One of Iturbide's first military campaigns was to help put down a mutiny, headed by Gabriel J. He grew in popularity amongst the royalists, whilst becoming a feared foe for the Insurgents. However, he was accused by locals of using his authority for financial gain although he was recognized as valiant in combat; those accusations cost him his post. It is known by his and Hidalgo's documents that he was a distant relative of Miguel Hidalgo , the initial leader of the Insurgent Army.
Hidalgo wrote to Iturbide. Iturbide writes in his memoirs that such an offering required musing over it but that he turned it down because he considered Hidalgo's uprising ill-executed and his methods barbaric. Royalist and rebel forces engaged on the east bank of the Lerma River at the end of October in what is now known as the Battle of Monte de las Cruces.
Royalist forces, under the command of Colonel Torcuato Trujillo , withdrew from the area, allowing rebels to take Toluca. Despite the loss by his side, Iturbide distinguished himself in this battle for tenacity, he would main. Prisoner of war A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant , held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict.
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The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs.
For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul. Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted.
Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio.
Mexican War of Independence
Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida , touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire , who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country.
For this he was canonized. Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in ; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again.
In the Middle Ages , a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe , the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan , there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed. The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez , on the Oxus : "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice.
For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in , "between 10, and 80, persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the Peace of Westphalia , which ended the Thirty Years' War , established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands.
There evolved the right of parole , French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity.
Veracruz Veracruz , formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District , comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. On its east, Veracruz has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico ; the state is noted for its mixed indigenous populations.
Its cuisine reflects the many cultural influences that have come through the state because of the importance of the port of Veracruz. The suffix is in honor of Ignacio de la Llave y Segura Zevallos, the governor of Veracruz from to The state's seal was authorized by the state legislature in , adapting the one used for the port of Veracruz and created by the Spanish in the early 16th century; the state is a crescent-shaped strip of land wedged between the Sierra Madre Oriental to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.
Its total area is 78, km2, accounting for about 3. It stretches about km north to south, but its width varies from between km to 36 km, with an average of about km in width. The topography changes drastically, rising from the narrow coastal plains to the highlands of the eastern Sierra Madre. Elevation varies from sea level to the Pico de Orizaba, Mexico's highest peak at 5, m above sea level; the coast consists of low sandy strips interspersed with tidewater lagoons. Most of the long coastline is narrow and sandy with unstable dunes, small shifting lagoons and points; the mountains are of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.
More than 40 rivers and tributaries provide water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. All of the rivers and streams that cross the state begin in the Sierra Madre Oriental or in the Central Mesa, flowing east to the Gulf of Mexico. The Panuco, Tuxpan and Coatzacoalcos are navigable. The state has ten major waterfalls and ten major coastal lagoons. There is only one significant lake, called Lake Catemaco.
The large variation of altitude results in a large mixture of climates, from cold, snow-topped mountain peaks to warm wet tropical areas on the coast. Hot and humid and hot and semi-humid climates dominate from sea level to about 1, m above sea level. Average annual temperature ranges from 22 to 26C with precipitation varying from 2, mm to just over 3, mm per year. Cooler and humid climates are found at elevations between 1, m and 1, m 5, It covered a huge area that included territories in North America , South America and Oceania , it originated in after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan , the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much as its territory continued to grow to the north.
It was created on 8 March as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas, its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City , established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan. It included what is now Mexico plus the current U. The political organization divided the viceroyalty into captaincies general; the kingdoms were those of New Spain.
These territorial subdivisions had a captain general. In Guatemala , Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia , these officials were called presiding governors, since they were leading royal audiences. For this reason, these hearings were considered "praetorial. King Charles III introduced reforms in the organization of the viceroyalty in , known as Bourbon reforms , which created the intendencias , which allowed to limit, in some way, the viceroy's attributions.
New Spain developed regional divisions, reflecting the impact of climate, indigenous populations, mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social and economic organization; the northern area of Mexico, a region of nomadic and semi-nomadic indigenous populations, was not conducive to dense settlements, but the discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the s drew settlement there to exploit the mines.
Silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making the viceroyalty a vital link between Spain's New World empire and its Asian empire. The Kingdom of New Spain was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile , since the initial funds for exploration came from Queen Isabella.
