Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

Sue Bohlin offers a quiz covering Bible basics rather than trivia. That's because we're not reading and studying the Bible. Who wrote the first five books of the Old Testament? .. Probe fulfills this mission through our Mind Games conferences for youth and adults, our 3-minute daily radio program, and.

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He said that the country is facing terrorism, which is being promoted as sectarianism -- a condemnable heinous conspiracy. He said that there is no sectarian conflict rather linking terrorism with any school of thought itself is terrorism because terrorists have no religion. The government should control 26 banned groups to work freely who are changing their identities everyday. Until they are stopped from working, terrorism will continue in the motherland, he said.

If the objective is saved by sacrificing everything then it is a victory and if everything is saved but the objective is compromised then no defeat could be bigger than it, says a TNFJ press release. In a special message on Muharram-ul-Haram, he said that Nato and US aggression could only be confronted by adopting the path of 'Hussainiyat' and rulers should take practical measures to save the honour and dignity of the nation. One person reportedly killed and several injured as a blast took place outside the venue of the ongoing Tourism Festval Without identifying his name, the press release added that the leader conducted attacks against coalition forces and distributed weapons throughout the area.

Haqqani network is the military wing of Taliban outfit operating in the capital city Kabul and the eastern provinces along the border with Pakistan. That's why we follow and attack their positions. It is suspected Kony had just ended a briefing. Security officials reported having detained 29 armed militants in different areas of the country. He added that during the operation, 20 villages of the above districts were cleared from anti-government elements and 23 security checkpoints established there.

Meanwhile, a statement released by the Interior Ministry says that during the past 24 hours nine militants have been detained, one killed and another wounded. The Interior Ministry also says that during this period, 73 landmines, kilos of explosives, kilos of narcotics and some other combat-related equipment have been seized. In the meantime, a statement released by the press office of the ISAF in Kabul says last night and during the day, seven armed anti-government elements were detained in Ghazni, Paktika and Wardag provinces.

The statement also says that a number of weapons were also seized during the operations. The armed opposition has not commented in this yet. Witnesses told police that Areepeng Jehmu, 49, was driving his motorcycle to a friend's home in his village when a gunman riding pillion on another motorcycle fired on him six times with an 11mm pistol. The assailants then fled, he said. Areepeng took six bullets in the body and left leg and fell from his bike. He was taken to Narathiwat Ratchanakarin hospital by neighbours and was later pronounced dead, Pol Col Suthon said.

He blamed separatist militants. In addition, the investigation has no information about relationship between the criminal group which included a terrorist from Taraz - Interfax-Kazakhstan and other groups, as well as international terrorist criminal groups. The investigation is under way," the spokesman of the Prosecutor-General's Office, Nurdaulet Suindikov, told a briefing in Astana today.

At the same time, he added that "since the basic details have been clarified, I think the investigation will not be long". As was reported earlier, on 12 November in Taraz a supporter of jihad, year-old Maksat Kariyev, robbed an arms shop and started shooting and committed an act of terror. As a result of his actions, seven people were killed.

Earlier, on 31 October, two explosions rocked Atyrau. Initially, a bomb exploded in a garbage can. A few minutes later, a man blew himself up and died on the spot in a vacant lot in the Saryarka neighbourhood. The investigation revealed that the Soldiers of the Caliphate radical organization was involved in the terror attacks in Atyrau. The terrorist group that was active in the Atyrau region took orders from the Soldiers of Caliphate radical organization, formed by citizens of Kazakhstan who fight on the Afghan militants' side and who are in hiding abroad. Two blasts shook Atyrau on October 31, a bomb went off in a garbage bin first and then a suicide bomber blew himself up.

Investigators later established that the blasts were part of a criminal organization's plan to intimidate law enforcement and government officials. Bombings near the buildings of the city administration and of the prosecutor's office were part of their plan, which did not aim to kill people, however. According to An-Nahar newspaper,?

They also voiced concern over the firing of rockets across the Blue Line from South Lebanon into Israel [on Tuesday],? However, the report quoted a diplomat as saying that the UN session was? Another unnamed diplomat told the daily that participants in the talks also voiced? The current Lebanese government is dominated by Hezbollah and its allies, which are insisting that the country cease all cooperation with the STL, set up in the wake of ex-Premier Rafik Hariri?

