Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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This is why I did all ratings myself, endeavoring to apply the same criteria to all of them. The final output data of the study is depicted below in terms of correct pronunciation rate CPR per sound figure 1 and per class figure 2 :. The participating classes were classified randomly, so it is a mere coincidence that in figure 2 their performances rank from 1 up to 6 — the only exception being class 3, which brings us to the next point. It proved a mistake to include a technical school in the study: both school types are obviously very different, as is shown by the below-average performance of class 3.

Both figures above show a general improvement for all test sounds from the first to the second measurement — even more clearly so for the achlaut, the and the glottal stop. It is fair, however, to assume that any class will make progress in any particular domain of language acquisition in a three-month period.

In order to determine if this improvement can be attributed to the disguised pronunciation teaching to which some pupils were submitted, we should examine the separate achievements in percent of the groups A, B and C. In figure 3 below A- stands for group A without class 3, as we have seen that the markedly below-average performance of class 3 has a noticeable impact on the final results.

The difference between the two measurements, i.

Nota bene: At the first measurement, group C was the group with the highest correct pronunciation rate — at least if class 3 was taken into account, thus lowering the performance of group A. In both figures above, group C registers the lowest increase in correct pronunciation rate between the first and the second measurement. One could expect a group that is better at the start not to improve its performance to the same extent as the others.

This comparatively low improvement also seems logical for group C as a test group that was exposed to no particular pronunciation instruction at stage three. But if the latter is true, i. This, however, is not the case. With or without class 3 included in group A, it is group B that scores the highest increase in correct pronunciation rate, both in terms of absolute percentage and in relation to the first measurement.

It appears difficult to determine with certainty whether the slightly better performance of the groups A and B as compared to C can be attributed to the single factor of their exposure to pronunciation corrections and explanations in the case of A during stage three. Too many other potential factors remain uncertain. First, the difference in performance between group C and the other two groups is probably too tiny to tell us anything definite, considering how volatile this kind of measurement can be. This volatility is best illustrated by an interesting incident that occurred during the second measurement.

Because it was believed that the first recording had failed, one pupil of class 2 was recorded twice. When the first recording was eventually recovered, the two versions compared as follows figure 6 :. If two recordings of the same pupil, taken the same day, at less than an hour interval, and of course carefully rated according to the same criteria, can show such perceptible differences, it becomes quite obvious that, statistically speaking, only a very large number of participants will allow to compensate for this human variation and to make valid statements about the possible impact of pronunciation instruction.

Second, as explained above, it proved a mistake to include a technical school in the study, and in a more general way, it proved a mistake to include too many different kinds of variables in this study, such as pedagogical or geographical diversity of the participating schools. The original idea was that all Flemish provinces should be represented so as to compensate for the potential phonological closeness between certain Flemish dialects and German Bekaert As a matter of fact, class 4 appeared to score much better than other classes on the achlaut at the first measurement.

Further research could determine whether this is due to the presence of some achlaut -like sound in the local dialect, but in the meanwhile, instead of enhancing the representativity of the output data, the geographical diversity of schools introduced a disturbing variable. Similarly, the experiment included rural as well as urban areas, because it was assumed that pupils with a migration background would be more numerous in urban areas, and that this — presumably multilingual — background might positively influence their phonetical flexibility for German.

In fact, all these precautions to make the study as representative as possible appeared to a large extent irrelevant. Neither were children with a migratory background more numerous in cities than they were in the countryside, nor did they perform noticeably better on pronunciation Bekaert Actually, it could even be that their German was more negatively influenced by Flemish phonetics than in pupils from exclusevily Flemish-speaking families. And third: Is pronunciation to be taught in an hour?

And can any results be expected from that single hour when the pupils are tested almost a month later? In order to prevent the teachers from discovering too early what the whole experiment was about, the latter could neither be thoroughly screened on pronunciation nor asked to read the 21 test sentences themselves.

Yet it must be borne in mind that the teacher is a capital source of pronunciation input to the learners, and this implies that a very influential factor had to remain unexamined here as well. In future research it would therefore be advisable to reduce the amount of pedagogical and geographical variables, to extend the period of pronunciation teaching and maybe even the number of participants.

At any rate, all study data presented here have to be seen in the light of these reservations. Should a significant increase in correct pronunciation rate between the first and the second measurement become noticeable in such circumstances, then everything would plead in favor of making pronunciation an issue in Flemish GFL classes. If anything, this experiment has shown the importance of empirical classroom research in FLT studies and the importance of pilot studies of this kind in the empirical research process. They can save researchers much trouble during the conduction of their actual experiments.

