Erfurt is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Jena and Weimar. Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale , a left tributary of the Elbe , has been known as "the green heart of Germany" from the late 19th century due to the dense forest covering the land. Thuringia is home to the Rennsteig , Germany's most well-known hiking trail, the winter resort of Oberhof , making it a well-known winter sports destination with half of Germany's Winter Olympic gold medals won through having been won by Thuringian athletes.
Thuringia was established in as a state of the Weimar Republic from a merger of the Ernestine duchies, except for Saxe-Coburg, but can trace its origins to the Frankish Duchy of Thuringia established around AD by King Dagobert I. Thuringia became part of the German Democratic Republic in , but was dissolved in during administrative reforms, its territory divided into the districts of Erfurt and Gera. Their origin is unknown. An older theory claims that they were successors of the Hermunduri , but research rejected the idea.
Other historians argue that the Thuringians were allies of the Huns , came to central Europe together with them, lived before in what is Galicia today. Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus first mentioned the Thuringii around The Thuringian Realm existed until after , the Landgraviate of Thuringia was the largest state in the region, persisting between and Afterwards the state known as Thuringia ceased to exist.
After the Treaty of Leipzig , Thuringia had its own dynasty again, the Ernestine Wettins , their various lands formed the Free State of Thuringia, founded in , together with some other small principalities. The eight stars around it represent the eight former states; the flag of Thuringia is a white-red bicolor, derived from the white and red stripes of the Ludowingian lion. The coat of arms and flag of Hesse are quite similar to the Thuringian ones, because they are derived from the Ludowingian symbols.
Symbols of Thuringia in popular culture are the Bratwurst and the Forest, because a large amount of the territory is forested. Named after the Thuringii tribe who occupied it around AD , Thuringia came under Frankish domination in the 6th century. Thuringia became a landgraviate in AD. After the extinction of the reigning Ludowingian line of counts and landgraves in and the War of the Thuringian Succession , the western half became independent under the name of "Hesse", never to become a part of Thuringia again.
Most of the remaining Thuringia came under the rule of the Wettin dynasty of the nearby Margraviate of Meissen , the nucleus of the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony. With the division of the house of Wettin in , Thuringia went to the senior Ernestine branch of the family, which subsequently subdivided the area into a number of smaller states, according to the Saxon tradition of dividing inheritance amongst male heirs; these were the "Saxon duchies", among others, of the states of Saxe-Weimar , Saxe-Eisenach , Saxe-Jena , Saxe-Meiningen , Saxe-Altenburg , Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Gotha.
Thuringia accepted the Protestant Reformation , Roman Catholicism was suppressed as early as Within the borders of modern Thuringia the Roman Catholic faith only survived in the Eichsfeld district, ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz , to a small degree in Erfurt and its immediate vicinity; the modern German black-red-gold tricolour flag's first appearance anywhere in a German-ethnicity sovereign state, within what today comprises Germany , occurred in as the state flag of the Principality of Reuss-Greiz , a principality whose lands were located within m.
Ugolino was born in Anagni ; the date of his birth varies in sources between c. Gregory IX was elevated to the papacy in the papal election of , he took the name "Gregory" because he formally assumed the papal office at the monastery of Saint Gregory ad Septem Solia. Gregory's Bull Parens scientiarum of , after the University of Paris strike of , resolved differences between the unruly university scholars of Paris and the local authorities, his solution was in the manner of a true follower of Innocent III: he issued what in retrospect has been viewed as the magna carta of the University, assuming direct control by extending papal patronage: his Bull allowed future suspension of lectures over a flexible range of provocations, from "monstrous injury or offense" to squabbles over "the right to assess the rents of lodgings".
In Gregory IX established the Papal Inquisition to regularize the persecution of heresy ; the Papal Inquisition was intended as replacing the chaotic and violent episcopal inquisitions, established by Lucius III in Gregory's aim was to bring order and legality to the process of dealing with heresy, since there had been tendencies by mobs of townspeople to burn alleged heretics without much of a trial. In Pope Gregory IX appointed a number of Papal Inquisitors Dominicans and Franciscans, for the various regions of France and parts of Germany ; the aim was to introduce due process and objective investigation into the beliefs of those accused to the erratic and unjust persecution of heresy on the part of local ecclesiastical and secular jurisdictions.
Gregory was a remarkably learned lawyer , he caused to be prepared Nova Compilatio decretalium, promulgated in numerous copies in This New Compilation of Decretals was the culmination of a long process of systematising the mass of pronouncements that had accumulated since the Early Middle Ages , a process, under way since the first half of the 12th century and had come to fruition in the Decretum and edited by the papally commissioned legist Gratian and published in The supplement completed the work.
