Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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In the meantime, aircraft performance had improved tremendously; compared to World War I versions, modern bombers could fly about twice as fast, at over twice the altitude, with much greater bomb loads. They flew fast enough that the time between detecting them and the bombers reaching their targets left little time to launch interceptors to shoot them down. Antiaircraft guns were similarly affected by the altitudes at which they flew, which required extremely large and heavy guns to attack them, which limited the number available to the point of being rendered impotent.

At night, or with limited visibility, these problems were compounded. The widespread conclusion was that " the bomber will always get through ", and the Royal Air Force invested almost all of their efforts in developing a night bomber force, with the Central Flying School responsible for one of the most important developments in the period by introducing " blind flying " training. One of the Is configured for night operations, fitted with tracer and explosive. Nevertheless, some new technologies appeared to offer potential ways to improve night-fighting capability. During the s, considerable development of infrared detectors occurred among all of the major forces, but in practice, these proved almost unusable.


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The only such system to see any sort of widespread operational use was the Spanner Anlage system used on the Dornier Do 17 Z night fighters of the Luftwaffe. These were often also fitted with a large IR searchlight to improve the amount of light being returned. Immediately prior to the opening of the war, radar was introduced operationally for the first time. Initially, these systems were unwieldy, and development of IR systems continued. Realizing that radar was a far more practical solution to the problem, Robert Watson-Watt handed the task of developing a radar suitable for aircraft use to 'Taffy' Bowen in the mids.

In September , he gave a working demonstration of the concept when a test aircraft was able to detect three Home Fleet capital ships in the North Sea in bad weather. The promising implications of the test were not lost on planners, who reorganized radar efforts and gave them increased priority. This led to efforts to develop an operational unit for airborne interception AI.

The size of these early AI radars required a large aircraft to lift them, and their complex controls required a multiperson crew to operate them. This naturally led to the use of light bombers as the preferred platform for airborne radars, and in May , the first experimental flight took place, on a Fairey Battle. The war opened on 1 September , and by this time, the RAF were well advanced with plans to build a radar — then called 'RDF' in Britain — equipped night-fighter fleet.

The Airborne Interception Mk. II radar AI Mk. II was well on its way to becoming operational, and the Bristol Blenheim was increasingly available for fitting. The first operational system went into service in November , long before the opening of major British operations.


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  • Several improved versions followed, and by the time the Blitz opened in , the AI Mk. IV was available and offered greatly improved performance with a range between 20, and feet. This greatly reduced the load on the Chain Home ground-controlled interception component of the night-fighter system, who only had to get the fighter within four miles before the fighter's radar would be able to let them take over during the attack.

    Due to the relatively low performance of the Blenheim a converted bomber the British experimented with using RDF-equipped Douglas Havoc bombers converted to carry a searchlight, illuminating the enemy aircraft for accompanying Hurricane single-engine fighters to shoot down. Known as the Turbinlite , the idea was not a success, and in time, both the Blenheim and the Turbinlite were replaced, first by night fighter versions of the Beaufighter and then by the even higher-performing de Havilland Mosquito , which would later accompany the bomber stream on raids over Germany. In this role, support was provided by No.

    It served with and Squadrons briefly and unsuccessfully before being sent to India to Squadron, with which it served till the end of German efforts at this point were years behind the British. Unlike Britain, where the major targets lay only a few minutes' flight time from the coast, Germany was protected by large tracts of neutral territory that gave them long times to deal with intruding bombers.

    What's the best book or manual on unsupported small unit tactics?

    Instead of airborne radar, they relied on ground-based systems; the targets would first be picked up by radar assigned to a "cell", the radar would then direct a searchlight to "paint" the target, allowing the fighters to attack them without on-board aids. The searchlights were later supplanted with short-range radars that tracked both the fighters and bombers, allowing ground operators to direct the fighters to their targets.

    By July , this system was well developed as the Kammhuber Line , and proved able to deal with the small raids by isolated bombers the RAF was carrying out at the time. At the urging of R. Jones , the RAF changed their raid tactics to gather all of their bombers into a single " stream ". This meant that the ground-based portion of the system was overwhelmed ; with only one or two searchlights or radars available per "cell", the system was able to handle perhaps six interceptions per hour.

    By flying all of the bombers over a cell in a short period, the vast majority of the bombers flew right over them without ever having been plotted, let alone attacked.

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    This late date, and slow introduction, combined with the capture of a Ju 88R-1 night fighter equipped with it in April when flown to RAF Dyce , Scotland, by a defecting Luftwaffe crew, allowed British radio engineers to develop jamming equipment to counter it. A race developed with the Germans attempting to introduce new sets and the British attempting to jam them. The Luftwaffe also experimented with single-engined aircraft in the night-fighter role, which they referred to as Wilde Sau wild boar. In this case, the fighters, typically Focke-Wulf Fw s , were equipped only with a direction finder and landing lights to allow them to return to base at night.

    For the fighter to find their targets, other aircraft, which were guided from the ground, would drop strings of flares in front of the bombers.

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    In other cases, the burning cities below provided enough light to see their targets. A sole Fw A-6 Wk. This innovation allowed the night fighters to approach and attack bombers from below, where they were outside the bomber crew's field of view. Few bombers of that era carried defensive guns in the ventral position. Particularly in the initial stage of operational use until early , the sudden fire from below was often attributed to ground fire rather than a fighter.

    Rather than nighttime raids, the US Army Air Forces were dedicated to daytime bombing over Germany and Axis allies, that statistically were much more effective. The only purpose-built night fighter design deployed during the war, the American Northrop P Black Widow was introduced first in Europe and then saw action in the Pacific , but it was given such a low priority that the British had ample supplies of their own designs by the time it was ready for production. The first USAAF unit using the P did not move to Britain until February ; operational use did not start until the summer, and was limited throughout the war.

    It did not have enough speed". The U. Navy was forced into the night-fighting role when Japanese aircraft successfully harassed their units on night raids. Some of these manuals date back fifty years. The tactics of war, like many things are cyclical. None of this information is classified. Some of it could cause severe injury to the user or others. This is provided for research material only. If you plan on saving these to use in a disaster scenario, remember you might not have power.

    Squad Movement Formations & Techniques

    Print them or learn them. Tune in! Help us fix our typos: edits theantimedia. The amount of fiddly campaign movement needed to alleviate this makes the whole thing feel like herding cats. To frustrate me further, I ran into a couple of instances where the End Turn button would lock up and stop my progress entirely.


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    And the whole thing is also very poorly explained. There is no tutorial, but rather an in-game manual that I was never told about until I found it by accident after several turns of flailing around trying to figure out how anything works. Normandy 44 had a very good one, but those who are picking up the sequel as their first Steel Division game are going to be very confused.

    And for such a complex game, that is not a small problem.

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    Overall, the map design remains strong. Hit-and-run tactics and commando gambits with roughnecking infantry work great on many of these battlefields and are a lot of fun to pull off. Unfortunately, they also share some unintuitive line-of-sight issues with Normandy Placing a sniper on a hilltop feels like it should give them good vision of the entire village on the other side of the river below. The new Eastern Front divisions bring plenty to the table to reinvigorate the multiplayer and skirmish modes.