Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Look for information about the Goddess Ran, She is wonderful. By the way, your translation is perfect on the rest. Thank you for this information, I wasn't aware of it. I will look more into it before making any changes to my translation and or adding that information to both this translation and in the original lyrics. Become a translator Request new lyrics translation. Login Registration Sign In. Goddess of the Sea Spanish translation. Proofreading requested. Spanish translation Spanish. Escarlata y rojo, el ardiente anochecer en la distancia.

Only with this item can you throw yourself into colours and textures. That is why I wanted to start a brand that unites the greatest passion I have for an object. On one hand, Colombia has a strong tradition of tannery, and I believe that definitely has had an influence on me. And my country and the culture that surrounds it is one of the things that most inspires my aesthetic. And of course, the use of bright and diverse colours is a hallmark of Latin American design and we welcome that as pillars of the brand. On the other hand, I also think that having studied such an integral career and having explored graphic design has also influenced the geometrical figures within and on the purses that are so different from others.

So, bit of my country, my culture, my family, and my career has made the brand more and more iconic each day. A friend is taking a weekend trip to Colombia. What should they do in 48 hours? Colombia is a country full of diversity and staying for only 48 hours will never explain the richness that we have in culture, flavours, colours, and places to see. But if you stay for only 48 hours in my country and it was the only option that you had to see it, I would recommend first taking a plane to Cartagena because we have the best food and architectural history in this city.

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In this neighbourhood, I recommend eating at Arrabal , a totally spectacular fusion restaurant. Then I would go party at Bazurto and learn the champeta , one of the most traditional and popular dances in the country. On the second day I would take a boat to Las Islas del Rosario to experience the transparent waters. I am sure that after experiencing a bit of our traditions and our land, you will fall in love. Of course, the purse! I design purses for the great love I have for the object. It is this precious object that will live forever in our closet, and that will surely end up being inherited by someone who is excited by fashion, as by life itself.

I love art, and once in a while I paint. The unanswered questions emerging from that project took me on a very different course that has culminated with this book. Initial research was supported by a postdoctoral resident fellowship at the Center for Twentieth Century Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, in —86, made possible by release time from the Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

At the center, I was privileged to participate in a remarkable faculty seminar, "Rewriting Modernism," eminently enriched by the intellectual guidance of center director Kathleen Woodward and seminar organizer Andreas Huyssen and by the participation of other fellows. The Spencer Research Library at the University of Kansas provided a study during the final revisions.

I am profoundly indebted to each and every one of my colleagues in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Kansas for creating, under the superb leadership of Robert Spires and, more recently, Roberta Johnson, a singularly warm and vital atmosphere of collegial support and intellectual exchange that enabled me to complete this book.

I have also been favored with the challenging dialogue provided by many graduate students, particularly those in my seminars on the vanguards. Forster, an exchange begun in Texas days. Above all, I have been favored by the support of a family that keeps the intensity of my professional life in balance. This includes my extended parental. Some material in this book appeared in earlier forms. David Jackson Austin: Dept.

The chapter 4 section on En la luna is a revised version of "Language and Performance in Vicente Huidobro's En la luna, " published in Romance Quarterly For frequently cited works, I have used the following abbreviations. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations from Spanish and Portuguese are my own. When citing published translations, I provide two separate page sources: the first for the Spanish or Portuguese original and the second for the translated version.

Giovanni Pontiero, ed. Kenneth D. Stella M. Two singular pastimes are linguistic. Horacio and his friends exhume obscure words from the "cemetery," their pet name for the Royal Academy's dictionary of the Spanish language. The linguistic strategies, antiacademic spirit, and implicit social critique of Horacio Oliveira's cemetery game have their roots in the literary vanguard movements that emerged throughout Latin America in the s and early s.

In fact, vanguardist antecedents of Latin America's contemporary literary innovations are numerous. The confrontations between high art and popular or mass culture. Carlos Oquendo de Amat's typographically unconventional 5 metros de poemas , printed on a single unfolding sheet, anticipates Octavio Paz's Blanco Recent scholarship has affirmed the historical importance of Latin America's interwar vanguard movements for the outstanding achievements of contemporary Latin American literature.