In the Decretals, he invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum — perpetual servitude of the Jews — with the force of canonical law. According to this, the followers of the Talmud would have to remain in a condition of political servitude until Judgment Day ; the doctrine found its way into the doctrine of servitus camerae imperialis, or servitude subject to the Emperor's authority, promulgated by Frederick II.
The Jews were thus suppressed from having direct influence over the political process and the life of Christian states into the 19th century with the rise of liberalism. In , under the influence of Nicholas Donin , a Jewish convert to Christianity , Gregory ordered that all copies of the Jewish Talmud be confiscated. Following a public disputation between Christians and Jewish theologians, this culminated in a mass burning of some 12, handwritten Talmudic manuscripts on 12 June , in Paris.
Gregory was a supporter of the mendicant orders which he saw an excellent means for counteracting by voluntary poverty the love of luxury and splendour, possessing many ecclesiastics. He was a friend of Saint Dominic as well as Clare of Assisi. On 17 January , he approved the Order of Our Lady of Mercy for the redemption of captives, he appointed ten cardinals and canonized Saints Elisabeth of Hungary , Anthony of Padua , Francis of Assisi , of whom he had been a personal friend and early patron.
Frederick II appealed to the sovereigns of Europe complaining of his treatment. The suspension was followed by excommunication and threats of deposition. The Prince-Bishopric continued to grow in size, making its status during the Reformation a contentious issue; the Peace of Westphalia left the city bi-confessional and had the Prince-Bishops alternate between Catholic and Protestant.
The bishopric was dissolved in the German Mediatisation of , when it was incorporated into the neighboring Electorate of Hanover ; the see, the chapter, the convents and the Catholic charitable institutions were secularized. The territory of the see passed to Prussia in , to the Kingdom of Westphalia in , to Napoleonic France in , back to Hanover in With the end of the prince-bishopric, the future of the diocese became unclear.
The temporal protectorate exercised over so many mediaeval dioceses by laymen became, after the 12th century, hereditary in the Amelung family, from whom it passed to Henry the Lion. After Henry's overthrow, it came into the possession of Count Simon of Tecklenburg and his descendants, though it was the source of many conflicts with the bishops. On the other hand, the bishop and chapter, from the 13th century on, expanded their jurisdiction over many convents and hamlets. Scarcely any other German see freed itself so from civil jurisdiction within its territory; the royal prerogatives were transferred little by little to the bishop, e.
Among the prominent mediaeval bishops were: Drogo. He opposed the Reformers and successfully. However, the chapter and the Dominicans opposed a German service that dispensed with all the characteristics of the Roman Catholic Mass. Under them the Reformation swept over most of the diocese. However, he died soon afterwards, his successor, Francis of Wartenberg , fulfilled the task of imposing the Counter-Reformation decrees. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sayn disambiguation. Mainz: Franz Kirchheim.
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Imperial Abbey of Corvey. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Double-headed eagle with coats of arms of individual states, the symbol of the Holy Roman Empire painting from An illustration from Schedelsche Weltchronik depicting the structure of the Reich: The Holy Roman Emperor is sitting; on his right are three ecclesiastics; on his left are four secular electors. The Cross of Mathilde , a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen — , who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque.
The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen , the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree , enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gem s. A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna Italy , bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria. The Nebra sky disk , c. Johannes Gutenberg c. Martin Luther — , Protestant Reformer.
The Danish Resources c. - Growth and Recession | brill
Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz Old Town view from the citadel November View north along the Rhine with the old Winterhafen in the lower left, the other port facilities further north.
Erfurt: Cathedral and St. Severus' Church. Gera: Untermhaus district, St. Mary's Church and White Elster river. An example of books burned by the Germans. Cologne, seen from the International Space Station. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. A contemporary woodcut depicts the Second Defenestration of Prague , which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, and therefore of the first phase of the Thirty Years' War.
Contemporary woodcut depicting the Old Town Square execution of Protestant aristocrats in Prague, Territory of the Imperial Abbey of Corvey in the 18th century. Initial page of the "Wernigerode Gospels". A 10th-century book illumination from the scriptorium of Corvey Abbey. Princely power was exercised by the Benedictine abbot of the imperial double monastery of Stavelot and Malmedy, founded in Stavelot Abbey.