Last week, Prime Minister Najib Mikati said that he will resign if the cabinet fails to provide its funding share. This is a scheduled meeting on the status of and was not in response to the rocket attacks yesterday. Army guards at the gate of the Filla Baidoa military headquarters in Mogadishu stopped a suicide bomber dressed in Somali military uniform from entering the base, prompting the attacker to detonate the explosives, state-run Radio Mogadishu said.

National Army Chief Abdelkarim Yusuf Adan said the army guards stopped the attacker from getting into the base, adding that eight soldiers were slightly injured by the explosion. Other reports said some of the wounded soldiers died of their injuries at hospital, but the news has not yet been verified. The Somali government said that militant group of Al-Shabaab was behind the attack, but the group, which had been carrying out similar attacks, made no comment on the latest assault.

The group had been waging low-level attacks against Somali government forces and African Union AU peacekeepers in Mogadishu since their withdrawal from the capital in August. A number of people, mostly civilians, have either been killed or wounded in separate roadside bomb and grenade attacks in Mogadishu this week. Al-Shabaab militants have vowed to carry out guerilla attacks following their retreat from the capital after government forces and AU peacekeepers launched major offensives there.

A first group of embassy staff are reported to be flying out to Dubai. The Foreign Office has said that "some staff" are leaving "for their own safety", but has not confirmed if all its diplomats are being pulled out. The attack followed Britain's decision to impose further sanctions on Iran over its nuclear programme. It led to Iran reducing diplomatic relations with the UK. Protesters ransacked the embassy and a UK residential compound in the capital, burning British flags and a car. Iran has said it regretted the incident. With flowers and laurel wreathes, fourteen army and security forces martyrs on Tuesday were escorted from Damascus Police Hospital and Tishreen, Homs and Tartous Military Hospitals to their final resting place in their cities and villages.

The martyrs were targeted by the armed terrorist groups while they were in the line of duty in Homs and Damascus Countryside. Solemn processions were held for the martyrs as they were carried on shoulders and covered with the national flag while the Military Band was playing the "Martyr" and the "Farewell" music. The families of the martyrs expressed pride in their son's martyrdom, saying that they sacrificed their lives to defend their homeland, stressing that Syria will remain steadfast in the face of the conspiracy which targets its unity and stability.

They said that the Syrian people will overcome this ordeal through national unity, and that the blood of the martyrs will protect Syria and make it stronger in the face of challenges. The martyrs' relatives affirmed their readiness to sacrifice their own lives to defend Syria, holding the Arab League and the opposition abroad responsible for the murder and violence against the army and civilians, calling for punishing those responsible for the crimes against their sons. They affirmed that the martyrs were devoted to their country, and that martyrdom is the least one could offer for the sake of Syria and its dignity, stressing that Syria is capable of confronting the mentality of destruction adopted by armed terrorist groups.

Taliban militants fighting Afghan and NATO-led troops have been largely relying on suicide and roadside bombings over the past couple of years. In the latest roadside bombing for which the Taliban outfit claimed responsibility, one NATO soldier sustained injuries in northern Baghlan province on Tuesday. A source at Homs Customs told SANA that the clash resulted in arresting those who were in the car which was carrying several firearms including RPGs, guns, machine guns anda large amount of ammunition.

The source stressed that there were no injuries among the customs patrol members. Armed Group Burglarizes Publications Distribution Truck in Hama An armed terrorist group driving two cars, one with no registration plate and the other with disfigured plate, on Tuesday morning burglarized a closed Isuzu truck with registration plate which belongs to the Syrian Establishment of Publications Distribution in Hama governorate, central Syria.

A source at the Establishment told SANA that the truck was heading to Aleppo governorate after delivering publications to Hama when a terrorist group blocked the driver's way in Mourk area and took the car to an unknown place after releasing the driver, Mohammed Amin Mohammad. Armed terrorist groups intercepted trucks of the Establishment several times before while distributing publications to Aleppo and Hama governorates. The authorities found in one of the houses used by terrorists a mangonel ready for throwing bombs, added the source.

Three stolen vehicles, one of them booby-trapped, with fake plates were also found. Inside the cars there found to be hand grenades, fake car plates, loudspeakers and quivers. The authorities in Homs also released a number of the citizens who were kidnapped by the armed terrorist groups. The competent authorities on Tuesday carried out an operation in Ashira neighborhood in the central province to release the kidnapped people and they are in a good situation according to an official source in Homs Governorate.

The source told SANA correspondent that the competent authorities arrested a number of gunmen and no one of the authorities' members was harmed. Vincent K. During his visit, Lt. Brooks, an Alexandria, Va. Brooks also commented on the similarities between the U.