But my brief exercise in parallelisms and antecedents in and of itself provides a limited and even distorted view of these movements. This is because Latin America's early twentieth-century vanguards may best be understood not in terms of selected canonical works or individual authors' careers but rather as a multifaceted cultural activity, manifested in a variety of creative endeavors and events and seeking to challenge and redefine the nature and purpose of art. Between the late teens and the mids, vanguardist activity emerged throughout Latin America. But Latin American vanguardism grew out of and responded to the continent's own cultural concerns.

Out of these multiple activities, there emerged a serious critical inquiry into ways of thinking about art and culture in Latin America. On the broadest level, the five chapters in this study examine the substance of that inquiry. Specifically, I analyze manifestos and creative texts from all genres to discern the changing ideas that these pose about the interaction between art and experience; about the purpose of literary activity and the changing roles of artists; about new roles for audiences and readers; and about connections between new aesthetic ideas and long-standing concerns about Latin America's cultural and linguistic identity.

My approach to Latin American vanguardism as a form of activity rather than simply a collection of experimental texts exhibiting certain common features underscores the fact that vanguardists themselves often conceptualized art and intellectual life as action or. The pervasive activist spirit that characterized much of this literary work was consonant with the historical context in which the vanguards emerged.

Nelson Osorio, one of the more context-sensitive analysts of these movements, has called attention to the antioligarchic spirit of the era MPP xxvi , an observation supported by the historical record. The years from the late teens through the early s constituted an epoch of contentious encounters manifesting the changing alliances that accompany shifting economic, social, and political conditions.

Latin American nations experienced the impact of World War I era economic changes, of political hopes generated by the Russian revolution and international workers' movements, and of the pervasive postwar disillusionment with European culture epitomized in Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West — Although specific situations varied from one country to another, certain features characterized continental life as a whole. Economically, the period was shaped by the consolidation of the export-import growth model Skidmore and Smith and the "neocolonialist pact" Halperin Donghi.

The years of the literary vanguards were marked by an intensification of rapid growth grounded in regionspecific dependence on one or two major exports and a consequent interlocking of Latin American economies with world markets and financial institutions. These developments were accompanied by a gradual shift in hegemony from Europe to the United States with regard to Latin America's economic—and often political—affairs.

Many of these also provided the sites of the limited industrial growth associated with consumer goods production and with the creation of infrastructures necessary to sustain export-import economies. This metropolitan growth exacerbated imbalances and tensions between urban and rural sectors. Large portions of rural populations continued to function at a subsistence level, on the margins of mainstream national economic life, and were vulnerable to the economic highs and lows produced by single-export economies controlled by outside investors.

Political changes shaped by these demographic conditions included the growth of a more politically aware and active middle class and the development of significant workers' movements. In Argentina and Brazil and, to a lesser degree, in Chile and Peru, European immigration contributed to working-class growth, whereas in Mexico and Carib-. Between the mid-teens and the late s, workers' groups in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru, Mexico, Uruguay, and Ecuador, and to varying degrees in other countries as well, organized demonstrations or general strikes, activities that usually met with repressive official responses.

In the Andean region, particularly in Ecuador and Peru, periodic indigenous rebellions intensified the ambience of class and cultural confrontation. And in Mexico, the intersection of urban-based pressures for liberal reform with a broadly based agrarian revolt produced the continent's most consequential contentious encounter of the epoch, the Mexican Revolution.

During this primarily reformist period of Latin American history, the middle class, from which many vanguardist writers emerged, experienced conflicting pulls. Its interaction with traditional oligarchies seeking to shore up their own power broadened political participation far more in some countries than in others and led to growth in the number and influence of political parties, franchise extensions though notably not yet to women , and government-sponsored educational and social reforms.

