Mark E. Rana Mitter Evil Empire? Competing Constructions of Japanese Imperialiam in Manchuria, 8. Ricardo T. Asia's peoples sought freedom from the Western and Chinese empires which dominated the continent, while challenging each other over borders and systems of government. From the earliest Japanese intrusions on the mainland in until final defeat in , Japanese authorities had to grapple with the national identities of the people they sought to dominate.
This book traces Japan's impact on these national identities, from its clumsy intervention in Siberia, through its ambitious attempts to create puppet states in Manchuria and China, to its brief but dramatic foray into Southeast Asia. The book compares the perspective of societies such as India and Tibet, which observed Japan from a distance, with the experience of societies which experienced Japanese intervention at close hand. The authors highlight the contradictions in Japanese policy, which sometimes encouraged other Asian nationalist movements, sometimes suppressed or undermined them, and sometimes sought to create new identities out of little more than romantic imagination.
This book provides a valuable resource for students of East Asia. Bibliographic information. Browse related items Start at call number: DS N36 Rowena Lawson, went in Elsewhere, the decision by the Trustees of the Leverhulme Committee to withdraw from the funding of South-East Asian Research Awards through the British Academy after , and the financial difficulties experienced by the British Institute in South-East Asia at the time of its move to Bangkok in , meant that the level of support for British scholars with Southeast Asian interests was sharply reduced 49a.
The changes which had overtaken Britain in the two decades since had made such initiatives look like an expensive anachronism. Less than five years after the Hayter Committee had delivered its report, the British Government announced that it was withdrawing its military bases from east of Suez , and today the compelling imperial considerations which led to the establishment of the School of Oriental post, Oriental and African Studies in are very much a thing of the past. Britain is now a declining second-class power with domestic and European considerations foremost in mind, the Falk- lands War notwithstanding.
Imperial Policy and Southeast Asian Nationalism
So, barring an economic miracle unlikely in Britain for the foreseeable future , or a sudden influx of money from private sources even less likely 51 , Southeast Asian studies will clearly have. This was very much the message which the University Grants Committee gave the Area Studies Centres in October when it eventually got round to appointing Sir James Craig an Arabist and ex-British ambassador to Saudi Arabia to undertake a one-man enquiry into Oriental and African language provision in Britain and associated cultural, legal and economic disciplines in October Sir James's brief was principally to report on the need of British commerce, industry and the diplomatic services in these specialised areas, rather than to concern himself directly with the existing institutional provision, a sphere which the University Grants Committee regards as very much its own preserve.
Furthermore, unlike the Hayter Committee see above , there was never any likelihood that Sir James's enquiry would lead to any new influx of funds to the various Southeast Asian Centres. The best that can be expected is a series of recommendations as to where the present scarce resources especially on the language side might best be applied to meet current national requirements. This has resulted in priority being given by a recent working party at SOAS to two new joint posts in Bahasa Indonesia see below.
Unfortunately, as of the time of writing May , it looks as though the enquiry commenced by Sir James will not result in a definitive report much before the middle of This is because Sir James himself, under pressure of other commitments, has had to withdraw from the survey and his place has been taken by Sir Peter Parker, until recently , Chairman of British Rail. Moreover, his contacts with senior figures in British commerce and industry as well as the civil service will stand him in good stead when he comes to write up his final report.
The Situation in the mids and Possibilities for the Future. It would take a Southeast Asian Dr. Pangloss to look to the future of area studies in the U. But it would be wrong to conclude that they are doomed to extinction. For a time at least, the storm of early retirements, staff cutbacks and contraction in research grants, seems to have blown itself out. Reports from SOAS. At SOAS, a recent working party convened to consider the long-term development of the School has recommended that between now and , two new joint appointments should be made, in Indonesian language and Javanese, with 'watching briefs' for Oceanic languages and Tagalog being given to the full-time teachers of Indonesian.
