Many academics conclude this passage implies incest. The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. His ashes rose into the sky and then his heart followed, becoming the morning star see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli.
Return Of The Dragon Lord Quetzalcoatl
You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you. You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth.
Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente "Motolinia" saw elements of Christianity in the precolumbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica had been evangelized before, possibly by St. Thomas whom legend had it had "gone to preach beyond the Ganges". Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with St. Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long-awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom. Historian Matthew Restall concludes that:.
Return of the Dragon Lord Quetzalcoatl by Omar M Sayyah | | Booktopia
Restall Nicholson and John Pohl There is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in the colonial period. However, this legend likely has a foundation in events that took place immediately prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily.
Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan Mexico City.
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The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques Colonial indigenous rulers gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day.
Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ , but believe His name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. According to the Book of Mormon , the resurrected Christ descended from heaven and visited the people of the American continent, shortly after his resurrection. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine. The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being.
But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner , after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore.
Over time, Quetzalcoatl's appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. Quetzalcoatl was fictionalized in the film Q as a monster that terrorizes New York City. In Tony Shearer published a book called Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life , inspiring New Age followers to visit Chichen Itza at the summer solstice when dragon-shaped shadows are cast by the Kulkulcan pyramid. Beginning during the crisis at Standing Rock in , in parallel with the phrase "Mni Wiconi" "Water is Life" , support from Mexican, Mexican-American, and Mexican indigenous populations included use of the phrase in Spanish "Agua es Vida".
Frequently pictured with this phrase was either Tlaloc or Quetzalcoatl as a serpent, or at times both. Quetzalcoatl being the teotl of life, and Tlaloc being the teotl of rain and sustenance, they are often paired with each other dating back to Pre-Columbian times, and this practice continues today, as was seen in support of the Standing Rock Lakota and in other contemporary struggles for water rights. It is only since the colonial period that Quetzalcoatl and the rest of the Nahua pantheon are understood as "gods".
Traditionally speaking, he belongs to what are known collectively as the teteoh plural form of " teotl ", a Nahuatl word of ambiguous meaning. Teotl itself is an abstract notion referring to energy or power. The teteoh are not understood to wield power as gods do, but rather to be manifestations of the energy that surrounds and composes all things.
Quetzalcoatl is one of the primary teteoh, as are all of the Four Tezcatlipocas, as well as their parents Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a Mesoamerican deity.
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- Return Of The Dragon Lord Quetzalcoatl?
For the giant pterosaur, see Quetzalcoatlus. For other uses, see Quetzalcoatl disambiguation. Main article: Feathered Serpent deity. Daily Life of the Aztecs. Retrieved 17 May The Yucatan Times. Archived from the original on 12 September Retrieved 11 September Santa Fe, New Mexico. Book 1, Ch. The Aztecs.
Acta Botanica Mexicana. Retrieved 4 September Bierlein, Living Myths.
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The Aztecs 2nd Ed. University of Chicago Press. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 22 October The Huffington Post. Boone, Elizabeth Hill Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. Burkhart, Louise M. New cultural studies series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Carrasco, David Florescano, Enrique The Myth of Quetzalcoatl. Lysa Hochroth trans. Gardner, Brant In the iconography of the classic period Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld.
The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites.
Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent"; it has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epi-classic and early post-classic periods. In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico, the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous.
The most important center was Cholula where the world's largest pyramid was dedicated to his worship. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic.
Quetzalcoatl was associated with the windgod Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire.
Historian Enrique Florescano also analysing Teotihuacan iconography shows that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season.
To both Teotihuacan and Mayan cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare. While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Mayan Young Maize god was also connected to Venus.
In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures.
To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile much like a dragon , who was a boundary-maker and transgressor between earth and sky. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god.
Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui".
Return Of The Dragon Lord Quetzalcoatl
In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl was tied to the year Ce Acatl One Reed , which correlates to the year The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream.
In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl swallowing an emerald. A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow bolted by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. In one version, it is said that he proceed to the Gulf of Mexico and there burned his body.
After which, he was reborn as the planet Venus. The more common ending is different. It has been suggested that the Spanish used this ending to aid in their conquering of the Aztecs. It said that the Quetzalcoatl left, promising his most loyal that he would return. He left on a raft that was supported by snakes. With this, he headed East. It is believed that the second version was used by the Spanish because there are many depictions of the god becoming Venus, but slim to none of them depict him on a raft.
This creature was an amphiptere, meaning the creature only had two wings and no other limbs. Also, this creature possessed multicolored scales and feathers.