Brooks said during his meeting with Gen. Tajik istan gained independence with the fall of the Soviet Union more than 15 years ago, only to endure a bloody five-year civil war. The Russian Federation was secured the Tajik -Afghan border until , at which point the government of Tajik istan assumed the difficult task of defending its border against terrorist forces and narcotics smugglers.

Much of the challenge is due to the mountainous terrain and Tajik istan's limited military capabilities. With the help of Third Army, the Tajik istan military has trained alongside U. Third Army's roles in joint training events help build stronger relationships between these partnering nations. Brooks said to Gen. Brooks said to Gen-Lt. Ramil Nadirov, Chief of General Staff. As approaches and U.

S troops withdraw from Afghanistan, Tajik istan, as one of the bordering countries, will face many challenges. After the meeting, gifts were exchanged and all participants were pleased to have had the chance to meet and talk about joint operations. Brooks said. With visits like these, the Third Army is strengthening ties by educating, inspiring, and building relationships with our partner nations through joint operations and training events. Would be truly wicked if accurate, however I do have doubts.

I've chucked and earlier article at the bottom of the page. The previous report we had said that the NTC was planning on "supporting" the Syrian rebels. From the Libyan point of view it makes sense as a way to get a bunch of former fighters off your back and into some fighting. No idea on the authenticity of the original source but worth watching for confirmation or denial anywhere else.

It has sent of its troops to support local militants against the Assad regime, according to media reports. The fighters have joined the Free Syria Army, the militant group carrying out attacks on government forces in Syria, reports the Egyptian news website Al-Ray Al-Arabi citing its sources. The report says the troops entered Syria through Turkish territory. The NTC allegedly welcomed volunteers to join the surge. The Libyan governing body reportedly pledged to supply arms, money and fighters to the Syrians. Bashar Assad?

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The Libyan population is in possession of many weapons, which they received during the civil war by plundering military depots, through smuggling or as aid from NATO members and countries like Qatar, which took part in the ousting of Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC has difficulties in disarming the ex-rebels, who want to keep their firearms, either for personal protection or as means to make their living.

In November, the Libyan capital, Tripoli, saw a mass protest by the rebels, who demanded that the NTC pay their wages. Some even threatened to overthrow the new government the way they did with the previous one, unless their demands are met. Funneling armed, underemployed and eager-to-fight youngsters to another country could be a convenient move for the NTC. The Syrian government, however, is likely to see them as mercenaries, which NATO member Turkey allowed into their country as an alternative to a full-scale military campaign, which is impossible without the sanction of the United Nations Security Council.

NTC sources say Libya will offer aid, fighters to Syrian revolutionaries Excerpt from report by Khalid Mahmud headlined: "Libyan sources to Al-Sharq al-Awsat: We will offer all the necessary support to the Syrian revolutionaries to get rid of Al-Asad's regime," published by Saudi-owned leading pan-Arab daily Al-Sharq al-Awsat website on 27 November Libyan National Transitional Council [NTC] officials have said to Al-Sharq al-Awsat that the NTC has decided to go "the full way in offering all possible aid" to the Syrian civilians, who demand the toppling of the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Asad in order to spite the Syrian regime, which the Libyan revolutionaries accuse of offering logistic and military support in the past to the regime of the late Col Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi.

An informed source at the Libyan NTC has revealed to Al-Sharq al-Awsat that this unannounced resolution implicitly means offering money, military equipment, in addition to fighters to support what the source described as the "popular revolution" in Syria to topple Al-Asad's regime. The source, who asked us not to identify him, adds in a telephone interview from the Libyan capital Tripoli: "Yes, the representatives of the Syrian revolution have asked us to give them support, and we have promised to respond to their requests according to the available circumstances and resources.

We believe that the Al-Asad regime ought to go, and we will help in achieving this. The source indicates that Libya supports the resolutions to impose sanctions on the Syrian regime at all regional and international forums until this regime acquiesces to the will of its people, as the source says.

With talks that are supposed to take place in the Turkish capital between Abd-al-Hakim Bilhaj, official in charge of the Tripoli Military Council, and Turkish officials, the predictions escalate about the Libyan revolutionaries offering military support to their Syrian counterparts. Libyan sources, who refuse to be identified, say that the NTC announcement of Bilhaj's presence in Turkey to inspect the situation of the Libyan wounded being treated there perhaps is a media coverage for his mission of conducting secret talks with representatives of the Syrian National Council and Turkish Government officials aimed at discussing the way to offer aid to the popular revolution in Syria.