Although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula ; the monarch had sweeping power in the overseas territories,The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him, it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in in the Kingdom of New Spain, it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. At its greatest extent, the Spanish crown claimed on the mainland of. The decree creating this army appeared in the Plan de Iguala , which stated the three guarantees which it was meant to defend: religion and unity. Mexico was to be a Catholic empire, independent from Spain , united against its enemies; the Army of the Three Guarantees was created on February 24, , continued battling Spanish royalist forces which refused to accept Mexican independence.
The victory in this last battle of the war cleared the way to Mexico City. The following day Mexico was declared independent. By that time, the Army of the Three Guarantees was composed of 7, infantrymen, 7, cavalry, artillery with 68 cannons.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Spanish American wars of independence. See also: Celebration of Mexican political anniversaries in Not to be confused with the Mexican Revolution in the early 20th century. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Spanish. August Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Spanish article.
Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation.
A model attribution edit summary using German : Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Mexican War of Independence First Stage — Mexican War of Independence Organizational phase — Spanish colonial campaigns.
Part of a series on the. Spanish rule. First Republic. Second Federal Republic. La Reforma Reform War French intervention. See also: Cry of Dolores. Main article: Spanish attempts to reconquer Mexico. Spanish American wars of independence portal Mexico portal.
Latin America's Wars. New York, Norton, Prentice Hall , pp. Race, Class, and Politics in Colonial Mexico, Oxford: Oxford University Press Seis obras. Stanford: Stanfor University Press Princeton: Princeton University Press Gainesville: University of Florida Press , pp. Woodstock: The Overlook Press. Archived from the original on Gardners Books,  , pp. The Independence of Latin America. Cambridge University Press. Henderson The Mexican Wars for Independence.
Christon I. Archer, "Royalist Scourge or Liberator of the Patria? Werner Concise Encyclopedia of Mexico. University of Texas Press. Archer The Birth of Modern Mexico, Panorama Editorial. Retrieved 22 August Viva Mexico! Viva la Independencia! Celebrations of September 16 , eds. William H. Beezley and David E. Wilmington: SR Books , pp. Outline Index. Administrative subdivisions. Hidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources es Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Articles to be expanded from August All articles to be expanded Articles needing translation from Spanish Wikipedia Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles containing Spanish-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Revision History.
First Mexican Empire. Related Images. YouTube Videos.
The Battle of San Lorenzo in The first countdown clock on the Zocalo. The current one hangs over where 20 de Noviembre Street meets the Zocalo. The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from to , that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.
Miguel Hidalgo Public records
A banner at the office of opposition magazine El hijo de Ahuizote reads: "The Constitution has died The Bell of Dolores was moved from the church to Mexico's National Palace after Hidalgo's death and is rung each year on independence day by the president. Image: Miguel Hidalgo 2 by Claudio Linati Birthplace and house of Morelos in Morelia, today a museum. Insurgent coinage: Mexico, Oaxaca, 8 Reales , obverse. Contemporary engraving depicting the defrocking and degradation of Morelos by church officials before released to civil authorities for execution.
Mexico's declaration of Independence as an Empire drafted on September 28 Nueva Caceres, one of the cities of Las Islas Filipinas. Pico de Orizaba. Aztec warriors as shown in the 16th century Florentine Codex. Note that each warrior is brandishing a Maquahuitl. This page from the Codex Mendoza shows the gradual improvements to equipment and tlahuiztli as a warrior progresses through the ranks from commoner to porter to warrior to captor, and later as a noble progressing in the warrior societies from the noble warrior to "Eagle warrior" to "Jaguar Warrior" to "Otomitl" to "Shorn One" and finally as "Tlacateccatl".
Constitutional decree for the freedom of the Mexican America. The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. El gran capitan at the Battle of Cerignola. The conquest of the Canary Islands Iberian-born pope Alexander VI promulgated bulls that invested the Spanish monarchs with ecclesiastical power in the newly found lands overseas. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula.
Reproduction of Altamira Cave paintings, in Cantabria. Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. Anarchist Auguste Vaillant guillotined in France in Roman Colosseum. Mexican execution by firing squad, A prisoner of war is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. There are plenty of cities in the U.
Here a few fun facts about the Mexican Independence Day and its history:. In , Hidalgo gave his famous Grito de Dolores, or Cry of Dolores, asking fellow Mexicans to come together to end the years of Spanish rule in Mexico. Mexican marines march during the parade celebrating a new anniversary of the country's independence at Zocalo Square in Mexico City, Sept.
Photo: Getty Images. Here are some quotes in Spanish , along with translation in English, to mark the day. Long live America! Bad government died!