We begin by presenting the terms used for this political space created in the ninth century, distinguishing in particular between Francia Media, Lotharingia and Lorraine. We then detail its territorial changes, from the kingdom of Lothar II through to the eleventh century, which raises the thorny question of the delimitation of this space whose frontiers are so complex to perceive and to map. On reviendra sur cet aspect. La Lotharingie politique connut plusieurs fins. En , Flodoard traite Ricuin de rebelle et indique que Charles le combat, lui reprenant par la force des fortifications Flodoard, , p.
Boulanger Ph. Hamashita T. Ohnuki-Tierney E. Pelletier P. Bergeron, L. Touzot, p. Bertaud, J. Boudon, J. Broers, M. Bourguinat, N. Chappey, J. Dwyer, P. Europe, , Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, p. Dunne, J. Gentelle, P. Grataloup, C. Le temps long du Monde , Paris, Armand Colin, p. Armand Colin, p.
Lignereux, A. Petiteau, N. Vovelle, M. Woolf, S. Trees and Woodlands in the British Landscape. The last Forest : the story of Hatfield Forest. POUX X. Pitte, Michel Deshaies et Nicola Todorov. It tends to be built more precisely from the 19th century in Europe, in particular by relying on geology. In France, military geography formed a real stream of thought after the defeat of Prussia in , whose interest was to prepare for the next war against Germany. His theorists tend to design scientific methods and purposes that should make it operational. Geology is thus seen as the fundamental, but not unique, approach to thinking about the territory for military purposes until the Great War.
Developed theories are disseminated in multiple studies as taught in military schools. How did the primacy of geology prevail in French military geography until ? Une approche encore marginale en France avant Ils exercent une influence dans la guerre de mouvement et de positions. Ces situations se rencontrent durant la Grande Guerre.
Clerc C. Berger-Levrault, p. Niox G. Pichat L. Villate R. Abstract: The space occupied by the regular clergy was certainly one of those that was the most radically modified by the French Revolution. Monastic life implied to seperate the cloisters from the surrunding urban areas, without, cutting it from the secular life of the city, to which it was closely linked by multiple interactions. By chasing off the monks, the Revolution made fall the monastic walls: the sacred boundary of the "hortus conclusus" was opened at the benefit of a new conception of the city corresponding to a new era's desire of efficiency.
Key words: regular clergy, Nancy, national property, townscape, urban planning. En principe justement. Etat en novembre Porte de la chapelle de la Visitation. Cette convergence de vues montre que les religieux ne sont que le reflet de leur temps. Andriot C. Barralis C. Bodinier B. Bour L. Bourdieu-Weiss C. Brunet S. Calmet A. Cherrier S. Deregnaucourt G. Faltrauer C. Favier M. Girard J. Lesprand P. Lionnois J. Marot P. Martin E. Pfister C. Roze F. Simonnin P.
Vacant J. III, p. AD 54 : H AD 54 : 1 Q AMN, b M Abstract : Described as a linchpin, a strategic lock, a communication crossroads, a pilgrimage node or a trade hub, Iran has, in many ways, a reputation of geopolitical pivot. However, it would be a mistake to overstate the importance of its central position on the world map.
Beyond classical geopolitics, which focuses on the impact of physical geography, an alternative way is to examine how this permanent and objective reality is prolonged, reconstructed and reinterpreted historically in the form of a subjective prism that determines in turn the perception that states have of each other and of their respective roles on the international stage. Through this prism, a country like Iran is seen, constructed, reconstructed and confined to a series of functions that define and perpetuate its interactions as much as the tangible geographic context within which it operates.
With a few slight variations, the role that other states assign to Iran invariably amounts to that of a mere instrument that can and must be put at the service of their own interests.
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Seen by its Eurasian neighbors, Iran is viewed as a passage on an axis of conquest, an invasion corridor, a counter on a commercial route, a strategic bolt to the North or a bridge to the warm southern seas. Seen from far-off West, Iran is rather attributed a function of a strategic pawn, a buffer state, an influence platform or an economic outlet. A key fact is that none of the functions assigned to it from the outside corresponds to the role that Iran itself aspires to play on the international scene: that of a sovereign State willing to pursue a policy of great power emancipated from the dictates of the international community.
The objective of this article is to demonstrate that, in addition to being influenced by tangible geostrategic parameters, Iran and its behavior are very largely shaped by the profound contradictions that exist between the geopolitical "functions" attributed to it by other states, regional or extra-regional, and the role that this country feels should be its own on the Middle Eastern and international chessboard.
Contrasting these geopolitical visions - often divergent - makes it possible to reveal the profoundly complex and conflictual dimension of the relationship between Iran and its international partners, as well as the limited number of strategic options available to this country to pursue its ambitions and strategic objectives. Certes, non. Le site de la revue de.
