Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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This adaptation of project work, called project practice, engaged toddlers in developmentally appropriate activities that involved exploration, representation, and the search for understanding. Eton is a private, coed, multicultural, bilingual Spanish and English institution for children ages 2 to 18 prekindergarten to grade We would receive comments from teachers that ranged from it being a wonderful experience to it being frustrating and not very meaningful for the children.

It was the teachers of the 2-year-olds who repeatedly expressed their concern and discomfort with project work. We felt puzzled that teachers of older children found project work so engaging for themselves and the children, while the teachers of our very young children did not. At first we thought that the latter lacked knowledge about the Project Approach, its framework, and its features. We decided to give them further training and to work in closer collaboration with them.

It was after we spent time in their classrooms, observing and accompanying them in the development of several projects, that we were able to determine the cause for their feelings. We could see that we needed to work with 2-year-old children in a different way than we were working with our older children. It was then that we began looking for ways of adapting features of the Project Approach to the needs and interests of our youngest learners.

Our first step was to work at becoming more proficient listeners and better observers of young children to improve our understanding of how these young learners explore their environment and build their knowledge about things that are close to them. We spent long periods of time watching how they interacted with different provocations, how they explored materials, and how they made sense of the world. We became more aware of nonverbal cues, and we attained a better understanding of their interests than we had previously.

After several periods of discussing our observations with teachers, we decided to experiment with and analyze specific features of each phase of the Project Approach as a separate entity before taking on a full project. This process, which we call project practice , introduces toddlers to specific elements of project work to help prepare them for participating in formal projects when they are older.

We think of projects that involve sensory exploration, taking advantage of their interest in the colors of things around them, their fascination with water, or their perceptions of their bodies. For example, from the broad topic of plants, one teacher might choose to study trees, while another teacher might decide to study flowering plants. But because the vocabularies and the experience of toddlers with the world around them are so limited, it is very difficult for them to share stories about their previous knowledge related to a topic.

There is always a clear intent behind a provocation. On a sunny day, we filled up different large colored tubs with water and set them out on the playground. We invited the children to explore and then sat back and watched. All of the children started exploring without needing directions. Older children will be able to tell personal stories through discussions, drawings, or models. Toddlers will more likely express their previous knowledge through interactions with objects, through dramatic play, by voicing comments through short phrases, or by reproducing sounds.

Usually, teachers plan several provocations in relation to the topic before they can determine whether the investigation will be worthwhile.

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During the second phase of a project, children try to find answers to their questions. Older children may be able to get information from primary and secondary sources; however, toddlers get most of their information through direct exploration that involves their senses. Based on their analysis, they decide on which experiences to provide next. These experiences will be different for practically every child, because at this age they are still primarily focused on their own individual interests.

Teachers may decide to plan new experiences or to revisit a previous one. One of the ways that children find information is by going on field visits. For the toddlers in our school, these take place within the campus. The topics that teachers select lend themselves to firsthand exploration in the context of our school. Teachers may conduct a field visit to the bathroom or arrange a trip to water the plants in the playground.

Figure 3. Gathering information and taking notes on a field visit to the bathroom. During field visits, the class is divided into small groups, and visits are conducted at different times. Each small group is accompanied by two adults, one to lead the visit and one to document the experience. Children usually record field experiences that catch their attention. These include the handling of a clipboard and the ability to connect what they are looking at with what they are attempting to record.

Class discussions with the children follow the field visit, but teachers of toddlers need to be especially attentive during the visit to identify things that children were drawn to. Notes and photographs taken by the teacher are helpful to analyze the experiences that took place. It is worthwhile to mention that class discussions at this age usually consist of open-ended questions by the teacher. Some children can answer these questions, even offering additional comments; other children simply listen because they lack the language skills needed to hold conversations. For older children in Phase 2 of a project, the story of the project unfolds in their representations of their new understandings after they have conducted research.

For toddlers, the process of representation takes on a whole new meaning. These youngsters need ample time to simply explore materials and tools, such as clay, paint, paintbrushes, glue, and pencils, before learning representational strategies. We help the children practice skills that will lead them into being able to show their understanding in different ways.

