom Er traf am Er verstarb am Ganzsachenkarte, aufgegeben von G. Coates in Yokohama am Knappe in Shanghai, Ankunft He attended the secondary school in Potsdam and Dessau and passed his A-levels on March 7, He then studied law in Heidelberg, Bonn and Berlin, and put on his first state examination on April 27, His studies were interrupted by his military service from January 10, to September 30, As of May 31, , he worked in the Prussian judicial service.
On April 10, he was appointed to the Foreign Service consular career. He arrived on May 8, in Kobe and on May 10, in Yokohama. From April 15, to April he was posted in Hong Kong, then he took over as acting head the consulate in Kristiana, Norway, until March 6, George Coates was the first envoy of Wilhelm II. He was inspired by the Ethiopian culture and reported on the customs and traditions in the Palace of Menelik II. On January 17, he was retired. He died on October 19, in Berlin. Knappe in Shanghai, arrival on May 31, Er heiratete Francis Helena geb.
Green, Tochter von Mary E. Nach der Hochzeit wohnte er mit seiner Frau privat zuerst in Yokohama 33 Bluff, in Bluff und in Yokohama Green im Alter von 43 Jahren. Er heiratete wieder, sie hatten einen Sohn , er starb aber im gleichen Jahr.
He worked for this company until After the marriage he and his wife resided privately at first at Yokohama 33 Bluff, in at Bluff and in at Yokohama Her mother died in Kobe a month after giving birth, and in her grandmother Mary E. Green died, only aged 43 years. In Henry Charles Cobden moved back to his native land Australia.
He remarried in , had a son in and died the same year. She grew up there, educated at Oxford and married to Francis Hirst, she never returned to Japan. Sie schienen aber gut zurechtgekommen zu sein, es wurden drei weitere Kinder geboren. So wie S. Sie fuhren mit einiger Fracht auf der Barke Yeddo und trafen am Fast unmittelbar danach fuhr Cocking nach Norden auf der Yeddo weiter, die Yokohama am Zusammen mit T. Samuels Schwester Frances Gransden Cocking, geboren am Diese Epoche zeugt von einer beispiellosen Zunahme japanischer Fotostudios in Tokyo, insbesondere in den eleganten, angrenzenden Distrikten Nihonbashi und Ginza.
Sein Interesse an der Fotografie basierte weniger auf kommerziellen Gewinn als an echter Begeisterung. So wurde die Forderung nach einer Fotografischen Gesellschaft schon vor Jahren formuliert. Burton und dem Fotograf Ogawa Kazuma zugeschrieben wird, existierte die Vorarbeit zur Bildung schon viele Jahre. Wie das Sammeln von Kunst diente auch die Fotografie als soziale Funktion.
Cockings Trauerfeier fand am Fujisawa Archives, Kanagawa Prefecture. Photo: Author, June Photo: Author, July His parents were forced to leave GB by the dire economic conditions of the late s and the family settled in Adelaide. The Cocking family appears to have prospered in the settlement with the birth of three further children. The resulting economic prosperity had induced his parents to relocate to Melbourne by the mids, where his father worked as an architect for the Public Works Department of Victoria and Samuel attended the Grammar School.
Like S. Cocking, Thomas Alex Singleton had strong family connections with the colony of Victoria, suggesting an older association between the two entrepreneurs. These two young men decided to leave Australia for Japan. They sailed with some cargo on the barque Yeddo and arrived in the port of Yokohama on March 5, Almost immediately, Cocking sailed north. He remained behind and resided for several months in Nanbu, near Sendai Bay, as a guest and under the auspices of the provincial daimyo. Young, enterprising, and open-minded, Cocking epitomised the best qualities of foreign merchants in nineteenth-century Japan.
Together with T. In these initial years, they became pioneers of the so-called "curio" trade in Japan. The business continuously increased and for this reason he had to move several times to larger premises, i. His range of activities was prodigious. Photography was but one aspect of his diverse concerns, consistent with his fascination in new technologies and scientific advancement.
Throughout his long career, he was responsible for introducing many foreign products to Japan. Always conscious of a new business opportunity he pioneered the development of soap manufacture in Japan and he introduced the first bicycles to the country and became a keen cyclist in his own right. He was also largely responsible for the establishment of the peppermint oil industry, especially with regard to the cultivation of the plant in Yamagata-ken.
The harvested peppermint was transported to Yokohama for processing and the resulting medicinal oil exported around the world. With the rise in his fortunes, Cocking opened a branch store in the Shinbashi district of Tokyo. On September 15, , the branch advertised its merchandise for sale. The notice provides an overview of the eclectic range of imported stock available at the store, including shoes, newspapers, katakana typeset, Western books, photographic lenses, drugs, glass and ceramic bowls, and oil painting tools.