White went on to open for the revered bluegrass vocalist on tour, but her appearance at the studio was a total surprise. It was crazy. I mean, I'm getting to stand in the control room and see her overdub those harmonies live. There's nothing like it. That'd be like watching Van Gogh paint if you were trying to be a painter.
It isn't easy for him to explain why the country music of yesteryear clicks so well with him, but he guesses it has a bit to do with a love of history, in general. One of "Southern Gentleman's" standout tracks, "Crazy Man," is a cover he's pulled out of obscurity, co-written by '70s country hitmaker Jim Mundy.
It's actually been more than a year since "Southern Gentleman" was finished. From the s colonial governments imposed restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners already in Australia.
Dee White on classic country and working with Alison Krauss
The colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Towards the end of the 19th century labour unions pushed to stop Chinese immigrants working in the furniture and market garden industries. Australian furniture had to be labelled "Made with Chinese Labour". Soon after Australia became a federation in January , the federal government of Edmund Barton passed the Immigration Restriction Act of , drafted by the man who would become Australia's second Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin.
The passage of this bill marked the commencement of the White Australia Policy as Australian federal government policy. Subsequent acts further strengthened the policy up to the start of the Second World War. During the Second World War, Prime Minister John Curtin reinforced the policy, saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race.
Successive governments dismantled the policy in stages after the conclusion of the Second World War, with the encouragement of first non-British, non- white immigration, allowing for a large multi-ethnic post-war program of immigration. The Menzies and Holt Governments — effectively dismantled the policies between and , and the Whitlam Government passed laws to ensure that race would be totally disregarded as a component for immigration to Australia in In the Whitlam Government passed the Racial Discrimination Act , which made racially-based selection criteria unlawful.
In the decades since, Australia has maintained large-scale multi-ethnic immigration. As of [update] , Australia's migration program allows people from any country to apply to migrate to Australia, regardless of their nationality, ethnicity, culture, religion, or language, provided that they meet the criteria set out in law.
The discovery of gold in Australia in led to an influx of immigrants from all around the world. The colony of New South Wales had a population of just , in , but the huge influx of settlers spurred by the gold rushes transformed the Australian colonies economically, politically and demographically. Over the next 20 years, 40, Chinese men and over 9, women mostly Cantonese immigrated to the goldfields seeking prosperity. Gold brought great wealth but also new social tensions. Multi-ethnic migrants came to New South Wales in large numbers for the first time.
Competition on the goldfields, particularly resentment among white miners towards the successes of Chinese miners, led to tensions between groups and eventually a series of significant protests and riots, including the Buckland riot in and the Lambing Flat riots between and Governor Hotham , on 16 November , appointed a Royal Commission on Victorian goldfields problems and grievances.
White Australia policy
This led to restrictions being placed on Chinese immigration and residency taxes levied from Chinese residents in Victoria from with New South Wales following suit in These restrictions remained in force until the early s. Melbourne Trades Hall was opened in with Trades and Labour Councils and Trades Halls opening in all cities and most regional towns in the following forty years. During the s Trade unions developed among shearers , miners , and stevedores wharf workers , but soon spread to cover almost all blue-collar jobs.
Shortages of labour led to high wages for a prosperous skilled working class, whose unions demanded and got an eight-hour day and other benefits unheard of in Europe.
Australia gained a reputation as "the working man's paradise. This produced a reaction which led to all the colonies restricting Chinese and other Asian immigration. This was the foundation of the White Australia Policy.
- Tuscan Cuisine (Cucina delle regioni dItalia).
- Epidemic - The Past, Present and Future of the Diseases That Made Us.
- YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE!
- Is America a white country? - Quora.
The "Australian compact", based around centralised industrial arbitration, a degree of government assistance particularly for primary industries, and White Australia, was to continue for many years before gradually dissolving in the second half of the 20th century. The growth of the sugar industry in Queensland in the s led to searching for labourers prepared to work in a tropical environment. During this time, thousands of " Kanakas " Pacific Islanders were brought into Australia as indentured workers. Their arguments were that Asians and Chinese took jobs away from white men, worked for "substandard" wages, lowered working conditions and refused unionisation.