Furthermore, the problem of finding proper coverage for Oceanic languages and Tagalog hardly looks like being resolved satisfactorily. But, if this proposal is implemented and much, of course, depends on the availability of government finance for the posts , it will be a major step forward in safeguarding Maritime Southeast Asian interests, in languages at least, for the foreseeable future Turning to the other Centres, the picture is more varied. Despite all the vicissitudes of recent years, Kent seems to have been able to hold its own and even strengthen its position somewhat.
Its first director, Dr. Dun- canson see above had already given it a strong link with Mainland Southeast Asia 54 , but, by the late s and early s, it had also begun to develop special interests in Malaysia and Indonesia through the presence of a comparative law specialist, Mr. Roy Ellen, and a 19th-century Malay historian, Dr. Successful efforts were made to attract Malaysian graduate students to the University by forging personal links with institutions of higher education especially Islamic colleges in the peninsula, and by the establishment of graduate studies programmes in Southeast Asian and Islamic Studies.
Since then, the link with the archipelago has been made even stronger by a new association between Kent and the Universitas Andalas in Padang West Sumatra , and by the ever-increasing flow of graduate students from Malaysia and Brunei. The current director of the Centre a post which rotates annually amongst Centre members , Dr.
John Bousfield, a philosopher with research interests in Sufi Islam in Malaysia, has also helped to expedite this process. At the same time, the establishment of a new post in South-. Hooker to a personal chair in comparative law, have been a further boost for the Centre, especially given the political power of professors in provincial universities.
There is even the possibility that, in view of Dr. Duncanson's recent retirement, Southeast Asian studies will be able to share a joint lectureship post in politics. But, as of the time of writing May the negotiations have not yet reached a conclusion.
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If there are drawbacks, these seem to be mainly in the spheres of library resources and the provisions for language tuition see above , and in the pressures to put quantity before quality at the graduate level. But Kent's achievements over the past few years have been impressive and show what can be done, even in the most unpromising circumstances, through imaginative initiatives and careful planning. Compared to Kent, Hull has had to endure a much more difficult process of adjustment to the cuts imposed on the universities during the past five years.
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As a result the University has had to return to its pres size, with all the wider repercussions this has entailed with regard to financial provision for staffing and research. Inevitably the interests of the Centre have also suffered and the sort of opportunities for expansion along the lines of Kent have simply not been available.
Nevertheless, effective steps have been taken to ensure that Southeast Asian studies will continue to be an integral part of University teaching at Hull, both at graduate and undergraduate level, and that the Centre will survive into the s. The quiet tact of Dr. David Bassett, who succeeded Professor Jaspan as the Centre's director in the mids, has been very important here, and has helped to ensure strong support for the Centre from all levels of the University. Indeed, now that the worst is over in terms of retrenchment, there is even a possibility that money for new posts in Southeast Asian studies e.
It should be noted too that, as with Kent, important personal contacts with institutions in Southeast Asia have been built up over the years by members of the Hull Centre, and moves are afoot to establish a new scholarship scheme to help graduate students from Southeast Asia who wish to pursue higher degrees at the University Turning to the wider picture, one of the most striking features about Maritime Southeast Asian studies in the U.
Some have to function in quite isolated positions in large disciplinary departments, or in places far removed from adequate library resources. Exposure to what is happening in other disciplines can be valuable. One thinks here of the way in which anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists have been able to undertake interesting comparative work which transcends regional and even disciplinary boundaries. The natural habitat of a Southeast Asianist is not necessarily in an area centre.
But, having said this, there is now a greater need than ever for effective cooperation between the various scholars and institutions involved with Southeast Asian studies both in the U. As Professor G. One is also still aware of the legacy from the past with the coincidence of British academic and colonial 'in the best sense of the word' interests in Burma, Malaysia and the western Pacific; Indonesia and New Guinea [Irian Jaya] being left to the Dutch; Madagascar to the French; the Philippines to the Americans etc. In linguistics, [as well as] in other disciplines, this no longer makes any sense Some steps have already been made in the right direction.
