Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Buy As Gift. The themes of the Congress quality and reliability of measurement, measurement uncertainties, calibration, verification, accreditation, sensory metrology, regulations and legal metrology are developed either in a general way or applied to a specific economic sector or to a specific scientific field. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Advanced Concepts for Coverage includes noise reduction and restoration, segmentation, motion estimation and tracking, video processing View Product.

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The TC for EM TC-EM is itself composed of four technical subcommittees dedicated to: i DC quantities and quantum metrology including nanomagnetism and spintronics, ii all low frequency LF quantities except power and energy measured over the frequency range below 1 MHz, iii power and energy at audio frequencies, and iv quantities measured at frequencies from 1 MHz up to the near-optical region THz. The EMPIR committee manages the research programmes, and a research council gives strategic advice to the association. Most of the highlights of European research in electrical metrology during the last decade resulted from numerous joint research projects JRP funded by the EMRP.

To our knowledge this is the first international research programme established in the field of metrology. It has been constructed along two research themes dedicated to 'grand challenges' and 'applied and fundamental metrology. The first theme 'grand challenges' incorporates the metrology research of an inherently multidisciplinary nature responding to the key socioeconomic challenges in the sectors of health, energy, environment, and new technologies which include nanotechnology, identified by the EU as a key enabling technology, and security-related technology THz sources and detectors, quantum cryptography.

The second research theme addresses the grand challenges of fundamental metrology, i. In fundamental electrical metrology, Europe has a long and successful history with several notable highlights. It would not be an overstatement to say a large part of the original work in this field originated in Europe. First, Brian Josephson at the University of Cambridge proposed the interaction of microwaves with a superconducting junction which led to the primary standard for voltage [ 13 , 14 ].

Finally, the origin of SET devices can be traced back to the early research on frequency-locked turnstile devices at the Saclay group of Michel Devoret and the Delft group of Hans Mooij [ 28 ]. Over the last three decades, many collaborative projects have been undertaken to advance and disseminate fundamental metrology amongst European NMIs. Activities in these projects focused on producing reliable quantum devices for metrology, investigating the limits of quantization, developing measurement instrumentation, and formulating guidelines for proper usage. As a result, almost every NMI in Europe has access to and can operate primary resistance and voltage standards at the highest level of precision.

Despite these successes, the work in fundamental metrology is far from finished. Endeavours are still required for fundamental consistency tests. This comprises universality tests to verify the consistency of the same quantum effect in different materials and the closure of the quantum metrology triangle QMT to check the consistency of the Josephson effect, QHE, and SET, which are based on the same constants, the Planck constant h and the elementary charge e figure 1. It is noteworthy that the QMT experiments address the quantum foundations of the Kibble balance and the quantum realization of the ampere.

Figure 1. The quantum metrological triangle which shows the relationship between the three quantum electrical effects and the fundamental constants h , the Planck constant, and e , the elementary charge 8. In Europe there is a very large consorted effort to advance SET and close the quantum metrological triangle QMT at the level of 1 part in 10 7 before the planned redefinition of the SI [ 11 , 28 ]. Researchers from the National Institute for Standards and Technology NIST set the standard in , with their metallic 7 junction pump device, and achieved an accuracy of around 1 part per million for the closure of the triangle [ 29 ].

Several years later the NPL and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesansalt PTB developed the concept of tunable barrier pumping in semiconductor devices which has increased the accuracy of single-electron current sources to a few parts per 10 7 and increased the electrical current level by two orders of magnitude to nanoamperes which is crucially important for real-life applications [ 30 — 33 ].

The achievement of such a result has been made possible thanks to the development of an ultrastable low-noise current amplifier ULCA [ 34 , 35 ] operating at room temperature. The performance of this device is determined by a resistance ratio that can be directly determined with a cryogenic current comparator CCC device. This amplifier is already commercially available. Such a device and the tunable barrier electron pumps are very promising to realize the ampere in the framework of the revised SI, particularly for the current amplitude of 1 nA or less.

This approach implements a quantum current standard by directly applying a Josephson voltage to a quantized Hall resistance and demonstrates a new record accuracy of 0. In , Geim and Novoselov at the University of Manchester first isolated a single layer of carbon atoms from pyrolytic graphite [ 18 ]. This extremely simple material, called graphene, possesses a plethora of amazing properties, one of which is an extremely strong QHE [ 37 ]. This discovery led to a surge of activity in the metrological community [ 38 ] for two important reasons.