Liste des articles. Notes :. Febvre , Paris, Perrin, , , pages, p. Picard, Hans-Walter Herrmann et Reinhard Schneider dir. Colin, , p. Jacobus Schwalm, , t. IV, pars 1, p. In Michel Margue dir. Oxford, Oxford Univesrity Press, , pages. Beiheft zu Hemecht, Jan Zielonka, Europe as Empire.
John L. La marge de manoeuvre , Presses Universitaires de Rennes, , p. John R. Prescott, Boundaries and frontiers , London, Allen and Unwin, Jean-Pierre Renard dir. Bibliographie Baker A. Bibliographie Baker, A. Bonne lecture! Alain Devos. Gaillard et al. Annales Alamannici , , dans Lendi W. Die Murbacher Annalen. Mit Edition , Freiburg, p. Annales de Saint-Bertin , , Grat F. Barth R. Bauer T. Blennemann G. Boretius A. Leges , Vol. Bornert R. Boshof E. Bresslau H. Burnes R. Chartae Galliae. Chatelain V. Clouet L. Cohen K. In the British case, this Keynesian stimulation directed towards the healthcare and education sectors has been paid for by tax increases and the last few years of the North Sea bonanza; in the case of the US, the Bush administration to finance the Iraq war has presided over an unprecedented increase in public debt - doubled by a private debt binge, with households borrowing on the strength of an equally unprecedented housing bubble to compensate for the stagnation of their income.
One really has to wonder what France is being told to imitate: what Tony Blair and George Bush say, or what they do? This is not to say that France has no problems, or is in need of no change at all. But the word "reform" has become the bearer of such an ideological bias that honest discourse would be better off avoiding it. Unless, of course, we all agree already that the right goal is to lower incomes for workers while increasing them for a happy few at the very top, while waiting for a purported but invisible to statisticians "trickle down".
In fact, one gets the nagging suspicion that the French economy comes in for such consistent bashing precisely because it shows that overall standards of living can increase without the rich getting extravagantly richer, thus refuting one of the essential justifications for unbridled capitalism. Warren Buffett said that what the wealthy in the US are carrying out - and winning - is class struggle.
That kind of vocabulary went out of date with the fall of the Berlin Wall, a fact that has been taken advantage of by some. It's time to realize they don't act in the general interest, just in their own. In the long run, we're all dead. John Maynard Keynes by Jerome a Paris etg eurotrib. Congrats to Anonymous John and you! Was there a John Evans who had a gender change? I could be several flavours of US or UK politician, a footballer, a cricketer, a bowls player or an ice-hockey player, a Welsh punk writer or a British horror writer neither of them are me , a supercentenerian, a wrestler, a minister of religion no surprise , an archeologist, an actor, a bishop, a murderer, a pirate, and, would you believe, an astrologer.
Strangely the Wikipedia entry doesn't mention a gender change. They say "he" runs a law firm While the bio on the Jethro Tull site says "he" runs a building construction company. The stuff you learn Nothing like the glory days of George Best. I've been accused of being a Marxist, yet while Harpo's my favourite, it's Groucho I'm always quoting. Odd, that. JT weren't really a band I paid a lot of attention to, so one keyboard player was much like another. It certainly says a heap of things people aren't used to hearing, and it packs a punch.
And I think now is a better timing than in April, where it would have been drowned in the electoral campaign. Too bad they didn't publish the beautiful graphs! A pleasure I therefore claim to show, not how men think in myths, but how myths operate in men's minds without their being aware of the fact. I personally think it is a must-read.. Cixi Votre point de vue remet les choses dans leur juste contexte. JRV Europekipete Le declin source de misere, de chomage de longue duree et d'expatriation sans precedent de jeunes diplomes serait en fait une grosse hallucination collective.
Philippe G. Neanmoins comment expliquer des observations de bon sens comme le nombre de Francais cherchant a trouver du travail ailleurs qu'en France? Si tout va pour le mieux, pourquoi autant de Francais actifs non retraites.. Merci To be honest, I haven't looked at the paper since June but this gives me a reason to read LeMonde again! Ca fait plaisir What the left hasn't learned yet is that the facts are insufficient to counter the "big lie". Not only does the right have a big echo chamber that reinforces their propaganda, but they also have the cooperation of the major media which is in the thrall of big business.
I don't know what works, but facts alone obviously don't. Policies not Politics Daily Landscape by rdf robert. There's a narrative there that says big money is lying to us all in order to rip us off. I disagree. A chart showing the increasing gap between productivity and median wages along with the headline "you're not getting your share of the wealth" would be extremely powerful. Money and status concerns come very close to trumping emotional narratives.
The democrats can't shake the tree anymore as they are corporate sponsored, and no way will the MSM allow this sort of populist rhetoric in their papers. The only "populism" we're allowed is Lou Dobbs blaming Mexican laborers for the decline of the middle class.
Would be a good slogan to go with the chart, because it uses a simile that is very common in folk economic defences of the neoliberal economic order. Oye, vatos, dees English sink todos mi ships, chinga sus madres, so escuche: el fleet es ahora refloated, OK? The citizens have become too lazy to defend their own way of life and it's becoming harder to bring anyone to think. Our knowledge has surpassed our wisdom.