Bekaert, Ph. In Lochtman, K. Hg Sprachlehrforschung. Madeline Lutjeharms S. Bochum: AKS-Verlag. Helbig, G. Hg , Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Ein internationales Handbuch. Hirschfeld, U. Lochtman, K. Check out our interactive exercises for Lesson When you hover over the i-icon, you will get a tip of what you have to enter into the gap. For instance, you will need to ponder which verb to use and how to conjugate it. Other exercises give you options as a dropdown list and you have to choose the correct German translation for a sentence.

Do you find yourself always making the same mistakes?


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You can access them in lesson one of our Everyday German online course here. In summary, when learning a new word or grammar point try to understand the context and practice using it yourself more often. Today, the German office for migration and refugees BAMF published a report which admitted a partial failure of their current approach of teaching migrants and refugees the German language and culture via so-called Integration Courses Integrationskurs.

Hans Deutschendorf. As a consequence the BAMF in cooperation with the ESF European Social Fund have worked out a new approach to optimize the integration process: All Germans citizens 18 and above will be obliged to take the same integration test migrants have to take. Those who fail the test, will be obliged to spend hours in so-called re-integration processes Re-Integrationsprozess or short: RIP. Those courses can be taken in the evenings or on the weekends after work hours and will last between months.

Though through some miraculous circumstance most Germans understand each other even in extreme situations check this seemingly miraculous example of inter-dialectal communication it would be humanly impossible for anyone to learn all remaining German dialects. The new initiative therefore aims at making regular High German training obligatory for those who fail their High German oral exam which will be conducted via various institutions like the Goethe Institut or the Volkshochschulen over the coming ten years with all German citizens born after Participants will be randomly assigned to their exams so some Germans might still have a couple of years before they will have to face re-education.

Those who fail their re-integration process, will have to face grave consequences e. Currently integration course participants might face shortenings of their already rather limited state welfare or non-prolongation of their right to stay. Woman chancellor Merkel welcomes this initiative and, setting a good example, is already participating in one of the first model re-integration courses herself together with her favorite party member Horst Seehofer of the CSU, hoping to pass her test by the end of her current term.

We at smarterGerman are already developing a course for German natives to help them pass their Integrationstest with flying colors and to become better citizens of this beautiful Merkelocracy. How is your German today? Can you already answer the following questions from the final test of current integration courses? Give it a try. The questions are in German of course. I watched Arrival together with my 15 year old son, whose attention span is even worse than mine.

We both were captivated by the wonderfully written story about humans trying to communicate with aliens who visited earth. If you want a more detailed description of the plot I can only recommend Wikipedia or even better, just watch the movie. The main focus of Arrival lies on linguist Louise Banks. Louise approaches her task to establish a form of communication first by trying to understand the spoken language of the Heptapods but soon realizes that that would take too long. So she decides to learn their language with help of written language and initially a show and tell approach.

She finds out that the written language of the Heptapods is not a phonetical representation of their language. Linguist Betty Birner compares this with Chinese. You should read her interview after this article link at the bottom. It takes a couple of months until Louise gains a basic understanding of the new language but at one point things turn around. An approach I usually recommend when you are in a foreign culture and feel offended or notice that someone is offended by what you have just said is not to take things personal unless you are absolutely sure they are meant that way.

While the language hypothesis that underlies this movie, namely that language determines your view and perception of the world and even the perception of time, is not very scientific after all Arrival is a Science Fiction movie — see also interview with Betty Birner below , after more than Above all when you start learning German, you will get to know the real you. The part of you that is hidden behind your mother tongue. For most of us this feels very uncomfortable for a long time.

With growing knowledge of German you will build up a extended identity of yourself step by step. It is almost like taking yourself apart and putting yourself together again.

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This sounds worse than it is. It can be very exciting if you accept this instead of fighting it. And therein lies the secret of good language learners. They do not identify with what they can not express but with what they are able to communicate no matter how little it seems.

It will give you a solid range of possible interpretations for the behavior of Germans. When you are learning German it is also a gift for the ones that you are learning it for. Germans highly appreciate when someone makes an effort to speak their language. It will establish a whole different kind of contact between you and them which will also make you feel a lot better.

After all, if you live in a German speaking country I assume you want to feel as much as home as possible. And the more you understand the world around you, the more at ease you will feel. The more at ease you feel, the easier your life might be. Worauf wartest du noch?

The best moment to learn German is now.

Pronunciation and Motivation in FLT: An Empirical Classroom Study Among Flemish Learners of German

We at smarterGerman are happy to accompany and support you on this exciting journey. Talk German soon. In , Germany welcomed 2. That left a net influx of 1. All chambers agreed unanimous that the edict will be become effective today on the first of April In only 3. Highly educated natives as well as common folks from various Arabic countries and from different regions in Romania will teach them everything there is to know about their cultures, values and religions.

