But no single writer before Marcion felt the need to bolster the authority of his own presentation of the Christian tradition by citing these words in the same fashion as they often cited the OT. His major problem was, not how to repudiate the OT, but how to make headway against a universal Christian tradition that refused to accept his heterodox view of Jesus.
From Paul he extracted a homogenized gospel and then trimmed his Bible to fit it, thus discarding all the tensions, contrasts and contradictions that make the full Christian tradition rich enough for later development. Marcion was in a way the first Reformer who appealed from the living preaching of the Church to an exclusively written norm of belief. The survey includes books on archaeology, the NT text and Qumran.
Coppens et al. The list covers the field from general works to Gnosticism and includes both books and articles. The bulletin describes the French ecumenical Bible which is being prepared, compares some recent synopses and discusses two books on the Gospels. While these articles are very important, the staff of NT A cannot at present take on this additional labor.
The present issue lists the titles of NT articles from the following books of this class. Berning et al. The Dynamism of Biblical Tradition. Jesus of Nazareth: Saviour and Lord. Joest et al. Lagrange and Biblical Renewal [cf. Marxsen et al. Studia Patristic a, Vol. To understand the historicity of the Gospels we must study their prehistory, i. History as we live it is prior to history as we write it. Thus it is really not possible, as O. On the other hand, neither is it necessary to accept R.
The historian works on two related levels: the one an external, intellectual analytic thought about thought; the other an internal level of lived existential models which is experience about experience. The necessary tool is empathy, and empathy is possible on the assumption that there is an inner uniformity of experience that unites the modern interpreter with the persons and periods of the past. The article examines the biblical basis for the teaching that Mary in a unique way reflects the love and the mercy of God.
A comparison of a Stoic philosopher and the Gospels discloses widely differing anthropological presuppositions that bear upon this question. Marcus Aurelius The Communings with Himself 11, 3, 2. The use of similar terms only reveals the essential difference of meaning. Hamartema is only error that may be corrected through better insight. Thus, tapeinosis, approved by the NT Mt f. The basic message of the NT is supernatural despite Bultmann, J.
Robinson, P. Jesus The relevance of the Dead Sea Scrolls for knowledge of the life of Jesus has been overdrawn, for Jesus was not an ascetic recluse. These are the words which in the Gospel according to the Hebrews the Spirit addresses to Jesus at his baptism. The text raises the question of the relevance of Christology in our day.
Instead, he sees the kerygma as offering us the chance of an existential decision or a new self-understanding. The writings of T. Manson and E. Stauffer were interesting but not entirely convincing refutations of an easy Bultmannian historical skepticism. More satisfying are the recent books by H. Riesenfeld and B. Gerhardsson which narrow the gap between Jesus and the Christ of the kerygma. Thus at least some of the material in our Gospels gives authentic information about Jesus and his preaching.
Craveri, La vita di Gesu [cf. There is an absolute lack of basic exegetical principles. The Christianity resulting from it is a Christianity pleasing everybody, even unbelievers. The Christ of Craveri is neither the Christ of faith nor the Christ of history. The absolute term Messiah is hardly ever used at this time. The word Messiah does not occur frequently in Qumran. In IQS 9 and other texts, a priestly figure appears beside a royal one of lesser importance. As in the Psalms of Solomon, the emphasis is on the renewal of the future life of Israel, not on exact circumstances.
Qumran sources perhaps emphasize more the warrior king than the spiritual leader of the Davidic Messiah. However, the difference in the use of the figures between 1 Enoch and the Psalms of Solomon does not necessarily support a difference in metaphysical concepts. From the Tannaim before A. The appeal of Kantian idealism and opposition to Roman Catholic theology have caused Protestant ethics to discredit the concept of reward.
Consequently, 2 even when reward is mentioned, only grace can be meant. Mt 20 means neither a gratia cooperans, as some Roman Catholic commentators suppose, nor a greater accomplishment by the short-time workers cf. Rather, it is what God says is good, vis.
By espousing not a sacred people nor religion but the world, the Son of God obliterated the very foundation of a distinction between the sacred and the profane. The history of critical study of the Gospels is briefly described from its beginnings in the rationalism of the eighteenth century, through the liberalism of the nineteenth, the form-criticism of the earlier part of this century, to the recent reaction to R.
Bultmann on the part of those who seek to establish the continuity between the Christ of the kerygma and the historical person. Praised with reservations. Several items need further evaluation, e. The empty tomb tradition, therefore, played an important role in the early Christian creedal formulas. All the Evangelists mention the empty tomb, even when allowing a certain freedom in the chronology of the apparitions.