Firstly, the band structure of graphene is very different from semiconductor systems in which the QHE was originally discovered. The results of the universality test from NPL and LNE demonstrated agreement better than one part in 10 10 [ 39 , 40 ]. Secondly, because the QHE is so strong in graphene it provides an opportunity to realise it at elevated temperatures and much lower magnetic fields. This significantly reduces the infrastructure and complexity of the primary resistance standard and implies that many more laboratories around the world will be able to benefit from it.

Recently, the NPL demonstrated the first prototype table-top cryogen-free quantum Hall system with an accuracy of a few parts per 10 9 [ 41 ]. Josephson arrays for DC voltage calibrations are more or less perfect and no further improvements are required. Instead the community is focusing on developing standards for AC electrical metrology with primary quantum traceability [ 42 ].

There are two types of technologies for realizing this, pulse driven arrays and binary segmented arrays. In Europe, PTB has developed complete and versatile fabrication lines for both types of technology [ 43 , 44 ]. The technology is complex and expensive and research has greatly benefitted from a number of collaborative European projects in this field. As a result, in the not too distant future, commercial AC voltage calibrations with primary quantum traceability will become available [ 45 ].

The electrical kilogram is an extremely difficult experiment which will take many years decades to complete. It is a cross disciplinary experiment drawing on technology from various fields of metrology electrical, mass, dimensional, gravimetry, time and frequency, and materials. Consequently, only a few laboratories in Europe are involved in this activity. For about 16 years the Federal Institute of Metrology METAS and LNE have embarked on the development of Kibble balances and have already published the first Planck constant values in agreement with the existing ones at an uncertainty level of 3 parts per 10 7 [ 46 , 47 ].

Science and technology continuously advances and metrology laboratories need to develop their capabilities in tandem with this to be able to support such new applications. In recent years applications based on fundamental quantum mechanical effects such as superposition and entanglement have gained much interest. These applications range from quantum communications and quantum computing to quantum enabled sensing and metrology see section 4 and appendix B [ 48 , 49 ].

At the moment there is no metrology to support these applications. NMIs with experience in quantum electrical standards are very well placed to work on this type of technology because of their experience in low temperature physics and ultra-sensitive measurement technology. Recently, the first collaborative projects have started in EMPIR to develop new capabilities in quantum technology and to address the need for metrology in this new area.

Due to several successful EMRP projects, mainly carried out by scientists from the field of fundamental metrology, practical quantum standards have been developed which now can be used not just in the everyday routine work of NMIs but are also commercially available and starting to enter industrial calibration labs.

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The development of standards for DC is followed by a similar process for AC standards. Great progress on AC quantum voltage standards has been made figure 2. The main obstacles for the application of quantum Hall devices in LF impedance metrology have been overcome to the end that these devices are able to achieve uncertainties which are lower or at least comparable to those provided by classical techniques [ 50 , 51 ]. Figure 2. AC quantum voltmeter used to calibrate a calibrator, after reference [ 45 ].


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The presence of mixed-signal electronics in LF metrology setups is increasing. The precision of digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital converters in the audio frequency range is nowadays below the part per million level; periodic or on-line calibration [ 52 ] with Josephson sources allow the design of new instruments for primary metrology.

The digital bridge allows fast and automated measurements with a relatively simple architecture. In digitally assisted bridges the accuracy is still guaranteed by an electromagnetic ratio standard an inductive voltage divider, or a current comparator and thus the performances and the limitations fixed set of ratios and frequencies available are similar to traditional transformer bridges. Fully digital bridges are voltage ratio bridges where the ratio accuracy is directly given by the properties of the converters employed: they allow for the measurement of arbitrary impedance ratios; the corresponding accuracy is presently limited to parts per 10 5 , but is expected to improve in the future.

A special case of a fully digital bridge is a Josephson bridge, where two Josephson sources either binary [ 54 ] or pulse driven [ 55 ] constitute the bridge ratio standard. Digital methods also allow for the accurate synthesis of arbitrary impedances [ 56 ]. The EU renewable energy targets have been a significant driver for metrology in the AC power and energy field. Electricity network operators are faced with significant challenges to integrate high penetrations of intermittent renewable generation whilst maintaining the supply quality and reliability.