This more politicized middle class at times directed its attention to social inequities. Historians regard the continental university reform movement as a major component of the middle class's political awakening. This network is documented in numerous vanguardist periodicals, through intellectual and political debates, and in editorial expressions of support extended from social activists in one country to those in another.

Latin American Vanguards

According to Osorio, the university reform movement went beyond immediate pedagogic concerns to seek "a new conception of culture and teaching in line with popular interests, national needs, and social transformation" MPP xxvi. For Osorio, moreover, this movement provides a direct link between the antioligarchic spirit of the political and economic context and the work of the literary vanguards.

But while not disagreeing about the "common character" of aesthetic and political calls for change, I would caution against seeking too literal links between political confrontations and class struggles played out on Latin America's streets in the late teens and s and the contentious encounters with audiences, readers, and one another provoked by literary vanguardists through confrontational manifestos, experimental creative texts, and engaging performance events.

Since the early nineteenth century, international vanguardism had always embodied tensions and correlations between the cultural and the political. Matei Calinescu has carefully traced points of historical intersection and divergence between the two in the European concept of the avant-gardes.

Certainly many vanguardist artists and groups were at one time or another willfully engaged in the contentious encounters of politics as well as art. Cuba's Grupo Minorista, for example, whose members included the founders of the vanguardist journal Revista de Avance —30 , supported a broad program of social and political change in Cuba, protested U. As a student activist, Miguel Angel Asturias worked against Guatemala's dictator Estrada Cabrera and participated in popular education reform.

The vanguardistas' political activism was dominated by but not limited to progressive or leftist causes, moreover. Some Nicaraguan vanguardists, for example, supported Augusto Sandino's resistance to U. Leaders of Brazil's Verde-Amarelo group, who as artists endorsed a mystical kind of ultranationalism, later organized Brazil's fascistic Integralist party. But the contentious encounters I explore in the chapters that follow unfold in the realm of culture and art. The "common character" of political and cultural activism is to be found neither exclusively in the concrete political acts of vanguardist writers some were aggressively apolitical nor in the explicit social content of their artistic experiments.

Some avant-garde creative texts do actually incorporate obvious critiques of specific social conditions. Within these movements, he argues, "the social subsystem that is art enters the stage of self-criticism" In Latin American vanguardism, one rarely finds the absolute anti-art stance normally associated with European Dada. Institutionalizing literary traditions was a relatively recent phenomenon in Latin American cultural life, and, in some cases, the vanguardist movements themselves became enmeshed with the construction of national literatures or canons.

As they cast a critical eye on the value of their own artistic activities, they often imagined art as an integral part. Aesthetic activism was manifested in the needling presence of vanguardist artists on the cultural scene, in engaging communicative modes manifestos, broadsides, literary polemics, confrontational literary surveys, or public performance events , or in difficult literary experiments demanding new reader reactions.

Because I approach vanguardism as a form of activity rather than as an assemblage of individually outstanding texts, in this work I often examine the implicit dialogues that emerge between critical and creative endeavors, between manifestos or similar documents and creative texts. Although I do present close readings of numerous literary texts, the underlying premise is that a brief manifesto or a literary survey appearing in a short-lived vanguardist periodical may constitute as significant a factor in the dialogue of artistic and cultural ideas as a critically acclaimed creative work.

My own approach has unquestionably been shaped by other recent scholarship. Once Latin American vanguardism was recognized as a significant component of the continent's literary history, investigators undertook individual studies of specific countries, groups, magazines, or major figures.

Early studies also focused primarily on poetry. Although important work of this kind continues, the last ten years have witnessed a more comprehensive reassessment that has recognized the multifaceted quality of vanguardist activity and has generally pursued two lines of inquiry. The first investigative line has sought a historical and bibliographical reconstruction of the period on a continental basis, yielding four major anthologies of vanguardist materials as well as a book-length bibliography.