His Palestinian narrative had to be overlaid with secondary layers in the other accounts in order to make the Easter events comprehensible for audiences of different geographical and ethnic backgrounds. The words ophthe kamoi may refer to a mystical experience. There is no reason to believe that the apostles constructed their kerygma of the apparitions from the accounts of the community. They themselves were privileged witnesses. In answer to the problem why the Synoptic tradition is absent in Paul, W. For Paul, the decisive factor was the appearance of the resurrected Lord; hence his almost complete lack of interest in biographical detail.
In 2 Cor and 1 Thes we have words of the resurrected Lord. Rather we have here the echo of another current Christology found useful in combatting error at Corinth. Gnosticism encouraged the popularity of the Gospels. Between the Synoptists and Paul stands the Fourth Evangelist. Like the Synoptists he uses miracles, but as signs, not proofs, of a glory hidden to all except believers.
Hanson, Jesus Christ in the Old Testament [cf. Reserved praise. The earliest tradition clearly maintains that Jesus was crucified outside the city. Yet Melito in his homily on the Pasch 71, 94 states emphatically that Jesus was killed in the midst of Jerusalem. The explanation seems to be that the forum of Aelia Capitolina embraced the site of Calvary which had by then been leveled, and the surrounding area with its tombs, which had been filled in.
Higgins, Jesus and the Son of Man [cf. NT A 10, pp. They have explained the nature and composition of the Gospels, the circumstances in which they were written, the kind of people who wrote and read and are depicted in them. Consequently the individual Christian should recognize his obligation to do his part in remedying the prevalent social ills, and the Church must stand ready to make its specific contribution to the welfare of mankind.
For the death-of-God theology, represented in very different ways by T. Altizer and W. Hamilton, God and humanity, the sacred and the profane, have become incommensurable realities. It has become impossible for both these authors to recognize the coherence of these realities in Jesus of Nazareth. One of their challenges is whether it is possible to render plausible for our time the identity of the human figure of Jesus, not only as that of the man for other men, but also that of the man for God, i. Bonhoeffer has shown that Christ is present as he takes form among men today, when they are conformed to the authentic human existence as embodied in his life for other men and before God.
However, by ignoring the historical question of the identity of Christ with Jesus, he has not shown that Christ is not an abstraction. On the other hand, G. As a means of shedding light upon the difficult doctrine that Jesus Christ was true God and true man, a theory is proposed which is developed from the insights of modern psychology. The Quaestiones et Responsiones ad orthodoxos, written in the first half of the fifth century, mentions in Question 65 79 some persons who then held that the paradosis or deliverance of Jesus took place on Wednesday.
Matthew understands the whole OT age as the age of prophecy; this age came to its fulfillment in Jesus the Messiah. Likewise Matthew does not establish successive periods of time in relating his own age of the Church to that of the historical Jesus: the time of Jesus includes the pre-Easter lifetime of Jesus and the age of the post-resurrection Church. The views of G. Strecker, who considers that Matthew had the same view of time as H.
Conzelmann finds in Luke, are incorrect. Ladd, Jesus and the Kingdom. The Eschatology of Biblical Realism [cf. The myth wants to be true in the sense of granting an origin from out of which the world can be experienced and understood, not in the sense of providing knowledge which can be experienced or verified. Unlike a Christology such as that of Chalcedon, a myth—whether or not it is Christian—does not require a conceptual-rational penetration and thus does not stumble against the failure of language which Chalcedon tried to overcome by means of an absolute-paradoxical formulation.
However, the validity of the affirmation of the paradoxical divinity-humanity of Christ in Chalcedon, became apparent in the quest for the historical Jesus in which the elimination of the divinity of Christ through its objectification as a myth went hand in hand with a collapsing of his humanity as the ground of faith because it too became subject to an objectification process, i.
In this form, the problem of the objectivizing misunderstanding of the Christ- proclamation is something modern, but not the objectivizing misunderstanding as such. This view has been strongly criticized, mainly in the German-speaking world, and the arguments against it are examined here. Seven principles underlying the attack are enumerated, and the varying tendencies of recent works are discussed, especially those of P.
Vielhauer, H. Todt, A. Higgins and E. These reflect no new consensus about the place of the Son of Man in the teaching of Jesus. A critical survey of the latter problem involves the following steps. McIntyre, The Shape of Christology [cf. Berkhof, Christ the Meaning of History. Pannenberg, Grundziige der Christologie [cf. The views of R. Bultmann, P. Barth on the relation of the resurrection to history are presented and found wanting.
The answer must be sought in the NT itself which shows that the resurrection was a historical reality but a miracle which remains from the beginning to the end within the circle of faith. Such proof is impossible because of the peculiar nature of the event itself; it is historical and yet at the same time transcending history into a new reality, the reality of the new life with God.
Yet the resurrection is a proof inasmuch as the Christian has grounds for his faith. The Passover commemorates the night preceding creation, the night when God revealed himself to Abraham and Sarah, the night when he revealed himself against the Egyptians at the Red Sea, and lastly the eschatological or Messianic night.
