Volume 32 , Issue 3. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Hydrological Processes Volume 32, Issue 3. Angelo Forestieri Corresponding Author E-mail address: forestieri.
Leonardo V. Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Increasing precipitation extremes are one of the possible consequences of a warmer climate.
Citing Literature. Volume 32 , Issue 3 30 January Pages This article also appears in: Hydrological processes in urban environments: Updates in urbanization, naturalization and climate change. Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Federici e G. Balbi alle Indie Orientali , Rome, This text also offers extensive information on the Safavid Empire G.
Minadoi, Historia della guerra fra Turchi, et Persiani, descritta in quattro libri da Gio. Hartwell, London, He reached Tabriz in In , he again traveled through Persia on his way to India, where he was joined by his brother Girolamo. They returned separately to Italy, Girolamo in and Giovan Battista, who had been a prisoner of the Turks in Tunis, in VIII, 11, , pp.
The important information given by this traveler has been published only in part. While his Viaggi , travels, have been variously edited, his Diari needs further extensive research see Piemontese, , vol. I, nos. Invernizzi, E. Lesopo, and F. Pennacchietti, Alessandria, For this period one must also mention the Relatione of Gian Francesco Sagredo, Venetian consul in Syria from to , who gives an account of the Safavid Empire Donazzolo, , pp.
The late Safavid period.
Cima di Cece
Ambrosius a S. Teresia, Bio-bibliographia ordinis carmelitarum discalceatorum , Rome, ; H. He left Italy in and traveled through Persia to India, where he arrived in His long travel account was translated into Italian from the original Latin and contains several chapters on the Persian Empire, the role played by the Portuguese, and the customs and manners of the Persians Viaggi orientali del Reverendissimo P. Filippo della SS. The Carmelites played an important role in the spread of knowledge of Persia in this period. Other travel accounts include those of Father Giuseppe di S. Giuseppe di S.
Caterina d. Vincenzo Maria di S. The 17th century closes with some travel accounts of special importance because of their interest in archeology. In he left Persia via Hormuz for India. This magistrate of the kingdom of Naples returned in after a long journey, in which he also visited India and China.
He visited Persepolis and traveled along the southern coast of Iran before his departure for India in His travel account achieved particular success during the 18th century G. Gemelli Carreri, Giro del mondo del Dottor D. Francesco Gemelli Carreri. Another non-religious traveler was the Venetian noble Ambrogio Bembo , who was in Persia in and remained there for four months. In Isfahan Bembo met Chardin and the illustrator G. Grelot J. Morelli, Dissertazione attorno ad alcuni viaggiatori eruditi veneziani poco noti , Venice, ; A.
Studies on Iran in the Safavid Period , ed. Newman, Leiden, , pp. At the end of the 17th century, the Carmelite Fulgenzio di S. During the first half of the 18th century, Florio Beneveni was sent by Tsar Peter I to Bukhara; from there he sent several letters published in in a Russian translation Poslannik Petra I na Vostoke. Volovnikova, Moscow, ; see C. Calmard, ed. In the 18th century another Carmelite, Leandro di S. Cecilia Giovanni Augusto Cottalorda , left a series of travel writings.
Italy iv. TRAVEL ACCOUNTS
Marazzi and A. The Qajar period. At the beginning of the 18th century Italian men of letters began to show a certain interest in Persia. Studi Orientalistici offerti nel suo sessantesimo compleanno , Rome, , pp. An important travel account was written by the professional traveler Gaetano Osculati , who was with Felice De Vecchi in Iran in Osculati , Milan, Bandini, Pietro, Un viaggio nella Persia e nelle Indie Orientali intrapreso dal chiarissimo signore Gaetano Osculati negli anni e , Udine, The first attempt to conclude a treaty was made in by Romualdo Tecco, a Sardinian minister in Constantinople, who had a good knowledge of Persian and was clearly interested in Persian matters G.
This ambassador met the plenipotentiary minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, S.
The details of this diplomatic mission were recorded by the naturalist Filippo De Filippi , who took part in it together with other scientists Michele Lessona, Giacomo Doria, Camillo Ferrati. An important album of photographs also records this embassy F. In the Lombard patriot Modesto Gavazzi , together with P. Litta and F. Meazza, undertook an adventurous journey to Bukhara in search of silkworms.