Jean M. Pour ma part, travaillant a Londres dans la finance je constate tous les jours les limites de vouloir faire parler les chiffres sans contexte. Sait-on par exemple que l'esperance de vie d'un travailleur "working class" a Glasgow est de 52 ans contre 46 en Afrique et 78 en Europe continentale? Le bonheur ne se resume pas au PNB!
Guillaume S. Pierre Guillery Ha oui? Ha bon? Nicole B. It rarely follows our ideas of order and justice. Je connais deux stars de media francais. Hey, Grandma Moses started late! Make that one. A star is born. He wants to make a difference doesn't he? More chance as a Commissioner Et tres bien ecrit en plus The Hun is always either at your throat or at your feet.
Congrats to both of you. I would be very interested to hear the comments from Jerome's colleagues at work, and what they have to say about the thesis. And they fully well know how much about propaganda it really is. The main point I'm monomaniac I know : is the unemployment measure. John and Jerome picked the OECD data I inserted into french and english wikipedia which has survived all edits BTW , alone it is largely enough to convince anyone that economists MSM are not showing and studying the right data. Each time I used this argument in discussion it had a big impact with everyone realizing within a few seconds of silence the scale of the "unemployment" lie.
It's easy to learn: OECD male Use it each time you hear or read unemployment and can talk or write back. You can also mention that in the USA one in six year old is still working and the number is rising. Depth of indoctrination We've had a Imagine that. I doubt shaving off 2.
In fact, I'd hazard a guess that reducing from 40 to Small varmints, if you will. Great to see it getting further coverage. That is, U. I realize that you can't discuss every germane point in an article of the sort that you submitted.
I just want to point out once again that the U. Excellent work as always. And what does it say about how the media usually conduct its business, when people react to the article the way they do? Claire L. Christian M. Expert en chiffres donc. XF Non plus. Pelargonium Robert Ernesto HugoMe Ce qui est beaucoup moins facile. Attali dans "Analyse economique de la vie politique" p4.
Encore ces cerveaux qui fuient Alors que vous convoitez un meilleur poste, un de ces fameux cerveaux veut rentrer en France. Il est brillant, etc. Voulez vous toujours rapatrier les cerveaux? Jean Pierre D. J'appelle cela du banditisme. Ataraxie La encore vous avez omis de mentionner ce chiffre!
Quelle rigueur digne du Monde!!! Qu'est-ce le declin? Vous traitez de la derniere, pas des deux autres. Sommes nous le 1er avril? Juba II M. Souhaiter ou esperer qu'elle le reste indefiniement releve de la naivete aussi bien que de la pretention. Comment esperer qu'un pays de 60m d'habitants puisse continuer a jouer le jeu de nations telles que les US ou la Chine?! Uderzo et Goscinny sont de tres grand dessinateurs.
SUR LA LIGNE DE FRONT, DANS L'OMBRE
Il faudra esperer neanmoins que leur vision n'influence pas l'avenir de la France et qu'Asterix reste une charmante bande dessinee. La bonne vieille methode sovietique autoritaire du partage serait donc le meilleur rampart contre la pauvrete et le declin, le scoop. Esprit de l'X Ce n'est pas l'intelligence collective qui fait penser un polytechnicien ni d'ailleurs n'importe qui. Thierry T. On ne va pas en mourir, on se contentera de regarder le monde de loin Tant pis pour nous de vivre cette sombre periode Et avec un raisonnement comme celui de M.
D'une part parce que l'Angleterre n'a jamais eu la moindre intention d'adopter le TCE, qui n'avait donc aucune chance de voir le jour. Gabriel B.
- Der deutsche Herzog (German Edition).
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Enfin, nos budgets recherche sont minables. Sans compter la ridicule prestation d'hier contre l'Argentine! Mais il n'y a pas pire aveugle que celui qui ne veut pas voir. C'est peut etre ca le declin de la France.
Les "saisonniers"agricoles touchent 5. Simon Bathilde Guy L. Continuons sans changer alors que tout bouge autour de nous.. Boizard F. Christian L. Ils veulent s'enrichir d'autre chose et courir le monde Et, enfin. C'est vrai qu'ELB vient de prendre un "sale coup". Banker is more logical. I'd much rather have been presented as editor of ET. Full description at Econpapers Download paper The determinants of capitalising development costs in private companies: evidence from Germany. In: Journal of Business Economics. Full description at Econpapers Download paper Corporate taxation and financial strategies under asymmetric information.
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Gottardi, Piero ; Auster, Sarah. In: Meeting Papers. Maurin, Vincent. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa. Mustafa, Alan ; Hatemi-J, Abdulnasser. Full description at Econpapers Download paper Do microfinance lenders easily reach an optimal welfare? Sandra, Kendo. Baaziz, Yosra. Cavaliere, Alberto ; Crea, Giovanni.
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