Becker and Edith Philips wrote of the emotional detachment, even heartlessness, to be found everywhere in the journal except in those passages that depict Edmond's relationship with his brother and with Daudet. In the 21st century the Journal's repute is as high as ever. The German satirist Harald Schmidt has called it "the greatest gossip in world literature — it's sensational! No complete translation of the Goncourt Journal into English has ever appeared, but there have been several selections.
Shedlock , appeared in two volumes as early as , before the nine volumes of Edmond de Goncourt's edition had yet been completed. Becker has also edited and translated two thematic selections: Paris Under Siege, , and in collaboration with Edith Philips Paris and the Arts, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Paris Review. Retrieved 13 January Journal ". Das Kulturmagazin in German.
Bibliography | The ARTFL Project
Retrieved 14 January Cahiers Edmond et Jules de Goncourt in French. Retrieved 15 January First Series. Translated by Evans, A. New York: John Lane. The Atlantic Monthly. Paris: Lettres modernes. Volume 1: London: Vintage. Talence: Presses universitaires de Bordeaux. Tages-Anzeiger in German. The Times.
This shows how translations are influenced by the particular national memorial context in which they are produced. The study indicates that memory can be an important force in the accomplishment of translations and adaptations. The field of Memory Studies is concerned with the whole variety of ways of representing the past. Memory was conceptualized for a long time as the province of the individual mind, but in the 20 th century it came also to be considered as a social phenomenon following the groundbreaking work of Maurice Halbwachs  1.
Various terms—such as collective memory, cultural memory, social memory, public memory, and national memory—highlight the social aspect of memory. Our chief concern here is the written medium. Genres themselves, of course, have varied in form throughout history.
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It is interesting to note here that the field of Memory Studies recognizes no fundamental distinction between historiography and novels. Historical novels and historiography are two different ways, among others, of writing about the past Erll, a . They are fundamentally similar in that they both involve reconstruction, and poetic and narrative properties, as theorized strikingly by Hayden White The historian today must follow accepted procedures regarding evidence, and use of sources.
The genre of the novel allows much greater freedom whereby the novelist can be highly inventive. In this context we can distinguish fiction and non-fiction regarding the past. Non-fiction would be what historians consensually agree upon as having happened in the past. Fiction would be ideas imagined and invented about the past which would not meet the consensual agreement of historians.
The boundaries between the two are, however, not entirely clear, since historians are continually proposing new hypotheses about the past sparked by the imaginative use of evidence Arnold, With regard to the historical characters, some facts given in the novel are historically accurate, whereas others are pure invention on the part of the novelist.
However, Richard did not return disguised to England. In the novel, Richard wanders about England as a disguised knight undertaking various deeds of chivalry; this is pure romance Tulloch, To my mind the greatest historical inaccuracy of the novel is the depiction of a highly antagonistic relationship between Saxons and Normans in England near the end of the 12 th century.
In actual fact historians agree that the two peoples had intermarried and integrated by that time, and that descendants of the Normans from the conquest of had adopted English identity by the end of the 12 th century see Thomas, In the end the novel is an indeterminable mixture of fiction and non-fiction. Our two items are part of actively circulating memory. In order for the memory of a past event or cultural item to remain in circulation, the event or item must be represented again and again over decades or centuries in the same or different media and genres newspaper articles, photos, diaries, novels, films, web pages, museum display, historical re-enactment, etc.
Remediations will always involve transformation with regard to earlier representations, but there is also a certain sameness which allows recognition. What is known about a past event or cultural item is in fact a series of existent medial constructions. The amount of remediation becomes particularly significant when dealing with memory of famous long-distant events and cultural items.
Translation is a very important means of creating transcultural memory, that is, creating shared knowledge of the past in different countries and cultures. This knowledge includes both knowledge of historical events and knowledge of cultural items. Indeed Scott was popular throughout Europe thanks to the vector of translation into the various European languages. Over time new versions were produced: more translations, adaptations, plays, films, such that a network of texts was created in a multilingual transcultural tradition Pittock [ed.
In the case of Ivanhoe , this is a work of literature which is important in the British canon of classic texts, and it represents a link in a long English and British chain of memory concerning the Norman Conquest. So its role and location in British culture is in fact quite different from that in the cultures to which the text was transported.
- Journal des Goncourt : mémoires de la vie littéraire (Book, ) [pefawuqa.cf];
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In contrast, the English abridged versions I found cater to much younger children. The implication is that English-speaking youngsters from about the age of 12 would be expected to read the text in its integral form through respect for the book as an iconic classic in the culture. Considering these various rewritings of Ivanhoe serves to highlight features of the text under study.
Contemporary editions of the novel contain a large number of notes as well as introductions and glossaries , some from the author but most by the editor of the volume. Notes generally concern linguistic, literary and historical details and aspects of medieval life. The French translation by Defauconpret contained a modest number of notes, some from Scott and some added by the translator. Abridged English and French versions for a young readership do not necessarily contain any notes. Overall, it seems that the chain of rewritings of the original text allows addition of new layers, quite a lot of expansion and freedom of choice of paratextual content.
The hybrid balance of fictional and non-fictional in the novel is weighted more towards the non-fictional side through such additions. Because the normal principle of an abridgement is reduction, the didactic aim must be particularly strong to override that principle and support addition of material. The footnotes are written specifically for this version of the novel for young French-language readers of about 11 or 12 years old.
The earlier adaptation was probably aimed at an older audience. It seems that the inclusion of the large number of footnotes in the Hachette Jeunesse edition was the work of the editor. An example in the Hachette Jeunesse text is les reliefs [ de son repas ] 3 explained in a footnote as les restes. The explanations are longer than the above categories of definitions of terms, but the footnotes remain brief. The reason that this domain is important is probably that religion does not play as important a role today for many people in society as it did in the Middle Ages. Memory in the form of certain traditional Christian practices has been passed down through the generations, but other organizations, roles, practices and objects have been abandoned or are rare, and may not be familiar to young people.
Hence, Hachette Jeunesse presents the following explanations in footnotes:. So there are also references to some Jewish terms, beliefs and practices which are footnoted. The novel portrays strong anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages. This provokes the longest footnote in the Hachette Jeunesse text 4 :. HJ: An important influence on this footnote must be that today we have a strong memory of the Second World War, of the fate of the Jews at the time, as well as a sense of duty to pass this memory on to younger generations.
A number of italicized English terms are transferred to the Hachette Jeunesse text and footnoted with an explanation: franklin , thane , yeomen , alderman , and outlaw in the following way:. For franklin , the original text itself contains a brief in-text explanation, inferior gentry , which is not taken up in the Hachette versions.
This reflects the importance of combat at the time which is carried over into the sport of jousting, highlighted in the novel. There are a whole series of smaller categories referring to various aspects of medieval life. This may be due to the desire to produce a fast pace and a lean text for the body of the text, thus limiting in-text explanations.
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It should be noted that in the early 19 th century, knowledge of the medieval period was slight, even among the well-educated. The Penguin Scott quietly gives the facts about Edward the Confessor, but makes no particular comment on morrion. Unlike some other adaptations, Hachette Jeunesse retains and explains terms which relate to historical practices and specificities. This French adaptation acts as a means of passing on memory to young people, not only memory of this iconic novel and its famous characters, thus contributing to the on-going series of multiple remediations, but also memory of life in a time long past.
It is the numerous footnotes adding non-fictional elements which play an important role here. In the modern Penguin edition it comprises closely printed pages.