Sponheim is a municipality in the district of Bad Kreuznach in Rhineland-Palatinate in western Germany. Detail of tomb relief of Johannes Trithemius by Tilman Riemenschneider. A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Ecclesiastical lands in the Holy Roman Empire, Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg was one of several imperial counties ruled by the House of Sayn-Wittgenstein. The coat of arms of the Princes of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg.
Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany. Minister-president Peter Altmeier at the Rittersturz Conference in The Peter Altmeier Monument in Koblenz. Paderborn Cathedral around Neuhaus Castle, Paderborn, residence of the prince-bishops. Western and Eastern Franconia, about The County of Sponheim was an independent territory in the Holy Roman Empire that lasted from the 11th century until the early 19th century. Christopher I, Margrave of Baden-Baden , joint ruler — Konrad von Marburg was a medieval German priest and nobleman. He was commissioned by the pope to combat the Albigensians.
Konrad von Marburg, detail of a 13th-century church window, Elisabeth Church , Marburg. Tracing Transitions European Borderlands- Living with barriers and bridges Parliamentary Diplomacy in European and Global Governance Social Sciences and Sustainability Spaces and Identities in Border Regions.
Politics — Media — Subjects. Politics — Media — Subjects Global Change and Human Mobility Deciding Where to Live Politics — Media — Subjects, Bielefeld, transcript p. Services and the Green Economy Anspruch, Wirklichkeiten, Perspektiven La rencontre avec l'autre. Aufbrechen, Arbeiten, Ankommen.
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Gefangen in den Echokammern des Staates? Connor, Ulla Article for general public Refugee reception within a common European asylum system: looking at convergences and divergences through a local-to-local comparison Glorius, Birgit ; Oesch, Lucas ; Nienaber, Birte ; Doomernik, Jeroen in Erdkunde , 73 1 , Oder warum nicht? Structural framework conditions and individual motivations for youth-mobility: A macro-micro level approach for different European country-types Hemming, Karen ; Schlimbach, Tabea ; Tilmann, Frank ; Nienaber, Birte ; Roman, Monica ; Skrobanek, Jan in Migration Letters , 16 1 , Why is it so hard?
And for whom?
Mit oder gegen den Strom? Le travail frontalier dans une optique comparative : Contextes et enjeux Pigeron, Isabelle ; Wille, Christian in Borders in Perspective , 2 , Capturing agency in different educational settings: A comparative study on youth perceptions of mobility-framing structures Schlimbach, Tabea ; Skrobanek, Jan ; Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja ; Vysotskaya, Volha in Migration Letters Wille, Christian Article for general public Cross-border cooperation as practice formation. Sustainability science Was bedeutet jung und mobil? Rempart ou pilori? Do the relative patterns of green space within cities impact carbon uptake?
How does the relative spatial pattern of green within cities impact carbon uptake? My research in seven minutes Carr, Constance Presentation The socio-spatial production of non-market housing in urban regions under growth pressure: Thinking comparatively and relationally Carr, Constance Presentation Sustainability in small states: Luxembourg as a post-suburban space under growth pressure in need of a cross-national sustainability Carr, Constance in Brinkmann, Robert; Garren, Sandra J.
Changing perspectives on borders and praxeological approaches Connor, Ulla Presentation , July Im Feld der Praxistheorien. Poster: "Praktiken territorialer Grenzen. Temporary migration programmes: the cause or antidote for migrant worker exploitation in UK agriculture. Green financing, interrupted.
Sustainable practices of the energy transition e Evidence from the biogas and building industries in Luxembourg Faller, Fabian ; Schulz, Christian in Applied Geography , Peter ; Nienaber, Birte Scientific Conference Cross-border vocational education and training as a process of cross-border learning.
Peter Scientific Conference Focal firms, grand coalitions or global city makers? Globalization vs. Landesplanung noch nicht im Griff Hesse, Markus Article for general public The logics and politics of circulation: exploring the urban and non-urban spaces of Amazon. Offshore Hesse, Markus in Local Environment From paper prototyping to citizen participation: Co-designing geolocated cultural heritage applications that trigger personal reflection Jones, Catherine ; Lykourentzou, Ioanna Scientific Conference , April Luxembourgish case in European comparison.