Some of the representational skills that teachers practice with toddlers include 1 observational drawing and painting, 2 making models, 3 collages, 4 block building, and 5 dramatic play. Observational Drawing and Painting. At first, youngsters are basically testing materials, tools, and their own skills; or they might be representing a movement, a sensation, or a sound. Figures First decision: November 20, Article in press: December 5, Specialty type: Pediatrics.

Country of origin: United Kingdom. Peer-review report classification. Grade A Excellent : A, A. Grade B Very good : 0. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. World J Clin Pediatr. Published online Feb 8. Michael O Ogundele. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Author contributions: Ogundele MO conceived the idea, collected and analysed the data and prepared the manuscript.

Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental autism disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems.

Keywords: Childhood behavioural disorders, Disruptive behaviour disorder, Conduct disorder, Challenging behaviour, Emotional disorder, Anxiety, Depression, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorders. Table 1 Subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on DSM Open in a separate window. ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Table 2 DSM-5 definition of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Also, the criteria are not met for disruptive mood dysregulation disorder ICD It also requires the presence of three symptoms from the list of 15 above , and duration of at least 6 mo.

There are four divisions of conduct disorder: Socialised conduct disorder, unsocialised conduct disorder, conduct disorders confined to the family context and oppositional defiant disorder Specify current severity: Mild; moderate or severe based on number of settings with symptoms shown. Emotional problems Emotional problems in later childhood include panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder GAD , separation anxiety, social phobia, specific phobias, OCD and depression.

Autistic spectrum and pervasive development disorder The definition of Autism has evolved over the years and has been broadened over time. Table 3 DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorders. Table 4 Summary of common social communication enhancement strategies. Method Description Ref. Table 5 Summary of common behavioural modification strategies for management of childhood emotional and behavioural disorder.

ABA Uses principles of learning theory to bring about meaningful and positive change in behaviour, to help individuals build a variety of skills e. PBS can be used to support children and adults with autism and problem behaviours [ ] Self-management Uses interventions to help individuals learn to independently regulate, monitor and record their behaviours in a variety of contexts, and reward themselves for using appropriate behaviours. It can be used with individuals regardless of cognitive level or expressive communication abilities [ 40 ] Incidental teaching Utilizes naturally occurring teaching opportunities to reinforce desirable communication behaviour [ ] Anger management Various strategies can be used to teach children how to recognise the signs of their growing frustration and learn a range of coping skills designed to defuse their anger and aggressive behaviour, teach them alternative ways to express anger, including relaxation techniques and stress management skills.

Social pragmatic communication disorder Social pragmatic communication disorder SCD is a new diagnosis included under Communication Disorders in the Neurodevelopmental Disorders section of the DSM-5[ 12 ]. Table 6 DSM-5 criteria for social pragmatic communication disorder. Persistent difficulties in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication as manifested by all of the following Deficits in using communication for social purposes, such as greeting and sharing information, in a manner that is appropriate for social context Impairment in the ability to change communication to match context or the needs of the listener, such as speaking differently in a classroom than on a playground, talking differently to a child than to an adult, and avoiding use of overly formal language Difficulties following rules for conversation and storytelling, such as taking turns in conversation, rephrasing when misunderstood, and knowing how to use verbal and nonverbal signals to regulate interaction Difficulties understanding what is not explicitly stated e.

Table 7 Summary of common risk factors for development of childhood emotional and behavioural disorder. Domain Characteristic examples Ref. Parental skills training Any challenging behaviour from CYP is likely to elicit persistent negative reactions from many parents, using ineffective controlling strategies and a decrease in positive responses[ ]. Differentiated educational strategies Research has focused on identifying alternative educational strategies that can be used to improve learning opportunities for children presenting with challenging behaviours from various causes.

Child-focused psychological interventions Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT is one of the most widely used non-pharmacologic treatments for individuals with emotional disorders, especially depression, and with individuals with behavioural problems including ASD[ ]. Behavioural modification and social communication enhancement strategies Behavioural interventions and techniques are designed to reduce problem behaviours and teach functional alternative strategies using the basic principles of behaviour change.

Table 8 Major classes of medications used in management of childhood emotional and behavioural disorders. Avoid alcohol. Footnotes Conflict-of-interest statement: The author declares no conflict of interest for this article. References 1. Parry TS. Assessment of developmental learning and behavioural problems in children and young people.