Objections to these arguments came largely from wealthy land owners in rural areas. Agreements were made to further increase these restrictions in following an Inter-colonial Premier's Conference where all colonies agreed to extend entry restrictions to all non-white races. However, in attempting to enact this legislation, the Governors of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania reserved the bills, due to a treaty with Japan , and they did not become law. Instead, the Natal Act of was introduced, restricting "undesirable persons" rather than any specific race. The British government in London was not pleased with legislation that discriminated against certain subjects of its Empire, but decided not to disallow the laws that were passed.
Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain explained in We quite sympathise with the determination Immigration was a prominent topic in the lead up to Australian Federation. At the third Session of the Australasian Federation Convention of , Western Australian premier and future federal cabinet member John Forrest summarised the prevailing feeling: . It is of no use to shut our eyes to the fact that there is a great feeling all over Australia against the introduction of coloured persons.
It goes without saying that we do not like to talk about it, but it is so. The Barton Government which came to power following the first elections to the Commonwealth parliament in was formed by the Protectionist Party with the support of the Australian Labor Party. The support of the Labor Party was contingent upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Workers Union and other labour organisations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded. The first Parliament of Australia quickly moved to restrict immigration to maintain Australia's British character, and the Pacific Island Labourers Bill and the Immigration Restriction Bill were passed shortly before parliament rose for its first Christmas recess.
The Colonial Secretary in Britain had however made it clear that a race-based immigration policy would run "contrary to the general conceptions of equality which have ever been the guiding principle of British rule throughout the Empire".
Rise of anti-immigrant sentiments
The Barton Government therefore conceived of the "language dictation test", which would allow the government, at the discretion of the minister, to block unwanted migrants by forcing them to sit a test in "any European language". Race had already been established as a premise for exclusion among the colonial parliaments, so the main question for debate was who exactly the new Commonwealth ought to exclude, with the Labor Party rejecting Britain's calls to placate the populations of its non-white colonies and allow "aboriginal natives of Asia, Africa, or the islands thereof".
There was opposition from Queensland and its sugar industry to the proposals of the Pacific Islanders Bill to exclude "Kanaka" laborers, however Barton argued that the practice was "veiled slavery" that could lead to a "negro problem" similar to that in the United States, and the Bill was passed. The new Federal Parliament, as one of its first pieces of legislation, passed the Immigration Restriction Act 1 Edward VII 17 to "place certain restrictions on immigration and Edmund Barton , the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman.
The Attorney General tasked with drafting the legislation was Alfred Deakin. Deakin supported Barton's position over that of the Labor Party in drafting the Bill the ALP wanted more direct methods of exclusion than the dictation test and redacted the more vicious racism proposed for the text in his Second Reading of the Bill. It is not the bad qualities, but the good qualities of these alien races that make them so dangerous to us.
It is their inexhaustible energy, their power of applying themselves to new tasks, their endurance and low standard of living that make them such competitors. Early drafts of the Act explicitly banned non-Europeans from migrating to Australia but objections from the British government, which feared that such a measure would offend British subjects in India and Britain's allies in Japan, caused the Barton government to remove this wording.
Instead, a "dictation test" was introduced as a device for excluding unwanted immigrants. Immigration officials were given the power to exclude any person who failed to pass a word dictation test. At first this was to be in any European language, but was later changed to include any language. The tests were written in such a way to make them nearly impossible to pass. The first of these tests was written by Federal MP Stewart Parnaby [ clarification needed ] as an example for officers to follow when setting future tests.
The "Stewart" test was unofficially standardised as the English version of the test, due to its extremely high rates of failure resulting from a very sophisticated use of language. The legislation found strong support in the new Australian Parliament , with arguments ranging from economic protection to outright racism. The Labor Party wanted to protect "white" jobs and pushed for more explicit restrictions. A few politicians spoke of the need to avoid hysterical treatment of the question. But there is obligation They were forced at the point of a bayonet to admit Englishmen Now if we compel them to admit our people Outside parliament, Australia's first Catholic cardinal , Patrick Francis Moran was politically active and denounced anti-Chinese legislation as "unchristian".
The Immigration Restriction Act imposed a dictation test, in any prescribed language, for any non-European migrant to Australia. Further discriminatory legislation was the Postal and Telegraph Services Act 1 Edward VII 12 , which required any ship carrying mail to and from Australia to only have a white crew. In there were approximately 9, Pacific islander labourers in Queensland. Today, the descendants of those who remained are officially referred to as South Sea Islanders. Japanese policy reflected their desire to remove or to ease the immigration restrictions against Japanese especially in the United States and Canada , which Japan regarded as a humiliation and affront to its prestige.