Institutionalizing alternative economic spaces? Migration and integration — some aspects of migration in Europe and in Luxembourg Nienaber, Birte Conference given outside the academic context Youth on the MOVE? Peter Poster Flows and mobilities in the Greater Region Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle Conference given outside the academic context Samuk, Sahizer Presentation , June Emerging urban form — Emerging pollution: Modelling endogenous health and environmental effects of traffic on residential choice Schindler, Mirjam ; Caruso, Geoffrey in Environment and Planning B A political economy of attention, mindfulness and consumerism: reclaiming the mindful commons Schmid, Benedikt in Local Environment Diverse alternatives empirical evidence from German speaking scholarship Schulz, Christian ; Krueger, Robert in Local Environment , 23 7 , Virtuaalsed agendid minevikku ennustamas Sikk, Kaarel Article for general public Impact of visa liberalisation on countries of destination Sommarribas, Adolfo ; Nienaber, Birte Report One-way street?
Understanding and conceptualizing youth mobility. Studying Borders Wille, Christian Article for general public Positioning Vancouver through urban sustainability strategies? Brexit: Mind the gap! Identity and peripherality discourses: a border thinking Blondel, Cyril Scientific Conference , September How does the spatial distribution of green within cities impact carbon flows? Co-op housing: Is there a better form of social housing?
Carr, Constance Presentation Urban Sustainability prioritising economic development over social and environmental justice: A tale of two urban regions in Europe Carr, Constance Presentation Des espaces verts pour une ville durable: quelle demande?
Les cas de Bruxelles et Luxembourg Caruso, Geoffrey Conference given outside the academic context Christmann, Nathalie Scientific Conference , April. Christmann, Nathalie Doctoral thesis Tracing the place of home. Der Staat als soziologisches Objekt. Transforming borders in Europe. Concepts and spatial planning practices Connor, Ulla Presentation Youth mobility in Europe and its social, political and economic macro-drivers.
Peter Scientific Conference , October Herausforderung partizipative Stadtplanung Hesse, Markus Article for general public How many likes does a university need? Hesse, Markus Presentation , May A Negotiated Landscape. Dynamic qualitative filtering for linked geo visualisations: a prototype for exploring the collective memory of Instagram posts Jones, Catherine ; Guido, Daniele ; Severo, Marta Scientific Conference , April Addressing climate change through green building in Luxembourg and Freiburg: achieving urban sustainability or business as usual?
International student mobility and the life course. Transitions, sequences and turning points among credit and degree mobile students from Luxembourg Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja Scientific Conference , October. Being forced? Getting far? Speaking the language? What matters in the process of going abroad as a student? Wieder-Errichtung von Grenzkontrollen in Europa?
Why do young working people find Luxembourg attractive? The refugee camp as a space of multiple ambiguities and subjectivities Oesch, Lucas in Political Geography , Longitudinal study of LLC student destinations. Migration and the Search for Home. Le travail frontalier au Luxembourg : Elements de contexte et de portrait statistique Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle Scientific Conference Le travail frontalier au Luxembourg. The core of our existence and pink ribbons Samuk, Sahizer Article for general public Politics for Males made by Males: Why do the Photos tell so much?
Samuk, Sahizer Article for general public Making other worlds possible Schmid, Benedikt in Local Environment , 22 7 , Is Luxembourg a part of the cosmopolitan migratory universe? The perception of Luxembourg as an international destination among young employees Vysotskaya, Volha Presentation , June Is Luxembourg an attractive destination for European young workers for boosting their careers?
Youth transition to the labour market during employment mobility. Integration and sport : run together to discover the city. How foreigners enter into the city through experience of sport group Vysotskaya, Volha ; Kerivel, Aude Presentation Integration und Zusammenhalt? Mobile transitions: Exploring synergies for urban sustainability research Affolderbach, Julia ; Schulz, Christian in Urban Studies , 53 9 , Policies and Normalizations. Discussant Response to R. Powerful sustainable development master - signifiers in urban planning discourses Carr, Constance Presentation Be constructive!
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Evrard, Estelle in Geopolitics Biogas — Power — Space. Belval, ein Meteoriteneinschlag Hesse, Markus Article for general public On borrowed size, flawed urbanisation and emerging enclave spaces Hesse, Markus in European Urban and Regional Studies , 23 4 , Periurban Luxembourg. Science oder Fiction Hesse, Markus Article for general public Wachstum vs. Suburbia - quo vadis?
Reconciling Competing Globalizations through Regionalisms? Koff, Harlan ; Maganda, Carmen in Globalizations , 13 6 , Where in cities do "rich" and "poor" people live? Refugees in rural Europe — potentials for the local labour market? Nienaber, Birte Scientific Conference , June Globalizing Rural Areas. Internationale Migration und Planungsdokumente? Political belonging and fantasies of inclusion. Romanians in London and Paris. Economic impact of cross-border work on the communes of residence : example at the french-luxembourgish border Pigeron-Piroth, Isabelle ; Belkacem, Rachid Scientific Conference , October Le Freeport Luxembourg.