All these Jewish themes are taken up by NT writers to illustrate the Christian paschal mystery. Recent studies by theologians and exegetes have significantly modified the classical Anselmian theory concerning the redemption. The results of these studies are summarized and here further developed. A survey of critical studies of the past 40 years suggests that while the Gospels contain much that is unhistorical, they furnish enough reliable material, especially in the Synoptics, to form a general portrait of Jesus.
Some elements of that portrait will be unacceptable, e. The interpretation of the resurrection given by K in a talk to pastors is summarized and found to be inconclusive. Disagrees on some points. Translation unsatisfactory. The volume is in many respects a major contribution to the problem of the Son of Man in the Synoptic Gospels.
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Vanhengel and J. Previous explanations of these names are unsatisfying. By slight textual emendation these epithets become Ben Satana and Ben Pandora. The first, son of Satan, is clear enough in its meaning. The second, referring to the mythological Pandora, describes Jesus as loosing a set of ills on the world. Jesus of History, cf. Synoptics r. Bea, The Study of the Synoptic Gospels. Bultmann, The History of the Synoptic Tradition [cf. Available translations for German works have not been listed. The practice, common in different confessions and in many parts of the world, of using the Synoptic Gospels for teaching catechesis is problematic.
The custom has not only pedagogical but even theological disadvantages. Here the Synoptics are presented as narratives embodying historical events with biographical intent. A catechesis which attempts to harmonize the various accounts will create the impression that divine revelation is a purely historical phenomenon. A more sophisticated catechetical presentation is needed which will show the influence of the kerygma upon the pericopes and which will analyze the literary forms.
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Nature de la Foi dans le Nouveau Testament. Modern theology needs a true and convincing image of Jesus as the merciful and courageous friend of sinners, and this image is more camouflaged than clarified by the hypothesis that Mk was the first written Gospel. The Synoptics present the following concept of conversion. For Luke, conversion is a moral attitude of man. Synoptics, cf. Much of the confusion concerning the eschatology of the Gospels arises from a question of method.
To resolve that question various factors are considered, e. The findings are then used to interpret the eschatological texts of Mt. Mt contains three examples ; ; and in part of a performance or execution formula used frequently in the OT. The full formula consists of three parts: 1 reaction to the preceding situation, 2 statement of execution, 3 details of execution. Thus Mt states 1 Joseph rose from sleep; 2 he did as the angel commanded; 3 he took his wife; he did not know her; he called his name Jesus. This passage corresponds closely in form to Job ; see also Exod Exod is unique since it contains a negative response.
His omission of dikaios kai sozon autos from the passage in Zech throws the accent on Jesus as praus. He fulfills all righteousness, and the disciples also are to be obedient cf. Mt Some scholars doubt that Ignatius quoted from written sources. This article asks whether sometimes one can suspect even a slight allusion.
On the other hand, if Ignatius regularly prefers a source other than Mt, his acquaintance with the first Gospel is unlikely. But dependence is proved if he never agrees with a source against the Gospel. A table of parallel texts in Ignatius and the Synoptic Gospels and a detailed analysis of 13 cases are then given. This evidence does not suggest that Ignatius is quoting Mt.
But the development of the usage of the expression in Hebrew and other languages is not quite clear. It is said that the wisdom literature of the Near East offers no parallel expression. As a matter of fact, however, the expression in a variety of forms recurs in the Egyptian sepulchral texts and in the wisdom literature.
A number of instances are presented in which the divine blessing is clearly asserted, and an effort is made to determine the extent of correspondence between the biblical and the Egyptian blessings or beatitudes. Which is the original formula? The problem is discussed against the background of rabbinic, primitive Christian and OT writings.
To be perfect means to observe the Law not merely externally but also interiorly.
The Lukan form seems to be the more original and the more theological; it insists on one of the basic attributes commonly attributed to God by rabbinic literature and the rest of the Gospels. Unfortunately capital letters are not pronounced. At any rate, explanations of the Our Father will always be required. Similar negative and positive maxims of quite varied forms occur outside the Gospels. The maxim in the Gospels has a positive form, and both Mt and Lk place it within the framework of a discourse. After the Golden Rule Mt Matthew introduces with oun the section which concludes the entire Sermon on the Mount, but he also connects with the Law and the Prophets : the words of Jesus bring the Law to its term, and he demands obedience to the will of God of which the love of the neighbor becomes the center cf.
In Lk, the maxim is applied to a concrete situation, that of the Christian in a hostile environment who must imitate and make known the mercy of the Father. The traditional interpretation of the passage as a vow is correct. The term qdnam did not make the money an offering, but merely prohibited the use as if it were an offering. If Mt mentions the cursing of the parents, the vow formula itself has not the meaning of a curse. Presents a commentary in some depth on the two Scripture readings in the Roman Catholic nuptial Mass Mt ; Eph Isaksson, Marriage and Ministry in the Nezv Temple.