The term 'smart grid' is often used to describe the new technologies and methodologies that are emerging to manage these future energy systems. NMIs have had close relationships with the electricity utilities over the previous decades and much of the progress in AC power measurements with lab-quality sinewaves at 50 Hz have been driven by the need to support traceability in revenue settlement. As the smart grid revolution has gathered pace, the emphasis on AC power metrology is directed toward applied field measurements in support of technologies and utilities. NMIs such as the Technical Research Institute SP of Sweden and the National Research Council NRC in Canada have pioneered on-site power metrology, responding to the request of their national utilities to provide on-site calibrations of high voltage instrument transformers and the associated metering.

Building on this, EMRP projects have both developed and applied on-site metrology infrastructure to support the development, planning, and operation of power grids [ 59 ]. Instrument transducers are used to transform the high voltages and currents in an electricity system to measurable amplitudes. During on-site calibration the reference transducers must often be connected without the need to dismantle parts of the grid and ideally be connected without interrupting the power. Rogowski coils and openable core current transformers CTs have gained popularity as these are of split design and can be wrapped around existing conductors to measure current.

The calibration of voltage transformers VT for medium voltage grid is often performed on-site, by comparison with inductive standard voltage transformers. Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica INRIM has designed a medium voltage portable cast resin insulated resistive-capacitive divider for on-site calibration. For medium and high voltage power quality measurements the existing instrument transformers are the only possibility because the supply cannot be interrupted and it is unsafe to make a live installation. Even though the ratio and phase displacement errors of these instruments remain unknown, they can still be useful for relative harmonic measurements.

Their frequency response can be estimated based on knowledge about their internal construction, or by calibrating a transformer of identical design in the laboratory. PTB has developed laboratory facilities for frequency response measurement of CT [ 62 ] and INRIM has developed a wideband divider for power quality measurements on medium voltage networks [ 63 ].

Having transformed and digitized the three phase signal, the measurement becomes an algorithm and digital signal processing exercise. As the signals contain harmonics and are non-stationary in amplitude and phase frequency of the mains supply is not a constant 50 Hz , the measurement of signal parameters involves sample windowing which leads to trade-offs in frequency and time resolution in the measurement. Complex power quality parameters such as harmonics, interharmonics, and flicker have become important metrics for network operators. These parameters require complex algorithms over and above the Fourier Transform that is only suitable for stationary signals.

NPL pioneered lab-based power quality PQ measurement for EMC compliance calibrations in the s including several algorithms for the accurate measurement of fluctuating harmonics and flicker. The propagation of measurement uncertainty through these multiple input complex algorithms is in itself a significant challenge and Monte Carlo simulation is the preferred tool to estimate uncertainties in accordance with the GUM [ 65 ]. Wide-area measurements using PMUs have an emerging presence in electricity networks.

These instruments are used as a group, which is time synchronised by GPS. This enables the signal phases across wide areas to be measured. PMUs have many applications on power networks, including for example measurements of oscillating power flow, changes in power frequency, and power system impedance. GPS-synchronised measurements are also being used to determine PQ propagation characteristics to manage the operation of smart grids. Work on dynamic signal measurement non-stationary has involved improved algorithms and associated calibration infrastructure [ 66 ]. New techniques have also been developed for high voltage testing.

Figure 3. Left, HVDC source and its divider; right, multicolour modular divider. The future of AC power metrology is driven by the needs of smart grids and the requirement to measure the efficiency of grid components and devices developed for renewable energy or energy saving. This also includes the support of novel sensor technologies that are being increasingly widely applied in power networks e.

This future implies a continuing shift away from precision lab-based metrology towards fit-for-purpose practical measurements within the metrological framework of traceability and uncertainty. The impact of the technological progress is wide and affects both society and the economy. Electromagnetic signals need to be generated, transmitted, and detected reliably and fast, whilst omitting and controlling unwanted effects related to the exposure to and interference with electromagnetic radiation.