The biennial European Colloquium of Malay and Indonesian Studies, the first of which was held in Paris in , has played an important role in maintaining scholarly contacts between European researchers with archipelagic interests, especially in the related fields of literature and linguistics The University of Bielefeld West Germany Colloquia on Southeast Asia have fulfilled a similar function for those scholars interested in modern sociological and economic developments in the region From time to time, individual conferences and seminars on Southeast Asia have been hosted by the main Southeast Asian centres in Europe, in particular in France, West Germany, the Netherlands and Britain The latter part of this survey has dealt with the possibilities for the future.
By its very nature, it has been somewhat speculative, but there is not the slightest doubt that if Southeast Asian studies, especially those relating to the island world, are to prosper during the next decade, there must be far greater cooperation than hitherto between individuals and between institutions. The days are gone when well endowed centres could go it alone.
Maritime Southeast Asian Studies in the United Kingdom : A Survey of their Development, 1945-85
And this holds not only for post-imperial Britain, but also for Western Europe and the links between universities in this hemisphere and those in Southeast Asia. Any sort of 'splendid isolation' in the present context would be sheer folly. Adrian D. Roberts Keeper of Oriental Books. Ricklefs and P. Voorhoeve, Indonesian Manuscripts in Great Britain. XLV pt. The main library holdings also include some rare works in Western languages on Oceania and Maritime Southeast Asia.
The dependent Rhodes House Library located in South Parks Road has a good collection of modern works and monographs on Oceania, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and the Indian Ocean region, as well as some important private archives of ex-colonial administrators, merchants and adventurers, with special reference to Sarawak e. For information on the latter interested scholars should write to the Rhodes House Librarian, Mr. One of the six British Copyright Deposit Libraries.
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Extensive collection of printed works in Western Languages on Oceania and Maritime Southeast Asia, as well as many rare books. Along with the Library of the School of Oriental and African Studies see below , probably the most important reference and research library for non-manuscript sources on the region.
Waley Keeper of Western Manuscripts. Contains some manuscripts and maps on Maritime Southeast Asia - for details, see M. Bloomfield Keeper 3. Major collection of printed books in vernacular languages on Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and the Indian Ocean region. For a guide to the important collection of Indonesian and Malay manuscripts, see Ricklefs and Voorhoeve, Catalogue ; and Ibid. Bloomfield Director. Contains the archives of the English East India Company , the India Office and the Burma Office , all of which include voluminous and important records on Maritime Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean region.
Also has a useful library of historical books, mainly on the Indian subcontinent. Volume I : The Mackenzie Collections. Report for the year London, , pp. LVI pt. Miss H. Stephens Assistant Librarian. Now has 21, volumes, periodicals currently received, and 40 items of manuscript material mostly from Burma, Malaysia and Indonesia on the latter, see Ricklefs and Voorhoeve, Catalogue , and Ibid. Particularly strong coverage of Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Also has substantial holdings on the Philippines. Subjects covered include anthropology, economics, geography, history, politics and sociology.
The South-East Asia Centre also contains a small ethnographic collection which is used for teaching purposes see pt. Cambridge University Library,. Andrew Dalby Oriental Dept. Important collection of British publications on Maritime Southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean region and Oceania as well as many foreign monographs and periodicals.
Carter; tel. The University's collection of Indonesian and Malay mss. The main depository of the official records of the British Government i. Contains the records of the central government departments which normally become available after 30 years the records of the Foreign Office,. Also has some private papers of ex-colonial officials and the archives of British trading companies with Southeast Asian interests. A vital source for any scholar working on the ex-British colonies i. Burma, Malaysia and Singapore in the modern especially twentieth-century period , and on British political and commercial relations with Indonesia and the Philippines.
Richard Pankhurst Librarian. The Royal Asiatic Society was founded in , and has published a scholarly journal Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society from as well as over two hundred monographs. There are also some interesting drawings of Javanese antiquities and a private journal kept by Raffles' s draughtsman assistant, Capt. The Library is primarily for Fellows of the Society, but outside scholars can also use it once they have obtained permission from the Librarian.