A Study with Special Reference to Mt. There is a weakness in the discussion of the Essene views of marriage and divorce. The passage is here compared with 1 the text of the canonical Gospels, 2 the MS tradition of the Gospels, and 3 attestations in early Christian literature. Though most ancient texts which cite the passage Justin, Marcion, Clem. An examination of the relationship between H. As to the origin of the passage, A. According to normative Jewish practice he did not differentiate between ethical and ritual commandments but treated them as a unity. Some have seen in Mt the idea of a future conversion of Israel, but one must note that this logion is combined with the lamentation over Jerusalem.
Mt, unlike Lk, records that Jesus left the Temple and prophesied its destruction. This action of Jesus seems to be an almost material fulfillment of the judgment. Examining vv. Mt then is an express challenge to the conversion of Israel by which the punishment threatened in vv. He repeatedly speaks of his imminent death, and his offering, whose meaning is clarified by the accompanying words, clearly proclaims the nature of the mysterious sacrifice which the death on Calvary is to have for the salvation of the world.
At the Last Supper Jesus offers his Body and Blood in a new sacrificial rite which is concluded with a new banquet. Thus he inaugurates the new liturgy of the eschatological period. Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus [cf. But the rest of the book is more impressive than ever. Some reservations. Seven differences between the present edition and the English edition of are enumerated. A form-critical analysis of the Gospel of Peter reveals two stories which are compared with similar passages in Mt and Mk—an account of the women at the tomb which rests upon a Vorlage that antedates Mk, and a story of the guard at the tomb which tells of witnesses to the removal of Jesus from the tomb.
In the context of the resurrection the passage presents several emphases— Christology, the Church and its mission, the Church and its life in the Lord. These emphases are brought into perspective, and their significance for the life of the Church is pointed out in the light of NT interpretation. IV, Matthew, cf. Mark r. Best, The Temptation and the Passion : [cf. According to Papias, A. Loisy and R. Bultmann, there is no order or plan in Mk. Some modern authors have attempted to show that it has a geographical framework; others that it has a theological plan. The writer sets forth a geo- graphico-theological plan of his own.
What are the limits of the introduction to Mk and what is its connection with the purpose of the work? The arguments which attempt to defend the consensus that the introduction consists of Mk —those of R. Light- foot, J. Robinson, W. Grundmann, U. Mauser and E. Schweizer—are not compelling and do not exclude the possibility that the introduction extends to v. Though he has not drawn correct conclusions, W. For reasons of its internal unity, seen primarily in the use of euaggelion, the section must be regarded as the introduction.
The following pericope, , is shown to be a true beginning of the gospel in which the call to discipleship is both structurally and theologically decisive. In the intent of Mark, this is a call to suffering, which is the key to the meaning of chap. The introduction serves to relate Jesus to the OT via John and to identify him as Son of God whose authority is expressed in healing, controversy, preaching and especially in the authoritative call to follow.
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Hellenistic confusion of eis and en is found with certainty only in Mk and most likely in Mk b, In all other cases eis can be understood as used according to classical standards. Luke, who includes the passage , adds the observation that Jesus spent his time in the desert praying; in Lk, Jesus at prayer and conflict with authority are closely associated ; , 28; ; Methodologically, passages introducing the misunderstanding of the disciples should first be separated from those on silence and then analyzed in relation to the latter.
It is historically reliable. The death of John is treated as prefiguring the death of Christ. Its overshadowing Exod indicates that God wants to dwell among us, which the voice from heaven makes clear. Jesus is declared eklektos of God. He had lived among us already through Moses and Elijah who were witnesses to his interventions here on earth. Suddenly the voice interrupts the silence about the Son of God, a fact which will finally lead to his death after he has declared himself Son of God.
Israel was bidden to listen to Yahweh Deut Now let them give ear to his Son. The apostles are charged not to tell anybody before the resurrection. Mk Thus he is above Elijah and the prophets. He reveals his intentions to dwell among us. Elijah intervenes as forerunner, and Moses as author of the Law. Three major themes appear in 1 the question of attitude toward the poor, 2 the fate of the principal character, 3 the expectation of ultimate triumph. Since the poor sufferer of other psalms 21, 34, 68, , all LXX is clearly associated with Jesus, it is probable that the tradition has made a similar association in the case of Ps Ps 40 promises a special blessing to the one who remembers the poor and pronounces a curse on the enemy.
The woman receives a verdict of approval and Judas a pronouncement of woe. Lk f. The disciples did abandon Jesus in his suffering, a fact which motivated the tradition that Jesus had previously foretold their falling away. In brief, Mk , is a natural development from Mk The Lukan and Matthean accounts depend directly upon Mk and represent no independent tradition.