It can be observed that numerical EM field simulations start to play an increasingly important role in the characterization of measurement standards and in the understanding of effects influencing the accuracy of the measurements. Advanced methods to evaluate measurement uncertainties through refined modelling and with the support of adequate software have been introduced. SI traceable measurements of S-parameters have a long history with established but somewhat antiquated procedures that are not easily applied at higher frequencies as for example demonstrated by VSL [ 69 ]. METAS has introduced new and improved traceability schemes which lead to more consistent and reliable results [ 70 , 71 ].

Electronic calibration units promise to replace mechanical measurement standards but are limited in accuracy due to temperature effects, as investigations by PTB and METAS have shown [ 77 ]. The field of EMC covers the testing of emission and immunity requirements of equipment with respect to electromagnetic radiation.

It is an area strongly dominated by normative regulations but nonetheless relies on reliably calibrated test equipment. Using digital signal processing a new time-domain method for conducted emission testing with an oscilloscope has been successfully developed and tested by UME and Universitat Potitecnice de Catalunya UPC [ 78 ]. This constitutes major progress for the EMC analysis of transient disturbances.

Full traceability is established with the characterization of these adapters through EM field simulations. This provides a unique reference for all testing laboratories applying a non-conventional testing method, e. At METAS major progress on the validation of conducted immunity test methods has been achieved through the development of a reference source [ 82 ]. Material characterization is crucial for product development because simulation of new devices requires precise knowledge of material properties such as permittivity, permeability, and conductivity.

Calibrated measurements of permittivity and loss tangent on the nanoscale, i. Such measurement systems combine techniques from dimensional and electrical metrology. The measurements are useful for detecting faults in the fabrication of semiconductors and to enable new nanotechnologies. The investigated thin films are functional thin films and ferroelectric thin films.

This is important for cost saving in manufacturing as simple FR4 substrates are used for increasingly high frequencies. Additionally, ceramics with ultra-high relative permittivity up to have been measured in coaxial cells. Remote sensing techniques using THz frequencies, traditionally being used in scientific applications like radio astronomy, have been commercialized for security applications over the last years. Measurement traceability for sources and detectors is needed to comply with safety limits and future regulations.

PTB has successfully performed traceable measurements of power levels up to 5 THz [ 88 ]. New means for dissemination, including new detectors [ 89 ] and a new portable, commercially available room-temperature radiometer have been developed in cooperation with Sensor und Lasertechnik Neuenhagen SLT. Realistic dosimetry has been investigated with the development of numerical skin models and phantoms as a basis both for the performance and safety evaluation of THz scanning systems [ 91 ].

An example is shown in figure 4. Figure 4. The left side illustrates a multi-layer skin model, which was used to investigate the heating effects of THz radiation as part of the 'THz Security' project. The results on the right are based on numerical simulations performed with a graphics-processing-unit GPU -based boundary element code for electromagnetic and thermal numerical analysis using coupling electromagnetic wave propagation and a bioheat thermal equation. Design and production of electronic high-speed systems often require the exact measurements of continuous wave and pulsed high-frequency signals in the time domain.

The PTB development of a laser-based vector network analyzer [ 92 ] and new asynchronous sampling techniques with femtosecond lasers [ 93 ], developed in cooperation with National Instruments Belgium NIB , constitute major advances in this field. Using high-speed instrumentation for measurements over long time windows often yields time traces with more than 10 4 data points. Newly evolving digital communication systems require the reliable generation, transmission, and detection of digital signals. More specifically measurement methods for signals emitted from long term evolution LTE base stations have been made available by METAS and ETHZ [ ] to reliably determine the power levels of the latest telecommunication standard, which is currently being adopted globally.

This declaration drawn up by the CIPM was originally signed by 40 directors of NMIs and international organizations, and includes NMIs and 4 international organizations as signatories at the present time ; it also includes DIs. The objectives of the CIPM MRA are to establish the degree of equivalence of national measurement standards maintained by NMIs, to provide for mutual recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by NMIs, and to serve as the foundation for wider agreements in trade, commerce, and regulatory affairs.

The CIPM MRA lists the quantities for which calibration and measurement certificates are recognized by institutes participating in the agreement see appendix C. A list of CMCs is maintained for each participating institute. The list is arranged in a database [ 23 ]. At the last count Aug , there were entries backed by matrices for 28 European countries. The set is organized into 12 service categories, which are specified in the 'classification of services in electricity and magnetism' [ ] of the BIPM database.