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Forster and K. David Jackson The last two of these include Brazil in their. The titles of the anthologies underscore the eclectic substance of materials resistant to tidy classification; thus we have "other writings," "documents," or "programmatic texts. In their very constitution, these collections also suggest that, to arrive at meaningful understandings of the vanguard period in Latin America, one must go beyond specific individual works, writers, or even genres. The same premise emerges in a second line of inquiry in recent vanguardist scholarship, the search for comprehensive characterizations of the vanguards in Latin America as related to but distinct from the European avant-gardes.

This second investigative line has produced articlelength studies seeking to define more broadly what Latin American vanguardism was actually like or about and to map out what kinds of approaches are appropriate for arriving at such definitions. Forster's piece, "Latin American Vanguardismo: Chronology and Terminology," constituted a fundamental step in this direction, and his "Toward a Synthesis of Latin American Vanguardism" , introducing the Forster-Jackson bibliography, expands this line of inquiry. Much of this material shares certain premises that also underlie my own work: 1 that Latin American vanguardism was a continental development and should therefore be examined comparatively; 2 that the vanguards provoked significant changes in prose fiction and drama as well as poetry and, in fact, frequently challenged generic divisions;.

In this vein, and unlike national or genre studies, my own work, based on close readings of critical and creative texts from all genres and from Spanish America and Brazil, seeks to establish the common ground among the sometimes quite diverse continental movements and activities in the ideas that they pose about art and culture in Latin America. In keeping with the definition of vanguardism as a form of activity, four of the five chapters also examine the complex interaction between manifestos or critical articles, affirming certain artistic positions, and the experimental creative works that both reinforce and undermine these positions.

The selection criteria for particular works and critical documents examined also reflect the definition of vanguardism as a cultural activity. Thus my objective is neither to establish a vanguardist canon nor to focus on outstanding individual writers per se, although I do examine the work of many major figures pertinent to the artistic and cultural issues addressed. Instead, I tap the broad and eclectic range of materials through which the vanguards' complex and often contradictory dialogue of ideas was carried out. These chapters do not undertake a historical survey of vanguardist activity in Latin America, a project already carried out in some of the work described above.

Finally, although I address the Latin American vanguards as a historically and culturally specific development, I also identify, when appropriate, interaction at the level of ideas with the international avant-gardes. Although this work constitutes neither a national nor a genre study, it is worth noting that important recent work of this kind has also addressed vanguardism as a form of cultural activity. Two of these studies in particular have had an impact on my own approach. The premise that Latin American vanguardism was a continental phenomenon provides my point of departure in the chapters that follow.

Vanguardist activity actually encompassed a variety of national or regional movements that manifested site-specific peculiarities. But, as Forster has argued, Latin American vanguardists also knew that they were participating in a "common enterprise" Vanguardism in Latin American Literature 8. In fact, even the most casual examination of little magazines and vanguardist documents reveals this awareness, documented through a continental network of magazine and creative work exchanges.

Even very ephemeral little magazines participated in this exchange, which was also reinforced by the Costa Rica-based Repertorio Americano, a continentally circulated periodical that disseminated vanguardist currents. But in exploring through these chapters the common ground of multiple literary vanguard movements, I do not dismiss national differences. Bringing together around specific topics materials from several countries invariably points back to singular contexts from which individual works emerge.

A very brief review of those national contexts underscores the plurality of Latin America's vanguards. Argentine vanguardist writers were highly active and visible, produced literary works in all genres, and participated in journals, publishing houses, and provocative public performances. In contrast to other countries, here the lines between aestheticist and political conceptions of art were more sharply drawn. Literary history typically classifies artistic innovation around the two major groups, Florida and Boedo. Its literary pro-.

Although women infrequently participated actively or visibly in vanguardist activities, Florida included the poet and prose fiction writer Norah Lange, who was married to Girondo. Roberto Mariani's prose fiction is perhaps the best known of Boedo's offerings. Members also organized the enduring Teatro del Pueblo, which transformed Argentine theatrical production. But, as Christopher Towne Leland has pointed out, the lines between the two groups often blur, as in the figure of novelist and playwright Roberto Arlt, admired by both but allied with neither.