The lessons will be held exclusively in the target language to simulate the pain migrants experience when sitting in integration courses. This way Besserwisser hopes to strengthen the empathy on side of the native Germans who at times struggle heavily with adapting to the changes that meeting new people evokes. With this approach the BAMF hopes to reduce the gap between native Germans and new German inhabitants and is confident to have found a good addition to the already existing Integration Courses. Both Sides need to come Closer Together Integration Courses oblige current migrants to study the German language up to level B1 within 7 months and only 3 hours of study time per day.

To make sure they get the most out of this opportunity, participants have to sign in and sign out every single day they attend. They are also lucky to be able to participate in a two week crash course on German politics, culture, religion, society and basic legal matters. In the last decade this approach has been proven to provide immigrants with a solid foundation of cultural knowledge and confident language skills. The BAMF plans to arrange a special social media task force whose sole task will be to scan the internet for hateful and racist posts and comments to make sure the ASS-courses are filled accordingly.

This way Besserwisser says, the courses will become profitable within the next 24 months. A Win-Win Situation At the end of the ASS-course participants will take a language exam on level B1 and a multiple choice test with 33 questions out of about politics, culture, religion, history and society of the culture they have chose.

Successful participants will be granted amnesty in case they had been convicted or a free hand enlargement operation to better cope with their inferiority complex. When you decide to learn German, you want to make a little bit of progress every day. There are lots of techniques and promises in the language learning world, and it feels like you have to spend years finding what delivers.

What if you could cut the questions and simply focus on the best methods for learning German? Coggin, Philip A. London: Thames and Hudson. In: Scenario V, 1, Eisner, Elliot W.

Pronunciation and Motivation in FLT: An Empirical Classroom Study Among Flemish Learners of German

Esselborn, Karl : Interkulturelle Literaturvermittlung zwischen didaktischer Theorie und Praxis. Even, Susanne : Drama Grammatik. Even, Susanne : Multiple Hotseating. In: Scenario V, 2, Federer, Urban : Einsiedler Theatertradition.

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In: Welttheatergesellschaft Einsiedeln ed. Regie: Volker Hesse. Juni bis 8. September London: Nisbet. PH Freiburg PhD project. I of 2 , Book V, Chapter 3. Performative Fremdsprachendidaktik als Teil des Lehramtsstudiums. In: Scenario IV, 1, Szenische Interpretation eines klassischen deutschen Dramas in einer multikulturellen und multilingualen Lerngruppe. Hallet, Wolfgang : Performative Kompetenz und Fremdsprachenunterricht. Ismaning: Hueber. Johnstone, Keith : Improvisation und Theater.


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Berlin: Alexander Verlag. Learning a Second Language through Process Drama. Stanford, Conn: Ablex. Dramatische Arbeit als Vehikel des interkulturellen Lernens im Fremdsprachenunterricht. Frankfurt a. In: Scenario II, 2, Methoden und Ergebnisse der Evaluation. Grundlagen, Formen, Perspektiven. Braunschweig: Diesterweg. Kunz, Marcel : Theatralisiert den Literaturunterricht. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider. Mairose-Parovsky, Angelika : Transkulturelles Sprechhandeln. Bild und Spiel in Deutsch als Fremdsprache.

Teaching Italian Through Theater. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A Framework for Process Drama. New Hampshire: Heinemann. Retzlaff, Steffi : Leben mit der Mauer. Scheller, Ingo : Szenische Interpretation. Seelze-Velber: Kallmayer. Schewe, Manfred : Fremdsprache inszenieren. Schewe, Manfred : Die Welt auch im fremdsprachlichen Unterricht immer wieder neu verzaubern.

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Alfred Andersch: Sansibar oder der letzte Grund. Schmenk, Barbara : Drama in the Margins? Edited by Juliet Dusinberre. London: Arden Shakespeare. Sting, Wolfgang : Performance und Theater als anderes Sprechen. In: Research in Drama Education 16,4, Wagner, Betty Jane : Dorothy Heathcote.

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Drama as a Learning Medium. London: Hutchinson.


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What Research Shows. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Ward, Winifred : Creative Dramatics. New York: Appleton. Way, Brian : Development Through Drama. Weinheim: Beltz. Index of Articles. Contents pages 5—23 Early connections between dramatic art and teaching, learning, and living Drama as a school subject, method and educational sub-discipline: the pioneering role of Great Britain Drama Pedagogy in foreign language teaching and learning as a field of research and practice s to the present Different forms of staging language, literature and culture Towards a P erformative Foreign L anguage Didactics Bibliography.