The service categories are further divided in sub- and sub-sub-categories nearly of them. Such an increasing number of CMCs in EM has created difficulties in the possibility of the general user being able to search, access, and compare the CMC entries. A partial solution was implemented by EURAMET TC-EM in , when it undertook an effort to rationalize the structure of all CMC entries, and reduce the overall number using matrices giving the uncertainty as a function of one or two parameters so that the number of entries is kept to the minimum possible while respecting the chosen classification scheme [ ].

They are focused on CMCs better visibility, constrained proliferations, and improved efficiency of the review process etc but also on governance and comparison issues. At a given time, about 9 comparisons are running concurrently; 2—3 comparisons are completed each year. Figure 5. Pie chart of the completed and 56 ongoing comparisons conducted by the regional organizations and the BIPM up to The scientific, technical, and economic burden of piloting a comparison is considerable, and the duration of the commitment lasts several years. Each CMC entry includes a declaration of the traceability source s for the particular calibration service.

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Figure 6 shows an airline map of the traceability within European countries having declared CMCs in the EM area, providing evidence of a fully developed traceability network. Figure 6. Airline traceability map among the 37 European countries for quantities pertaining to electricity and magnetism in The curved lines illustrate the traceability routes, the thicker end near the country which receives traceability from the country near the thin end, for some EM quantity.

Only nine countries have no CMC in EM and none is 'isolated' that is, they do not receive or provide traceability. The plan covers the period to , with the first call for projects launched in with final calls being scheduled in Figure 7. The metrology innovation chain, after reference [ ]. Indeed, as an extension of research programmes targeted for industry, EMPIR aims to contribute much more in the innovation chain through specific support activities for technology and knowledge transfer from metrology institutes to industrial companies and private market uptake.

This is arranged through annual calls for prenormative research projects, i. The scientific and technical content of the EMPIR programme has been mainly drawn up from the inputs collected by the TCs during roadmapping exercises in Some insights gained in the EM field along the four strategic axes, fundamental scientific metrology, grand challenges, innovation, and prenormative, are described below. These are based on references cited in the text.

References on a more general level can be found in [ — ]. The perspectives in fundamental metrology are envisaged in two directions: efforts to pursue quantum electrical metrology for implementing the revised SI, for continuously improving the various mise en pratique of the electrical units, metrological developments to undertake on the single atom and single molecule level, as support for sciences, and technologies related to atomic-scale devices.

Today's nanotechnology gives access to dimensions in which quantum effects govern the functionality of devices. This development creates opportunities to harness quantum effects for technology and to realize novel paradigms for functionality. Topical examples are quantum computing, quantum communications, quantum sensing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology.

Concomitantly, new quantum phenomena are being discovered at an ever increasing rate, which broadens the basis of quantum technologies. Since innovation relies on reliable and accurate measurements, new quantum-based metrology is required to advance quantum technologies and to exploit the results of fundamental science. Metrology itself should be based on universal standards that are independent of time and space. To this end, the SI base units are to be linked to fundamental constants of nature figure 8. The links are realized by quantum effects, which provide unprecedented accuracy.

In order to further increase the sensitivity and accuracy of measurements, fundamental science will provide strategies to overcome noise limits and to reduce the invasiveness of measurements.

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Figure 8. Revised SI logo for the ampere. In the revised SI, the seven base units outer circle can be realized from the seven defining constants inner circle : the elementary charge, the hyperfine transition frequency of caesium, the speed of light in vacuum, the Planck constant, the luminous efficacy, the Avogadro constant, and the Boltzmann constant. The activity plan in quantum electrical metrology is composed of four targets [ — ]: i practical realization of the new definitions of the SI units according to CIPM recommendations, ii fundamental consistency tests in electrical quantum metrology and determination of fundamental constants, iii simplified 'fit-for-purpose' calibration tools and intrinsically referenced calibration systems tailored to customer needs, and iv metrology for solid-state quantum engineering and quantum enhanced electrical SI standards.

These targets are detailed in appendix B. Driven by very advanced ICT and applications for energy, health, and the environment, the ultimate down scaling of nanoelectronic and nanomagnetics devices will eventually lead to devices and materials having single-atom or single-molecule based functional units. Such ultimate scaling requires the control of the surface and device environment and eventually device assembly on the atomic scale.