It is also difficult to ascribe a consistent literary style to either group. Although Argentine vanguardists, particularly the Florida group, generally eschewed programmatic cultural nationalism, certain events manifested autochthonist tensions and concerns. Although the term modernismo designates the renovation of Brazilian literature from the early s through the mids, the radically innovative activities of the s paralleled Spanish American vanguardism. This city also provided the center for vanguardist activity, although important manifestations also evolved in Rio de Janeiro and in Belo Horizonte and Cataguazes in Minas Gerais.

Characterized by its multidisciplinary nature, Bra-. As in Peru, Cuba, and Nicaragua, Brazilian vanguardist activity was often strongly marked by local autochthonist concerns and, in many creative works, a broader Americanist cast. Chilean vanguardism emerged during a tense and haltingly reformist period, as workers and a growing middle class pressured traditional oligarchies for greater participation in public life. Underscoring the pitfalls inherent in characterizing Latin American vanguardism solely in national terms, Chile produced two outstanding figures whose forums for innovative activity were often more international and continental than national or local.

Vicente Huidobro—poet, novelist, dramatist, and manifesto and film script writer—is widely regarded as both the precursor and the founder of Latin American vanguardism. Huidobro's antimimetic literary creed creacionismo extolled the virtues of autonomous art. But Huidobro's aesthetic and political activism sometimes overlapped, not only through his play En la luna satirizing Chilean political events of the s but also with his own incursion into Chilean politics.

In the s and early s, Huidobro's compatriot, Pablo Neruda, one of the twentieth century's outstanding poets, produced verse with many surrealist features. But Neruda was also involved during the s, often in a highly contentious mode, with. The seeds of the country's vanguardist activity, centered in Havana, were sown in the collective reaction of student activists, middle-class political reformers, and labor leaders against the repressive measures of President Alberto Zayas and the Gerardo Machado dictatorship that followed.

Formed in , the Grupo Minorista published a manifesto dedicating itself to multifaceted intellectual work, social reform, and aesthetic innovation. Although both groups operated primarily in Mexico City, the estridentistas were also active in Xalapa.

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Often regarded as the more politicized of the two gatherings, the estridentistas saw their cultural project as an extension of the revolution's activist spirit. They also expressed internationalist political affinities, as in Maples Arce's long poem "Urbe" with the subtitle "Bolshevik Super-Poem in 5 Cantos" and dedicated to Mexico's workers.

At the same time, they promoted explicitly autochthonous work such as Icaza's prose fiction and Alva de la Canal's woodcuts. Public Education, and contributed to the interdisciplinary and socially oriented magazine El Maestro — The journal's literary offerings included poetry, prose fiction, and plays. Peru's literary vanguards coincided historically with the eleven-year reformist dictatorship of Augusto B. Numerous provincianos brought to the city by student reform activities participated in Lima's vanguards, and Peru.

Numerous other short-lived vanguardist magazines appeared in Lima, Arequipa, and Cuzco during the s. Ironically, many of his compatriots regarded Vallejo's poetry as the prime example of the autochthonist vanguardism that they espoused and he ostensibly rejected. Although less extensive and enduring than movements in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Peru, significant vanguardist activity or debates also developed in Ecuador, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Ecuador in the s was marked by intense liberal-conservative struggles, mounting pressures for progressive political change and social reforms, student activism prompted by a broadening class base in university attendance, and a brief dictatorship — According to Humberto Robles, such events intertwined Ecuadorean vanguardist inquiries and experiments with prevailing cultural politics and polemics.

Important literary experiments included Hugo Mayo's poetry and Pablo Palacio's prose fiction and brief dramatic experiments, and avant-garde techniques shaped the early poetry of Jorge Carrera Andrade, one of the country's leading twentieth-century poets. Still, vanguardist activity in Ecuador may per-. Robles has argued that polarized positions between classical and socially committed concepts of art allowed for little middle ground and that, by the decade's end, socially oriented art had become the norm.