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Med J Aust. Disruptive behavior in preschool children: distinguishing normal misbehavior from markers of current and later childhood conduct disorder. J Pediatr. Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in early childhood: implications for developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Assessment of behavioral and emotional problems in infancy: a systematic review.

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. El-Radhi AS. Management of common behaviour and mental health problems. Br J Nurs. Gardner F, Shaw DS. Behavioral Problems of Infancy and Preschool Children 0—5. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with asthma: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. Exploring the association between childhood and adolescent obesity and depression: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. Kolko DJ, Perrin E. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. In: Pediatric Primary Care; Emerson E.

Cambridge University Press; Challenging Behaviour: Analysis and intervention in people with learning disabilities.

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National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NICE Challenging behaviour and learning disabilities: Prevention and interventions for people with learning disabilities whose behaviour challenges. Langridge D. Health and Challenging Behaviour information sheet. The Challenging Behaviour Foundation. Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors. Reebye P. Aggression during early years - infancy and preschool.


Can Child Adolesc Psychiatr Rev. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. Early externalizing behavior problems: toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Dev Psychopathol. Health Technol Assess. Suppl 2. Conduct Disorder. Lifetime prevalence, correlates, and persistence of oppositional defiant disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

Bradley MC, Mandell D. Oppositional defiant disorder: a systematic review of evidence of intervention effectiveness. J Exp Criminol. Burden of anxiety disorders in pediatric medical settings: prevalence, phenomenology, and a research agenda. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. The Depressed Child. Stringaris A. Irritability in children and adolescents: a challenge for DSM Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Autism and related disorders. Handb Clin Neurol.

Am J Psychiatry. How will DSM-5 affect autism diagnosis? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior. J Sch Psychol. The role of augmentative and alternative communication for children with autism: current status and future trends. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. Diagnostic differentiation of autism spectrum disorders and pragmatic language impairment. Early pragmatic language difficulties in siblings of children with autism: implications for DSM-5 social communication disorder?

Rapin I. Historical data. In Rapin I Ed Vol. Clinics in Developmental Medicine. Cambridge University Press, New York; Norbury CF. Practitioner review: Social pragmatic communication disorder conceptualization, evidence and clinical implications. The Social Communication Intervention Project: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of speech and language therapy for school-age children who have pragmatic and social communication problems with or without autism spectrum disorder.

Int J Lang Commun Disord. Pathological demand avoidance syndrome: a necessary distinction within the pervasive developmental disorders. Arch Dis Child. Pathological demand avoidance: exploring the behavioural profile. Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain NY: Palgrave Macmillan; Prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of DSM-5 proposed disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.

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Intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and psychopathology: the role of antenatal depression. Psychol Med. Perinatal problems and psychiatric comorbidity among children with ADHD. Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Multiple determinants of externalizing behavior in 5-year-olds: a longitudinal model.

J Abnorm Child Psychol. Longitudinal pathways to competence and psychological adjustment among African American children living in rural single-parent households. Child Dev. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the home and mental health in children: a population-based study. Tob Control. London: RCP; McLoyd V. Based on 57th Annual Nebraska Symposium on motivation. Springer; New York; In: Motivation and health. Infant malnutrition predicts conduct problems in adolescents. Nutr Neurosci. An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annu Rev Psychol.

Psychosocial resources and the SES-health relationship. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Does early childhood callous-unemotional behavior uniquely predict behavior problems or callous-unemotional behavior in late childhood? Dev Psychol. A truly early starter model of antisocial behavior revisited.

Follow-up of a preschool epidemiological sample: cross-age continuities and predictions of later adjustment with internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior. An ecological risk model for early childhood anxiety: the importance of early child symptoms and temperament. Preschool irritability: longitudinal associations with psychiatric disorders at age 6 and parental psychopathology. The prevalence of at-risk development in children 30 to 60 months old presenting with disruptive behaviors.

Clin Pediatr Phila ; 52 — Childhood conduct problems are associated with increased partnership and parenting difficulties in adulthood. A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. Am Psychol. Revisiting data related to the age of onset and developmental course of female conduct problems.