Luke Dual witness may be seen, e. This pattern of dual witness could explain why the Evangelist erroneously names Annas as high priest Lk The second literary pattern, the Sabbath motif, recalls that God created the world in six days and rested on the seventh. Several other instances of the Sabbath motif are studied. Seven Lukan pericopes begin with a special notice that what followed took place on the Sabbath Lk , 31; , 6; ; and b. The only thing that Luke could hope was that the Jews acknowledged that the Holy Spirit was sent to the nations also.
He did not exclude Israel from salvation and on the whole tried to include in the Messianic kingdom as many as possible from Israel and the nations. His attitude accounts for different emphases especially in his parables; the anti-Judaistic framework of Mt is notably mitigated in Lk.
Questions concerning literary form and historicity Did an angel appear? Did Mary take a vow of virginity? A lexical study of the LXX usage of hyperephanos and its cognates seeks to determine the meaning of the word in the Magnificat. A table pp. The basic idea in the background of hyperephanos in the Magnificat is arrogance as self-exaltation, the opposite of which cf. That God alone is rightfully the Powerful One remains obscure to the supposedly powerful hyperephanos.
The literary structure of the canticle is centered on the parallelism of the covenant and the oath in , which is based on such OT texts as Gen and ; Ps ; Ps , The rest of the canticle forms a pattern of concentric symmetry with key words repeated or paralleled in inverse order in each half. Awareness of this structure helps provide a better understanding of the canticle itself. Tertullian, 2 Clement , the Apology of Athenagoras and other sources testify to this virtue in the Church as decisive for the 2nd-century Christian. In Lk 6, three points are made: 1 The Christian must be positive and patient in the face of hatred.
The ancient world felt that man can do good for his fellows without hoping for personal gain, but in most cases kindness was shown with the hope of some return. Jesus says that one should not invite anyone to dinner in order to receive an invitation from him. The quid-pro-quo morality of the ancient world is the occasion of this saying. Luke emphasized the concrete and active character of love in everyday life, precisely against the commonly accepted Greek principle of reciprocity. He sharply criticizes Greek moral principles and clothes the words of Jesus in Greek garments to point out clearly to the Greek reader the nub of the moral issue.
A brief exegesis of the passage. A consideration of the parable according to patristic exegesis with some slight modifications. Contrary to N. Watson [cf. Six reasons are given why the incident of the disciples walking to Emmaus should not be regarded as a mere piece of symbolism. Lk , cf. John r. Brown, The Gospel According to John i-xii [cf. On the other hand, he is of two minds on the validity of using chronological and geographical sequence to determine whether and where editorial displacement has occurred, and to clarify the Gospel he draws on the total Johannine tradition as if it were a unity like Luke-Acts.
B follows the recent tendency to value the Gospel more highly as a historical source and to emphasize the Palestinian against the Gnostic background. On two interpretations the reviewer disagrees with B. Secondly, Gen ; hardly furnish background for the pre-incarnation existence of the Word Jn The format of the book is particularly useful for teachers of Jn. In the translation and commentary B takes a moderately restrained position on the symbolism of the Gospel, occasionally eliminating possible symbolic references.
The article develops two points: first, the close relationship between the conditional or qualified Ego eimi in both Jn and the Synoptics, and the absolute Ego eimi in Jn; second, the Synoptic parallels to the Johannine expressions. Development of the first of these points also contains a critique of the work of E.
Schweizer and of H. In the Johannine passages the obvious supposition is that we need the divine gifts of nourishment, light, etc. The conclusion helps unify both parts of the study. C omentario a una obra de F. Faith is the response to revelation, a principle brought out nowhere more clearly than in Jn. A comparison of Mk and Jn helps to illustrate Jn s distinctive viewpoint. In Mk, Jesus seems to reveal himself and yet to remain hidden, a combination which suggested the theory of the Messianic secret.
On the other hand, in Jn we find Jesus revealing himself to friend and foe, and this manifestation was sufficiently clear for all to recognize him. Yet at times Jesus did not speak with complete clarity cf. Jn ; Jn clarifies the relation of faith to revelation. The Son gives all revelation which is a part of the process of salvation. Faith is an attitude which implies a living relation to a person.
Smith, Jr. An evaluation of eight books on Jn. Der Prolog: Jo 1, II. This content is Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Word. One can reject the light v. In vv. Jesus although he came after the Baptist stands above him. He is the real light as revealer and savior. The world was made through him, and therefore should be ready to receive him, but in fact rejects him. Although the OT knew of the Word, the Incarnation brings its revelation to a climax.