The testing of such ultimately scaled functional units in turn requires the measurement of advanced EM properties on the atomic level and thus with highest possible sensitivity. Ultimately routine measurements of single quantum entities of spin, flux, and charge in materials and devices are required. The expected activities cover the development of characterization tools for nano and quantum structures and the implementation of traceable characterization of atomic-scale devices.

At first, this implies accurate technical means for the detection and manipulation of single quantum entities spin, flux, charge, photon and new metrological concepts beyond classical EM measurements. Future metrology tools for nano and quantum structures will also have to take into account the interface of the quantum structures under investigation with their classical environment. This could for example include the back action of the measurement on the measured quantum entity and a possible entanglement of the measured entity and the measurement probe. The question of the traceability of such highly sensitive measurements will have to be tackled.

Here the usual path via reference materials can only be followed once robust atomic-scale assembled reference materials are available. Among the three grand challenges, undoubtedly energy is the most relevant for the electrical metrology community by the very nature of the topic and considering the experience of the past calls within EMRP. This remains true for EMPIR but some key outcomes are also expected in health and environment as shown below. The developments of new technologies for health care and monitoring, and increasing demands for precautionary measures on human exposure to environmental electromagnetic field EMF require underpinning electrical metrology, particularly in the RF to THz frequency range.

The scope of electrical metrology activities focused on health issues can be divided up in two areas: medicine and field exposure. Metrology is expected for the emerging thematic of ambient assisted living AAL and for the development of body-worn medical RF devices and implants. AAL is based on new technologies such as wireless patient monitoring and the detection of a range of human physiological parameters with stand-off detection and requires checking the reliability and coverage of the RF systems.

The development of body-worn RF devices such as body-worn antennas, body-area networks, and personal dosimeters for non-ionising radiation and implants active and passive will involve calibration benches and other facilities for exposure, EMC, safety, and functionality purposes. Metrology is also expected for therapeutic hyperthermia and targeted drug delivery and medical diagnostic techniques radio frequency identification RFID , implant communications, RF imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging MRI based on electromagnetic radiation up to THz for the characterization of magnetic nanoparticles including chemical, morphological, structural, and magnetic properties applied to applications in enhanced MRI imaging, hyperthermia, and targeted drug delivery.

Future metrological needs for the measurement of human exposure to EMFs are expected in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques based on the use of EMFs figure 9. That includes RF exposure for microwave treatment and cancer therapy, magnetic hyperthermia for tumour ablation and magnetic transcranial stimulation, and EMC of medical equipment close-proximity effects.

Field exposure experiments and dosimetry for bioelectromagnetic interaction research from DC to THz are needed at the metrological level for establishing reference numerical models of the human and reliable data sets. These experiments include reliable and traceable measurement of physiological properties such as electrical conductivity or permittivity of tissues in the human body but also density, blood flow, thermal properties etc. This will be helpful for the analysis of human voxel models for EMF simulation.

Figure 9. Top, from left to right, the unperturbed field and the field at 64 MHz and MHz. New developments in electrical metrology over the RF to THz range are being driven by environmental policies monitoring and security , earth observation, air monitoring for pollutant, and the science of climate change. The key applications of the growing field of THz technology include undoubtedly the air monitoring of pollutants and the science of climate change. For example, the chemical radicals in the atmosphere have a very interesting spectral signature and particularly the chemical compounds responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer.

THz spectroscopy is developing rapidly but is still often only under laboratory conditions and presently suffers from lack of reliable measurement techniques and standards in this frequency range where the developed metrological chains in microwave and infrared domains overlap with difficulty.

The need for accurate RF and MW measurements in the 60— GHz region to support earth observation and climate monitoring is becoming increasingly important within Europe, pushing radiometry, noise, and other measurements to their limits as laboratory specifications are required in space and in situ across the globe. Furthermore, multi-parameter distributed measurements for providing environmental monitoring regulatory and security e.

There will be growing requirements to measure security scanners, both the electromagnetic exposure safety limits , and performance analysis comparison of different scanners. EMFs are also seen as being an impact pathway associated with the construction and operation of marine energy generators MEG for which the potential effects on sensitive marine wildlife receptors is not fully understood. The implementation of improved underwater EMF measurements methods will support the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive MSFD [ ] and foresees better knowledge of the impact of the anthropogenic introduction of energy in seas.