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Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children. Neuroimage Clin. Neuroanatomy of childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Aggress Behav. Tempo Foundation aims at inspiring, encouraging and developing innovations in Bulgarian education. Implementing SOLE in Bulgarian schools is an excellent example of how innovative educational methods can work even in public school system in Bulgaria. Yolanda is a technology teacher at San Jose de Monterrico School.

She discovered her vocation for teaching as a student, when she was teaching technology classes at a primary school. View Location Profile. There are many ways to get involved with School in the Cloud, from running your own SOLE to becoming a Granny or carrying out research with us. A useful guide to how to run your own SOLE. Our toolkit is free to use and adapt to your own environment through Creative Commons licence. School in the Cloud is learning at the edge of chaos; a place to come together to discover and explore self-organised learning SOLE.

Children love questions with no easy answer. Author - School in the Cloud. Location: Hyderabad. Most trainee doctors are driven by a desire to help others, but for Shahrukh Khan, his motivation is also deeply personal. He was just six-years-old when his father died of a heart attack in India. Many years later, when he had only just begun his degree studies in the Philippines, he lost his mother in the same way. It was at this point that Shahrukh decided to become a surgeon or cardiologist. It has been a long and complicated road to reach the point he is at today — just two years away from becoming a qualified doctor.

When he was just years-old, he met someone who, although neither of them knew it at the time, would change his life. Eight years on, she can still recall their first meeting. Suneeta was laughing like a drain but I went ahead with it anyway — they seemed quite happy! He made the most of any opportunity to be part of this early self organised learning environment SOLE to improve his English and general knowledge skills.

Shahrukh in the Philippines today. You must be logged in to post a comment. Location: Goa. What is the chemistry behind delicious food? What knowledge of chemistry can chefs use to improve the taste of food? Before they had only themselves and the teacher but now we have thousands of years of knowledge easily accessible through the Internet.

From his experience, it can take several months to fully integrate SOLE as both students and teachers get used to a new way of learning. Location: UK. Unlike my generation, today our children are surrounded by constant online connectivity and like many parents I worry about the detrimental effects of continual access to the internet.

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One barrier is that from an early age we,. But recently there has been a slight shift towards a more enriching use. There is a constant email stream between the two of them and to my delight Arthur can now be regularly found searching through the NASA and ESA websites looking for answers to questions posed by his grandad, relishing when he teaches his grandad something new.

Education Parents. Location: Isle of Man. For the past few years they have been working towards letting the children own their learning,. For the past few years they have been working towards letting the children own their learning, embracing new technologies and pedagogical approaches. Being on the Isle of Man which is located in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland — pictured below means educators enjoy more freedom to experiment than most: they have their own government, no OFSTED inspections, and can create their own curriculum.

Helen was first introduced to SOLE three years ago when one of the IT staff returned from a conference where Sugata Mitra was speaking and suggested they try it out. One of her challenges was the amount of high level needs pupils she had in her class, with dyslexia and autism especially prevalent among the students. Location: New Jersey. Up until then I was a believer like everyone else that you tell children to do things, they practice, learn it and move on. Later that year he started experimenting a little in class to see what the kids could do on their own.

He ran the SOLE on the Friday of a long weekend and on the following Tuesday, he pulled the kids aside for s to see what they remembered. The concept had stuck for almost all of them. For example, one girl had found a video online that showed the difference between surprise and irony which made it clear to her. When Sugata Mitra first muted the idea of the School in the Cloud, his dream was a place where children could go on intellectual adventures together. In one rural village, about one and a half hours away from the nearest town, people go to do a SOLE in the school at least once a week, without any guidance.

Author - editor. As children encounter the internet for the first time, will they be able to use it to transform their futures? The film is released in October It was there that Arun first encountered the Internet as a year-old, placed in a hole in a wall by Professor Sugata Mitra as part of his early experiments into self organized learning. Now Arun is taking part in Skype sessions at the School in the Cloud lab at Phaltan, Maharashtra, just an hour from where his parents grew up. His first session — switching often between his native language Marathi and English — was with a small group talking about all the different birds and trees found around the school.

I used to copy it down and go back to ask my father what it meant. Arun, unlike many of his peers, was in a privileged position as he had educated adults around him who helped to foster his love of learning.