Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Role of bureaucracy in formulation of foreign policy.

Sign in. You could not be signed in. Degree of public access and accountability: Often correlated to the degree of independence is also the degree to which the population can directly see and assess the activities and outputs of public administration. The constraint of the civil actors for a bureaucracy is more important where their performance is assessed by customer satisfaction measures for example or a legal framework favouring the citizen in his relationship to the administration as did the new Public Administration Act in Sweden for example.

Agency factor: Perhaps the characteristic that is the hardest to empirically evaluate. The Centrality of the Political Leader Allows to judge the direct and indirect impact that the key political leader has on the decision-making process and identify his role within it.


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  7. On the other hand it gave more independency to the US Lagos embassy and State department in organizing the consequent relief effort to Biafra, thus shifting the policymaking towards bureaucracy. The External Influence of the Policy Allows to judge the impact that the specific circumstances and requirements of the policy have on decision-makers and decision-making process. Specific policy circumstances: This characteristic is based on the assumption that the degree of influence of political actors or bureaucracies on the foreign policy varies from one policy to another, according to the circumstances of the latter.

    It recognizes the Law of Power Shift - that unrestrained conflict shifts power upward, be this conflict in terms of bureaucratic competition or conflict in terms of a crisis situation. Degree of normative judgment required: Certain policies require a normative judgment, rather than a cost-benefit calculation and in those cases the responsibility for the policy tends to be heavier. The above characteristics propose an evaluative framework that identifies which characteristics of the decision-making structure and process need to be empirically observed on each policy to judge the extent to which it is influenced by bureaucrats or political leaders.

    Further work needs to be done in defining ways and methods to empirically test each one of these characteristics. Another crucial part of this framework to develop would be the interdependencies between individual characteristics within a category and how their combinations 17 Schultz, George P.

    Similarly, there needs to be an explicit explanation of how different combinations of the three main categories shift the power within the policymaking process towards dominance of one of the actors or bargaining. The need for development of such a framework comes from the conclusion that the impact of bureaucracies on foreign policymaking varies from one policy to another. This essay recognizes the imperfections and methodological difficulties of such a framework, however it merely aims to point out the areas in which research could lead to the development of useful tools serving a more accurate analysis of foreign policy.

    Bibliography: Amadife, Emmanuel N. Related Papers.

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