Social, Americanist, or indigenist concerns often marked the thinking of those who did support the idea of an avant-garde or undertook vanguardist experiments. Its late development notwithstanding, Nicaraguan vanguardist activity constituted a major event in the country's cultural life and the only sustained group effort of its kind in Central America. During the late s and early s, Nicaraguan conservatives and liberals struggled for power. Seeking an alternative site for the Panama Canal, the United States had intervened in the country's economic and political affairs for two decades, and Augusto Sandino emerged as a progressive symbol of national autonomy and resistance to U.

Nicaraguan vanguardists, whose political allegiances ultimately spanned the spectrum, also opposed U. Although contact with U. Its inaugural manifesto sought the cultural renovation of Nicaragua through dissemination of international avant-garde trends and the development of national art forms in every field.

Its activities included debates and polemics, public performance events, and the collection of Nicaraguan folklore and popular linguistic, poetic, and musical forms to be incorporated in experimental works. Literary production included mainly poetry, some experimental prose, literary commentary, and performance pieces. The short-lived group's work profoundly influenced Nicaraguan artistic life for years to come, and Cuadra became one of the country's major contemporary writers and intellectuals. The "status" issue, that is, Puerto Rico's anomalous colonial relationship with the United States, has shaped the island's political and cultural life throughout the twentieth century.

During the s, polit-. Puerto Rican vanguardist activity, which spanned these years, was marked by a comparable intensification of autochthonist concerns. As a whole, Puerto Rico's vanguardist activity was characterized by the predominance of poetry and linguistic experiment, by an Americanist continental orientation, by a gradually emerging focus on national and Antillean cultural motifs, and by the island's first literary affirmations of West African language and culture as significant cultural presences.

Uruguay in the early decades of the twentieth century provided, by one account, "the happiest example of political democratization and social modernization in Latin America" Halperin Donghi This era was marked, according to Tulio Halperin Donghi, by an openness to change and an optimistic sense of national identity — In a comparable spirit, Uruguayan vanguardist activity of the s was, as Gloria Videla has shown with regard to one of its principal journals, La Pluma —31 , both eclectic—open to a range of international and Latin American influences—and often nativist in its concerns.

But La Pluma, edited by Alberto Zum Felde and later by Carlos Sabat Ercasty, was perhaps the most comparable to other major Latin American vanguardist journals in its synthesis of international trends with continental connections and local concerns. Although group vanguardist activity in the country was relatively late developing and short-lived, according to Osorio, an ambience of student and intellectual resistance culminating in generated new thinking about art and culture with long-term consequences.

Vanguardist activities in other countries were either extremely brief, limited to a single work or writer, or too late in their emergence to be considered within the historical and artistic parameters normally defining these movements in Latin America.

But a few others should be mentioned. Although no notable vanguardist activity developed in Guatemala itself, Miguel Angel Asturias's early prose fiction and dra-. Both also participated in Parisian and Latin American vanguardist networks. Regional differences notwithstanding, the common ground of these vanguardist activities throughout Latin America provides the focus for the chapters that follow. As detailed below, each of these presents its own thesis and conclusions. But the pieces are also connected by a concept that is useful for characterizing Latin American vanguardism as a whole: its drive toward a "rehumanization" of art.

It also brings into focus three fundamental ideas about the vanguards in Latin America that weave through my own five chapters. In his descriptive essay, which was often misread as prescriptive, Ortega characterized modern art as a whole not only the vanguards as "dehumanized. In the modern mode, Ortega observed, an object of art is artistic only to the degree that it is not real. Whereas the average person, he asserted, prefers art that most resembles ordinary life, in modern art, a "preoccupation with the human content of the work is in principle incompatible with aesthetic enjoyment" 53; HW 9— While mimetic or realist art encourages the recipient to focus on the garden or the human content, modern art, in Ortega's view, turns perception toward the pane and the transparency inherent in a work of art.

In its focus on modern art's distancing strategies that shift perceptual modes, Ortega's concept of dehumanization is not unlike the early Russian formalist idea of defamiliarization ostranenie in Victor Shklovsky's. During the historical avant-gardes, he affirms, art entered a stage of self-criticism as artists questioned the category art and its claims to autonomy from nonart or life.