Modelling urban structure and exposure to traffic-induced air pollution Schindler, Mirjam Presentation , November Spatial modelling of feedback effects between urban structure and traffic-induced air pollution - Insights from quantitative geography and urban economics Schindler, Mirjam Doctoral thesis An agent-based model to simulate the feedback effect between traffic-induced air pollution and urban structure Schindler, Mirjam ; Caruso, Geoffrey Scientific Conference , September Sustainable resource governance in global production networks — challenges for human geography.
Schmitt, Thomas ; Schulz, Christian in Erdkunde , 70 4 , Resettlement and Humanitarian Admission Programmes in Europe — what works? Prosaic state governance of community low carbon transitions Taylor Aiken, Gerald in Political Geography , 55 November , Using modern technology to support museum activities. Velasco Pufleau, Monica Scientific Conference What borders do young mobile Europeans perceive in Europe? Analyzing society-nature interactions: Political-ecological frameworks Wayessa, Gutu Olana Presentation , March Mixed-methods approach in environmental social sciences Wayessa, Gutu Olana Presentation , March Cross-border regional policy cooperation as cross-border practice formation: a topic outline Wille, Christian Scientific Conference , November Une analyse pluridimensionnelle Wille, Christian Presentation Grenze als soziale Praxis.
Beyond Luxembourg. Boosting and mobilizing sustainability: Why European sustainable urban development initiatives are slow to materialize Becker, Tom Scientific Conference , April The embodied patchworks of sustainability master-signifiers Carr, Constance Scientific Conference , July. The power of sustainable development Carr, Constance in Regions Magazine , 4 , Quilting around the master-signifier of sustainable development Carr, Constance Scientific Conference , October. Local opportunities and scalar contradictions Carr, Constance Presentation A perspective on urban economics and geographical agent-based models.
Greener and larger neighbourhoods make cities more sustainable! Monocentric urban simulation models: getting closer to fractal properties and landscape representation Caruso, Geoffrey ; Frankhauser, Pierre ; Vuidel, Gilles ; Thomas, Isabelle ; Peeters, Dominique Scientific Conference , November. Dwelling in border regions — discourse matters Christmann, Nathalie Scientific Conference , June. Dwelling trends in border regions - towards an inter-urban discourse analysis Christmann, Nathalie Scientific Conference , June.
Residential mobility in cross-border regions — an inter-urban discourse analysis Christmann, Nathalie Scientific Conference , April. Energetisches Regionalisieren. Dielectric breakdown and urban growth: Morphological similarities or conceptual links? Surrounding density and green space. What effects of proximity on land prices?
Dialogic City. Selling the region as a hub: the promises, beliefs and contradictions of economic development strategies attracting logistics and flows Hesse, Markus in Cidell, Julie; Prytherch, David Eds. Transdisciplinarity or "engaged pluralism"? Wachstum, Innovation, Metropolregionen — ein epistemologischer Turn in der Raumordnungspolitik ff? Local or imported?
Assessing the flint preferences of the Mesolithic habitants in Estonia and northern Latvia with the help geochemical methods. MOVE: Mapping mobility — pathways, institutions and structural effects of youth mobility in Europe - presentation of the project Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja Conference given outside the academic context Urban Air Makes Who Free? Three methods, four outcomes! Bildungsbericht Luxemburg Dissemination of information on voluntary return: How to reach irregular migrants not in contact with the authorities - Luxembourg Li, Lisa ; Petry, David ; Nienaber, Birte Report Global flows, local conflicts and the challenge of urban governance: Managing the city-airport interface in London, UK Mcdonough, Evan Scientific Conference , May Nienaber, Birte Scientific Conference , March Neck Reinhard, Schmidinger Heinrich Hrsg.
Der facettenreiche Luxemburg-Effekt! The rural regions of the old-industrialized Saarland - between globalization and regionalization. Viele Sprachen, viele Kulturen. How should rural policy be evaluated if it aims to foster community involvement in environmental management? Optimum structure and equity in a city with local traffic-induced air pollution Schindler, Mirjam Scientific Conference , November Traffic-induced air pollution concerns and policy design Schindler, Mirjam Scientific Conference , September. Traffic-induced air pollution concerns and policy design — Impact analysis on urban structure and distance-related exposure equity Schindler, Mirjam Scientific Conference , July