The real subject of the Prologue is not the revelation of the Logos who at last has received form in the person of Jesus. Rather the reverse is true: the Logos, who was in the beginning with God and was himself God, is discussed under the point of view of that which has happened in Jesus and has been seen and heard in him. The principal idea unfolds itself in three concentric circles. Only in vv. Seen in this fashion, the Prologue exhibits a closed, impressive unity of thought which can be described in terms of an ellipse with two foci. These two foci are marked by the Logos concept, first with the opening as the Word which was in the beginning with God, and then again in v.
Out of these two foci the whole content of the kerygma is qualified as light-bringing, life-creating, separation-making, fullness of grace and truth. The exegesis of the passage summarizes the views of recent scholars, especially of R. Schnackenburg, J. Blank, A. While fish are also part of the miracle no symbolic interpretation of fish is given in chapter vi: they are mentioned incidentally. The bread is compared to the manna given Israel by Moses. Jesus is the bread of life. He is the bread men are to eat to obtain eternal life.
This is eucharistic symbolism and connects with chapter vi but broadens the symbolism to include fish. Jn 6 is based upon a preliterary or a literary tradition, but Jn reworks the material theologically, and the miracle becomes a sign of Christological and soteriological revelation. When writing on the ground, Jesus, who at other times used the Apocrypha, may have chosen a particularly appropriate text from Susanna v. The writer in a previous note [cf. The editor dates the document in the first half of the first century A. Because the normal word for God in the MS is 3 el, van der Woude believes that 1 eldhim there refers to Melchizedek and the angels of God who support him.
The editor suggests that Melchizedek is so named because he was then identified with the archangel Michael. The name Lazarus occurs in the NT only in Jn 11 and Lk , and these two passages suggest that both Luke and John knew a preaching theme current in the primitive Christian community. We need not consider John bc a redactional gloss as Bultmann does.
Furthermore, vv. On the other hand, v. The parabolic character of the passage is here defended, and some new elements are brought forth which shed light on the whole problem. It is to be remarked that the whole passage is embedded in a context which announces the impending disappearance of Christ to be followed by his resurrection and exaltation. However, certain allegorical applications are altogether inadmissible. Thus Loisy identifies the woman of Jn with the woman of Apoc 12, i. A similar interpretation is proposed by B. Suffering is the way to joy. As the disciples are those who must suffer at their separation from Christ and the mother she who suffers at the birth of the child, it follows that the apostles are those who make Christ visible to the world as the woman brings her child into the world.
But that the apostles have brought forth Christ as a woman brings forth her child is an idea foreign to NT Christology, and the woman of is woman in general, not an allegorical person. It is therefore in the light of the first pages of Gen that the whole passage of Jn must be interpreted.
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Acts of the Apostles Luke presents in the opening chapters of Acts. That Luke paralleled the deeds of Peter with those of Paul has been observed by several scholars. Six miracles of Peter and six miracles of Paul are so arranged as to form three chiasmi. Liturgical texts e. This sense of guilt was used by Christians in their apologetics. The term moschopoiein occurs only in Christian writings and seems to heighten the shame the Jews would feel at the remembrance of the worshipping of the golden calf.
The word is more in line with the vigorous argumentation of Justin. It seems, then, that the term is the work of a later redactor. A commentary is given on an inscription of Astypalea I.
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It is a case of an appeal to the emperor which endangers the statute concerning liberae civitates and their citizens. Tarsus was a libera civitas cf. Acts , and Paul appealed to the emperor Acts ; Papyrus Oxyrhynchus IV A. There is, then, some possibility that Paul, who certainly employed a secretary for many of his letters, could have enjoyed the services of an amanuensis who could take dictation in shorthand and could fill out by himself the details of a Pauline message. Quintilian himself warns of similar disadvantages in the employment of a secretary for important correspondence.
The one-sided interpretations of U. Wilckens [cf. Klein [cf. Wilckens thinks that the meaning of Abraham is that in his lineage a human continuity is given to salvation-history, whereas Klein regards Abraham as the ever valid paradigm for faith. In Rom 4 and 9—11, the Gentiles can become the seed of Abraham only because many of the Jews rejected the gospel.
In Gal, all those who believe as Abraham did are real children of Abraham. Moreover, the Law has different roles: in Rom, it is the bearer of salvation; in Gal, it comprehends all in sinfulness. The keeping of the promise by God should not be regarded as his faithfulness to the Covenant or as a source of continuous renewal for the people against C. The content of the promise is in Gal the effusion of the Spirit, in Rom a historical fulfillment.
It is interesting that according to 2 Cor to be of the seed of Abraham is considered a mark of legitimate apostolic authority against D. A Study of Justification and Election in St. Morton and J. McLeman, Paul, the Man and the Myth. A Study in the Authorship of Greek Prose [cf. While the authors claim precision for their methodology, e. The Jewish ideal of man was the just man who was to imitate the just God.