In this view, then, it is precisely through the "dehumanization" that alters perceptions by calling attention to the Orteguian windowpane that the avant-gardes forced artistic recipients to think about the idea of art itself and its relationship to life. Thus the very distancing quality in modern art that Ortega called dehumanization turns the public toward, not away from, lived experience. I have already argued that Latin American vanguardism conceived art and intellectual endeavors in activist terms.

Artists employed antimimetic strategies, among a range of vanguardist activities, precisely in order to turn art toward experience in more provocative ways. By "engagement" I do not mean. I use the term more comprehensively to designate various kinds of involvement or immersion, including confrontational engagement by artistic works or events with readers or spectators; critical or intellectual engagement through their work by artists with their immediate surroundings; or a desired metaphysical engagement with existence or the cosmos by artists seeking transrational plenitude.

In Latin America, moreover, vanguardist activity, as I have shown for individual countries, was quite often critically engaged with what was regarded as specifically Latin American experience. In this vein, the concept of a "rehumanization" of art alludes on a second level to a contemporary response within the Latin American vanguard movements to Ortega's essay, an averse reaction more to the word dehumanization itself than to the specific points raised in the piece. This negative response to a word or to what was perceived as the spirit behind it in no way minimized Ortega's contribution to the emergence of vanguardist activity in Latin America.

Along with the transcontinental connections established by Latin American writers in direct contact with French or Spanish peninsular movements, Ortega's widely distributed Revista de Occidente was a primary source of information about the latest developments in modern art. This debt was frequently acknowledged, and Ortega's and visits to Latin America fostered enduring intellectual contacts.

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Nonetheless, there was a fairly widespread reaction in Latin America's vanguard movements to what was perceived, accurately or not, as the gist of Ortega's widely disseminated essay. Art, it was argued in countless manifestos and critical writings, even in its most modern forms, had everything to do with experience, and the words human and humanized became veritable buzzwords in Latin American vanguardist discourse. This did not always constitute a direct response to Ortega but sometimes simply expressed a particular artistic orientation or tone.

Thus he argued that art should "humanize things" OC 1: and explained in the "Manifiesto de manifiestos" published in the same year as Ortega's essay that poets must have a certain dose of "singular humanity" with which to imbue their work OC 1: The poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade, in the manifesto launching Brazil's A Revista in , included in his plan for action the resolution to "humanize Brazil" and suggested that this would be accomplished by artists ready to "collide with real life" GMT Although they did not necessarily delve as deeply as Ortega into the theoretical problems he had posed, other writers were clearly reacting specifically to his essay.

The new art, he argued, "does not become dehumanized but instead becomes humanized just as it penetrates the soul of humanity and nature" "Trozos" 2. In his observations on surrealism, Alejo Carpentier explained that those using the term "dehumanization" he did not mention Ortega by name were accurately describing a modern turn away from sentimental, domestic intrigues. But he then went on to argue against characterizing the vanguards, surrealism in particular, as aloof or skeptical and to affirm that his was an era of passionate faith in the value of intellectual and artistic pursuits HV — Casanovas attributed dehumanization to the bourgeois spirit and rejected artistic speculations of a merely formal quality because they lacked "human value" or "social transcendence.

Portal argued in , two years after the appearance of Ortega's essay, that while some new artists had failed to see a connection between innovation and social engagement, the more recent Latin American vanguardists had emerged in a milieu marked by the "humanization of art," conscious of a "double mission in aesthetics and in life" MPP Art, he explained, should always make contact in some way with the "disorderly humanity" that Ortega believed modernity had exiled from the work of art.

Although he recognized the critical power of what he called "formal conquests," that is, of the vanguards' "dehumanized" strategies in Ortega's terms, he also argued that art's paradoxical relationship to life should be one of engaged autonomy. A New World orientation permeated the work of both of these writers and of many of their contemporaries addressing the question of Latin American art's human substance.

Torres Bodet spelled it out.