Australia, Japan and New Zealand had seized the German colonial empire 's territories in the Pacific in the early stages of the war and Hughes was concerned to retain German New Guinea as vital to the defence of Australia. Hughes vehemently opposed Japan's racial equality proposition. Hughes recognised that such a clause would be a threat to White Australia and made it clear to British Prime Minister David Lloyd George that he would leave the conference if the clause was adopted. When the proposal failed, Hughes reported in the Australian parliament:.
The White Australia is yours. You may do with it what you please, but at any rate, the soldiers have achieved the victory and my colleagues and I have brought that great principle back to you from the conference, as safe as it was on the day when it was first adopted. Australian Prime Minister Alfred Deakin campaigned vehemently for the White Australia policy and made it a key issue in his Election speech  he proclaimed that the policy was not only for the preservation of the 'complexion' of Australia but it was for the establishment of 'social justice'. Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce was a supporter of the White Australia policy and made it an issue in his campaign for the Australian Federal election.
It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire.
Australian anxiety at the prospect of Japanese expansionism and war in the Pacific continued through the s. Billy Hughes , by then a minister in the United Australia Party 's Lyons Government , made a notable contribution to Australia's attitude towards immigration in a speech in which he argued that "Australia must However Hughes was forced to resign in after his book Australia and the War Today exposed a lack of preparation in Australia for what Hughes correctly supposed to be a coming war.
Between the Great Depression starting in and the end of the Second World War in , global conditions kept immigration to very low levels. Australian cities were bombed by the Japanese Airforce and Navy and Axis Naval Forces menaced Australian shipping, while the Royal Navy remained pre-occupied with the battles of the Atlantic and Mediterranean in the face of Nazi aggression in Europe. During the war, talk arose about the possibility of abolishing the policy. Spokesman for the Labor Party demanded that it be continued:. The policy of White Australia is now, perhaps, the most outstanding political characteristic of this country, and it has been accepted not only by those closely associated with it, but also by those who watched and studied "this interesting experiment" from afar.
Only those who favor the exploitation of a servile coloured race for greed of gain, and a few professional economists and benighted theologians, are now heard in serious criticism of a White Australia; but Following the trauma of Second World War, Australia's vulnerability during the Pacific War and its relatively small population compared to other nations led to policies summarised by the slogan, "populate or perish".
According to author Lachlan Strahan, this was an ethnocentric slogan that in effect was an admonition to fill Australia with Europeans or else risk having it overrun by Asians. During the war, many non-white refugees, including Malays, Indonesians and Filipinos, arrived in Australia, but Calwell controversially sought to have them all deported.
The Chifley Government introduced the Aliens Deportation Act , which had its weaknesses exposed by a High Court case, and then passed the War-time Refugees Removal Act which gave the immigration minister sweeping powers of deportation. Ambitious post-war development projects like the Snowy Mountains Scheme — required a large labour force that could only be sourced by diversifying Australia's migrant intake. Australian policy began to shift towards significantly increasing immigration. Legislative changes over the next few decades continuously opened up immigration in Australia.
Labor Party Chifley Government :. Liberal-Country Party Menzies Government — :. This was despite comments Menzies made in a discussion with radio 2UE 's Stewart Lamb in , where he appeared to be a defender of the White Australia Policy. I think it's been a very good policy and it's been of great value to us and most of the criticism of it that I've ever heard doesn't come from these oriental countries it comes from wandering Australians. Lamb "For these years of course in the past Sir Robert you have been described as a racist. In , a paper "Immigration: Control or Colour Bar? It proposed eliminating the White Australia policy, and was influential towards this end.
In , the Holt Liberal Government effectively dismantled the White Australia policy and increased access to non-European migrants, including refugees fleeing the Vietnam War.
- On The Significance Of Science And Art.
- Top Selected Products and Reviews.
- Transitions: short stories for a rainy day.
At the same time, Harold Holt 's government decided to allow foreign non-whites to become permanent residents and citizens after five years the same as for Europeans , and also removed discriminatory provisions in family reunification policies. As a result, annual non-European settler arrivals rose from in to 2, in , while annual part-European settler arrivals rose from 1, to 6, This is reflected by Calwell's comments in his memoirs, Be Just and Fear Not , in which he made it clear that he maintained his view that non-European people should not be allowed to settle in Australia.