God is just because he is true to himself, and his actions conform with his divine being. This goal of being a just man the Jews tried to reach by finding the harmony between visible and invisible, study and labor, present and past tradition and progress. The origin of evil is not creation, as for a Platonist, but sin. The body is not the prison of the soul; rather, body and soul are one unity and thus good. The union of man and woman is even a knowledge Gen For a rabbi, the study of the Torah had to be combined with a handicraft.
What happened in the past was a prototype for the present. Then, and only then, this new justice can be unfolded by observing the law of Christ. For a Christian it is possible to observe it, for he not only has the law, but also the power whereby to observe it, the Holy Spirit. Schmithals, Paul and James [cf. The work, while probing and suggestive, has serious weaknesses. Second, it is inherently improbable that there was from the very beginning of the Church a Gentile mission freed from the Law.
The handling of the Peter-Paul dispute in Antioch is unsatisfactory also. His book may prove to be an important landmark on the way towards an acceptable history of Christian beginnings. Paul planned to visit Spain, and early Roman tradition accepted by the Fathers bears witness that he did so. Stuhlmacher, Gerechtigkeit Gottes bei Paulus [cf.
Neither H. The author shows this through an interpretation of 1 Cor In opposition of this Gnostic view stands the apocalyptic design which summons man to an alertly critical expectation of the coming of God. Furthermore, unlike the Gnostic Word which is concealed from the world but already understandable to the mind, the Word of God remains a promise-bearing mystery for the apocalypticist himself. The creative power of this Word will become manifest only at the expiration of the times.
The connecting link in this interpretation is found in 2 Cor f. A study is first made of 1 Thes , the key text which gives the essential elements of conversion. Next are considered the origin of conversion, its essential nature as a transition or repentance, then its necessity. But it is not always noted that the same teaching occurs in earlier Epistles—though less explicitly—and is always connected with the resurrection of Christ.
During this life the just have an inchoate participation in the paschal mystery, a death with Christ and new life with him. Full participation in the resurrection of Christ will come only with the general resurrection. Romans r. Bruce, The Epistle of Paul to the Romans. An Introduction and Commentary [cf. Paul never interpreted the death of Jesus as being in any sense an expiatory sacrifice. This is shown first in Rom , a text whose difficulties are not solved by the Bultmann-Kasemann hypothesis of a pre-Pauline formula. Death is to be understood only in connection with sin, and sin is exposed by the Law.
A sacrificial victim who is raised again would be a farce. Rom is the heart of Pauline theology. The passage is structured around vv. He has adapted it to set forth his own gospel about the righteousness of God. The answer to the last objection forms the transition to chap. Thus Paul has constructed Rom around the formula, working up to it in vv.
The way in which Paul works his characteristic emphases of sola fide and sola gratia into the formula shows that he regarded the righteousness of God as a universal eschatological act which includes in its scope not only Israel but all men. This righteousness is for all men a salvation-bringing power which comes- through the proclamation of the gospel and becomes a possibility for the hearer through faith cf.
Rom This suggests for us today in preaching and doing theology: 1 the value of traditional formulas and creeds, and also 2 the need to reshape them for our world. It seems that there is a traditional fragment behind Rom Further, it appears that this fragment was interpolated into Rom at some date later than Paul, probably toward the end of the first century C. The evidence for this is of four types. Alszeghy and M. The problem of original sin is a lively issue today. Paul affirms Rom that the sin of one man harmed all members of the human race.
Abraham, e. The theology of original sin is then studied in its various aspects, and a hypothesis is proposed which satisfies all the requirements of Catholic teaching and at the same time agrees with the theory of evolution. The statement that original sin cannot be reconciled with the polygenetic origin of mankind occurs less frequently than formerly in Catholic writings. Such discoveries do not touch the essential core of the dogma, namely that we believe that all men need redemption by Christ and that this need is derived from a sin that introduced evil into a world that God created good.
In fact, Greek authors were generally reluctant to repeat compounds, and Paul may have been sensitive to this element of style, writing to agathoergo alia to kako instead of to agathoergo alia to kakourgo. Perhaps Acts contains still another example, but not in the usual wording. Hurd, Jr. F questions whether the Corinthian correspondence was written to Gentile Christians.
An examination of Acts 18 suggests that the missionary teaching was performed by Jewish Christians and given to Jews and proselytes. Light is also cast on Corinthian worship by seeing this in the framework of Diaspora Jewish worship. There are several references to Jewish feasts in the Corinthian correspondence, but besides this prophets and women play an important role.
Corinthian worship is akin to that which we find among the Essenes and the Therapeutae. The role of women can be paralleled by references in the Diaspora to women as archisynagogoi, matres synagogae and by Talmudic references to women reading the Torah and teaching in public. Doctrinal problems in the Corinthian community, especially those concerning marriage, appear to be purely Jewish problems. F concludes by concurring with H. There are difficulties when one is translating from one language into another of a different family.