Gavazzi was taken prisoner by the local khan and left a vivid account of his year in detention there Gavazzi, I prigionieri italiani a Bocara. Lettera di Modesto Gavazzi al comm. During the same period, A. Relazione di un viaggio Naples, In Captain Enrico Andreini from Lucca went to Persia, where he worked as an instructor in the Qajar army in which he served until Andreini wrote a series of reports to the Italian Foreign Ministery that were rightly considered an invaluable source on Qajar history.
There are reports, about having been lost, which give details not only on the army but also on the economy, commerce, and administrative structure of the Iranian state in this period A. Another Italian instructor of the Qajar Army was Antenore Perini , who was sent by the Austrians on a diplomatic and military mission to Persia from to Le memorie di Antenore Perini , ed. The 20th century.
The end of the Qajar period and the constitutional period produced a certain interest in Italy and occasioned further travels by Italians to Persia. Such interest is shown by the reports of the various ambassadors, especially between and , including those of Camillo Romano Avezzana ambassador from to , Giulio Cesare Montagna and Carlo Arrivabene Valenti Polvara, P. Polvara, A. Desio, A. Prosperi, L. Impressioni e riflessioni. Iran antico.
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The participation of a large group of Italians in the construction of the Trans-Iranian Railway resulted in various Italian reports, such as that written by P. Such writings were paralleled by a new political and cultural stance taken during the period of fascism.
This involved also a revival of the classical and medieval glories of the East. Iran Meridionale e Belucistan. During this period the more traditional travelers also continued to travel to Iran. Other travelers were influenced by the strong ideological background of the time A. Cipolla, Asia Centrale Sovietica contro India. Viaggio in Turchestan ed Afghanistan , Milan, ; see also idem, Sino al limite segreto del mondo.
This interest was paralleled by the anthropological approach to Persia of travelers such as G. The revolution of and the emergence in Iran of the new Islamic Republic resulted in a particular interest in the country on the part of journalists.
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Filippo Bertotti, using the nickname Filippo Rumi, has written several articles in the newspaper Il Manifesto. More recently, the role of several Italians involved in Afghanistan as volunteers was evidenced by books in which they described their experiences. A representative example is the Storie da Kabul , Turin, by Alberto Cairo, who worked as a physical therapist in the orthopedic centers of the Red Cross in Afghanistan.
Alberi, Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al Senato durante il sec. Amat di S. I, Biografia dei viaggiatori colla bibliografia delle loro opere , Rome, ; Appendice , Rome Mollat, ed. Berchet, La repubblica di Venezia e la Persia , Turin, Bernardini et al.
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Un orientale in Occidente ai tempi di Marco Polo , Turin, Gabriel, Marco Polo in Persien , Vienna, Giovanni Colonna di San Vito viaggiatore in Oriente c. Mostra dei navigatori veneti del Quattrocento e del Cinquecento. Aigle, ed. Bernardini, ed. Pertusi, ed. Athens, Gennadios Library, no. Lanciotti, Venice, , pp. Woods, The Aqquyunlu. Dissertazioni del P. Placido Zurla con appendice sulle antiche mappe idrografiche lavorate in Venezia , Venice, There is ample evidence of an Italian presence in Persia throughout the Qajar period, when many Italians went to work there as physicians, military advisors, or merchants.
They left little written testimony of their Persian experience until the second half of the 19th century, when the number of Italians who went to Persia increased, and with them the bulk of recorded data. The most salient aspect of the accounts written by Italians who lived in Persia between and the turn of the century is that almost all of them had official assignments.
In fact, most of the Italian material published are the reports of military officials who were in Persia to train the Persian army, of natural scientists researching the zoological world, or of financial advisors to the Persian government.
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The first Italian travelers who left significant accounts of their visits to Qajar Persia were the members of the mission, which included diplomats, scientists and military officers. The greatest contributions in terms of scientific articles and general information about Persia were brought by Filippo de Filippi q. He also became very interested in the Bahai religion, so much so that he wrote a book on it I Babi.
More substantial and responsible are the accounts by two other officers, Alessandro de Bianchi and Enrico Andreini. De Bianchi was a captain of the Italian army, who served in the Ottoman armed forces in the s and came into contact with the Persians who lived on the borders between the Ottoman and the Qajar domains.
De Bianchi presented himself as an expert on Muslim manners and languages p. Muslim women were another interesting topic for de Bianchi, who reflected on their ways and manners among the Turks, Armenians, Kurds and Persians.