For a useful introduction and background study of the Society, see Stuart Simmonds and Simon Digby eds. Its History and Treasures, Leiden : E. Brill, Along with the Dept. When the School of Oriental post, Oriental and African Studies was founded in , the Library began with a nucleus of books transferred from other parts of the University of London, amongst which were the oriental books and manuscripts of the celebrated British orientalist, William Marsden '5.
The coverage of social science materials has increased greatly from the s reflecting the changing patterns of teaching and research. The Library's collection policy is wide ranging, and the holdings are now over , books and pamphlets, over 25, serials of which 5, are current , and 40, maps, slides, recordings and microforms. The collection is described in various catalogues and a preliminary bibliographical search may well save time for scholars visiting the Library.
Hall, with Supplements for , and in author, title and subject sequences. The Library's periodical holdings can be found in Brenda E.
Titles can be found in B. Apart from the specific collections on Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean, one of the special features of the Library, which will be of interest to outside users, is the material it contains on other Asian countries and its collection on the Pacific, a collection particularly strong in linguistic and anthropological materials. On the provision of a suitable letter of introduction see n.
Books can also be borrowed via the inter-library loan system. British Library of Political and Economic Science,. Has a collection of official government publications primarily from Malaysia and Singapore. Also has some interesting and rare pamphlets in Indonesian and English from the period of the Indonesian Revolution and the immediate post-Independence years e.
Jung- schlaeger Affair, and the struggle over West Irian. On these collections, see Percival, Guide, vol. Foreign and Commonwealth Office Library,. Some rare volumes and early works on travel from the collection of the Northern and Southern Departments forerunners of the FO in the eighteenth century. Today concentrates on international relations, diplomacy, and the history, politics, economics and law of foreign e.
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Burma and Indonesia and Commonwealth e. Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore countries. Also has a collection of U. Government publications, including the official Hansard reports of the proceedings in the British Parliament, selected House of Commons Papers, House of Lords papers, and Command papers from the nineteenth century. For those interested in Commonwealth countries in the Maritime Southeast Asian, Oceanian and Indian Ocean regions, the collection of Commonwealth government publications will be found especially useful.
These include debates, censuses, sessional papers and department annual reports of Commonwealth countries and Dependent Territories. Holdings of. Interesting collection of photographs principally of views of ex-British colonies and colonial life accessible throught a card index, and holdings of maps, plans, atlases and gazetteers mainly of ex-British colonial territories dating from earlier holdings are kept in the Public Record Office see above pt.
Members of the general public can only consult these maps etc. Other dependent libraries with useful collections are 1 The Legal Library, Downing Street East, which has a unique indexed collection of legislation of U. Dependent Territories, independent Commonwealth countries e. Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei , and former U. Early statistical material is housed here, but more recent data can be found in the Library of the Overseas Development Administration at Eland House, Stag Place Victoria.
The London Gazette is held here from , as well as gazettes of certain British and other Military Administrations. Public access to this latter library is by prior appointment only, apply to Mrs Cousins. Brenda M. Cook Librarian. Useful reference library on Southeast Asian archaeology and related subjects. Small collection of current periodicals. Institute of Commonwealth Studies,. Collection of materials on elections, politicians, trades union organisations, pressure groups and political parties in Malaysia and Singapore, as well as many modern monographs.
An important research library for political scientists interested in Malaysia and Singapore. Miss G. Matheson Keeper of Oriental Manuscripts. Important collection of Indonesian esp. Batak and Malay manuscripts, see Rick- lefs and Voorhoeve, Catalogue Prospective readers should note that the Library does not permit the photocopying or microfilming of its manuscripts.
Contains the Western-language manuscripts of the celebrated British orientalist, William Marsden , a specialist on the Rejang people of West Sumatra cf. On the Library's other manuscripts collections, see Percival, Guide, vol. I The Royal Commonwealth Society,. Flinders University Central Library. La Trobe University Library. Borchardt Library, Melbourne Bundoora Campus. Monash University Library. Murdoch University Library.
The University of Melbourne Library. University of Queensland Library. Open to the public ; DS University of Sydney Library. Barr Smith Library. University Library.
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