An example is the inclusive we including the addressees , or the exclusive we excluding the addressees. Klinkert, W. Shellabear and W. Bode are studied 1 Cor ; ; ; ; 2 Cor , ; ; —; A comparison of the different ways in which hemeis has been translated shows how a translator is often obliged to come to an exegetical decision because of certain features in the receptor language which are absent in the source language.
The example of zve is only one feature out of many. Translators in cognate languages should consult one another, and other translators can either follow an indigenous prestige language or seek help from scholars or from Bible Societies. An exegetical study of 1 Cor The apostolic proclamation of the cross is closely associated through the present participle in v.
Jewish teachers are linked with Greek leaders in thought under a common verdict of worldly wisdom. Dia in v. Drawing upon rabbinic reflections about the early part of Gen, Paul explains to them that the old order of things is not yet abrogated. For the correct interpretation of the pericope it is important to emphasize its connection with the mention of traditions The seal recalls the marks put upon slaves to show they were the property of their masters and under their protection.
As a parallel to the idea of circumcision, the seal implied belonging to a covenant, here the New Covenant. Probably Paul also thought of Ezek and the mark upon the forehead of those who were to be spared in the eschatological slaughter. The apostle speaks of the pledge of the Spirit. A pledge points to the future, the full price of which the pledge is only part, and this full price is inheritance, possession and redemption cf. Eph The final salvation is the complete development of what the Christian germinally possesses in baptism. Zum Problem des Alten Testaments in 2.
It is not concerned with the problem of OT hermeneutics. He refers to the ministry of Moses as a type of that of his opponents. On the contrary, the reality of the latter is indispensable as the basis for his reasoning a minore ad mams to prove, not how much more, but how much rather the ministry of the Spirit which remained, was in glory.
G alatians—Pastorals But the very fact that the correctness of the chronology implied in Gal 1—2 is necessary for the over-all argument should cause the interpreter to proceed with caution. In 1 Cor , 3, Paul argues that he did receive his gospel from men. In Gal f. In 1 Cor he is combating those who reject the tradition, whereas in Gal it is precisely the acceptance of tradition which is the problem.
Thus, writing to the Galatians, Paul argues that his gospel is transmitted apart from tradition. He has it directly from the Lord. What is historical and relevant to both the Corinthians and Galatians is, not how Paul received the gospel, but his understanding of it as bringing both freedom and responsibility. We must conclude that Paul occasionally forces certain events in his past life to support a theological position. In each particular text we must ask: What is Paul really trying to accomplish in this situation?
Is there an alternate meaning of the word euangelistds in Eph ? Could not they be the Evangelists who wrote the Gospels? This meaning finds support in W. The Gospels were, in their formative stages, used as a manual for catechists, to instruct believers and unbelievers. The mystery Eph is the saving love of the Father for all men revealed in the person and the saving action of Christ. This by his death has become the peace and salvation of all men called to be incorporated in his Body which is the Church.
The following points are then discussed: the mention of Christ, the lordship of Christ over his Church, the Savior of his Body, the incorporation in the Church, a profound mystery. A final section on conjugal morality and the status of women in Christian marriage concludes the whole study. Paul, who wrote one letter to all the churches of Galatia, would hardly have written two letters dealing with a similar situation to neighboring churches of Colossae and Laodicea.
Assuming that he was detained for some unknown reason, we may suppose that Epaphras, who meets all the other requirements, was the author of the letter to Laodicea. Although the apocryphal Epistle to the Laodiceans exists in a great number of Greek and Latin MSS, its Hebrew text is not easily accessible to scholars.
A MS recently acquired by St. The Pauline use of paradosis is most frequent in 1 and 2 Thes. His emphasis on the value of paradosis is found in his strict order to hold aloof from brethren who are not in accord with the tradition received from him. This tradition has two aspects: typos and paraggelia. Olten: Walter. Freiburg: Herder. Kleriker: Psychogramm eines Ideals. Milomaki — oder: Vom Geist der Musik. Open heavens: Meditations for Advent and Christmas German: Maryknoll: Orbis.
Reden gegen den Krieg. Giordano Bruno — oder: Der Spiegel des Unendlichen. New York: Crossroad. Discovering the God child within: A spiritual psychology of the infancy of Jesus German: Dying we live: Meditations for Lent and Easter German: a. Ich lasse Dich nicht, Du segnest mich denn: Predigten zum 1. Buch Moses. Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main. Jesus von Nazareth: Befreiung zum Frieden. Zurich: Walter. Munich: Piper. Munich: Pendo. Zurich: Pendo. Das Johannesevangelium 2 Vols. Die zehn Gebote. Das Lukasevangelium 3 Vols. Die Apostelgeschichte.