Faced by limitations in our carbon-based energy resources and the effect of these resources on our environment, there is an enormous drive in society to make our energy supply and our energy use more sustainable [ ]. Important elements of the resulting energy transition are increased electricity supply via renewable energy sources, more active consumers of energy, and transformation of the electrical grids into smart grids in order to balance energy supply and demand.

In this transition, the continuity and quality of electricity supply must be guaranteed or even further improved given the strong economic and social dependence of our society on our electricity supply. Scarcity of resources furthermore demands efficiency in the whole chain of supply, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy, and strongly stimulates measures leading to energy saving. Sporadic generation from renewables requires consumers to alter their behaviour to utilize available energy and scale-back use when energy is scarce; measurements have an important role to play in future demand management.

Four targets characterize the scope of activities. They are dedicated to i network power quality tools, ii in situ and complex power measurement, iii energy saving and efficiency, and iv improved tools for grid monitoring and control details are given in appendix C. Electrical nanometrology and metrology for the RF to THz frequency range are the two branches of activities envisaged within this innovation strand and which belong both to targeted programs on broader scope of SI and industry.

In this range, electronic, magnetic, and other physical properties of materials and devices significantly differ from bulk material properties. One reason for this is that with decreasing volume the role of interfaces and defects becomes dominant over the crystalline bulk-properties. Furthermore, quantum effects resulting from size or charge quantization become relevant leading to radically different physical properties. Mastering and controlling the device and material properties on the nanoscale is one of the great challenges of nanotechnology.

The reliable and traceable measurement of the electronic and magnetic properties of nanoscale devices and materials is the first prerequisite to enable any future research, development, and application of advanced nanoelectronic and nanomagnetic devices for at least three of the key enabling technologies KET identified by the European Commission nanotechnology including bio applications, micro and nanoelectronics, and advanced materials and considered as a major driver of economic growth in Europe.

Advanced metrology for metallic, magnetic, and semiconducting nanomaterials and nanodevices are the key to underpinning the reliable research and development of advanced high tech products and devices for ICT nanoelectronics, spintronics, sensors , medicine bio-sensors, lab on a chip and energy photovoltaic PV , energy harvesting lead markets [ — ]. Specifically, graphene is a material which has received a lot of interest in the last decade because of its unique range of properties.

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The European Commission has launched a large 1-billion-euro flagship graphene project to realize a European graphene industry over a time span of 10 years. Potential applications range from aerospace to ICT and from energy to healthcare. These applications cannot be realized without the underpinning metrology from the European NMIs. The scope of activities described in appendix D deals firstly with traceable measurement tools and methods allowing for the reliable characterization at the nanoscale of materials and devices used in today's electronics figure 10 and sensor devices, then with characterization tools for beyond CMOS technology.

Figure Scanning microwave microscope for quantitative capacitance and impedance measurements at the nanoscale [ ]. Economic, demographic, and socio-cultural developments in a rapidly changing society drive new and improved ICT for advanced industrial production and quality testing figure 11 , but also for health care and environmental monitoring see 4. This topic undoubtedly requires underpinning electrical metrology in the RF to THz range.

Smart architecture, highly integrated systems, intelligent systems, near and far field communication, virtualization, multimedia applications, decentralized automation, and peer to peer collaboration are some of the buzzwords related to actual and future technical implementations. The common trend in all these developments is the increasing complexity of the systems and the increasing rates of data exchange [ ]. Metrological support is needed to assure the reliability, safety, and efficiency of the technologies and to cover higher frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Metrological support is even imperative to enhance the competitiveness of the European industry in the RF to THz sector and to lead the European economy into a bright future. Differential S parameters for planar circuits [ ]. Activities will focus first on the multi-parameter characterization of a range of RF systems, then on metrology to be implemented for large-scale fully automated complex RF systems see details in appendix E. The large energy sector as well as the high-frequency domain for communication systems, EMC testing and the field of nano-electronics involve prenormative activities.

Given the importance of a reliable electricity supply there is an enormous number of written standards available and still under development in the area of power and energy measurements and smart grids.