Syrian National Council officials, during a semi-secret visit to Libya at the end of last month and the beginning of this month, conducted talks with various Libyan national powers and the NTC with the aim of getting military and logistic aid to enable the demonstrators in Syria to confront the bloody oppression by the Al-Asad regime. These meetings included a large number of commanders of the revolutionaries and security battalions, in addition to NTC officials. Abdallah Nakir, chairman the Council of Tripoli's Revolutionaries, who met the delegation of the Syrian National Council earlier, has told Al-Sharq al-Awsat that the Syrian delegation asked for military and financial aid and advice on the way to confront the oppression practiced by the Syrian authorities against the unarmed demonstrators in the various Syrian cities.

Nakir adds: "Of course they asked for all types of aid they can get, from weapons and money to fighters. We consider that everyone ought to support the pursuits of these people to get rid of Al-Asad's regime. However, the establishment of a "buffer zone" inside Syria, as the Arab League promotes, or the emergence of a region that completely is under the control of the Syrian revolutionaries might resolve these problems. On the other hand sources in the Libyan city of Misratah do not exclude the possibility that cargoes of weapons have been already sent. A man, who previously transported weapons to the Libyan revolutionaries, has reported that smugglers have been arrested in Misratah while selling small arms to Syrian buyers.

Humaydah al-Majiri, member of Tripoli's Military Council, says that the Libyans are in solidarity with the Syrian cause. Al-Majiri adds: "Bashar sent weapons to Al-Qadhafi when he was fighting us. There are hundreds who want to go to Syria to fight, or to offer all the help they can. A special group was set up to investigate the incident. When firing at people the perpetrator shouted "Allahu Akbar". One of the injured persons is soldier, while another is car park guard. The perpetrator was detained at the Topkapi Museum. Do you have any feedback?

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Contact our journalist at agency trend. The airline, which previously operated under the name, Pars Aviation Services Company, has been blacklisted by a United Nations Security Council Resolution in June where it brands the carrier as a "company involved in nuclear or ballistic missile activities". The measure was introduced to put pressure on Iran against pursuing its controversial nuclear plans. Iran insists its nuclear programme is for peaceful purposes only.

Furthermore, it is believed that members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard used Pars Aviation jets for training. Allegedly, the airline changed its name to bypass the Security Council Resolution. A gunman opened fire near Istanbul's Blue Mosque on Wednesday, wounding two people in the heart of Istanbul's tourist center, a witness told a news agency.

The witness told Turkey's Dogan news agency says he helped carry two injured people into ambulances after the attack. State-run TRT television says the motive of the attack was not clear and that the gunman reportedly fired randomly. It was not clear if the gunman was captured, but police reinforced security at the site, state-run TRT television said.

The area is home to former Byzantine church of Haghia Sophia as well as the Ottoman palace of Topkapi. All rights reserved. Top article only, please. Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei refused Wednesday to mention Iran when asked for comment on the attack. Hong would say only that "China always maintains that the security and dignity of diplomats and diplomatic institutions should be safeguarded and protected.

They hauled down the British flag, torched an embassy vehicle and pelted buildings with petrol bombs. Hilde Steinfeld, a Foreign Ministry spokeswoman in Oslo, said the decision to close the embassy was taken late Tuesday, but that Norway's diplomatic staff have not been evacuated from the country. Steinfeld would not go into greater detail, but said "the decision follows security concerns.

On Tuesday, protesters stormed the British embassy in what apparently began as a state-approved show of anger over the latest Western sanctions to punish Iran for defiance over its nuclear program. The protesters took down the Union Jack, set fire to an embassy vehicle and pelted buildings with petrol bombs.

Name: image The owners of the vehicles have no criminal records and the investigating authorities have so far found no connection between them. Little after after 10 p. At around At a. The car arsons have also affected nearby vehicles. A team of officers from Sofia's 7th Regional Police Directorate is working on the case. In April , 10 cars burned down overnight in three residential districts in Sofia, five of them in Mladost-1, three in Slatina and another two in Moderno Predgradie.

The Belarusian Supreme Court began to pronounce a verdict to Dmitry Konovalov and Vladislav Korolev, who are accused of a terrorist act committed in the Minsk metro on April 11, The verdict? The verdict consists of pages, he said. The pronouncement of the verdict will take hours. The public prosecutor demanded death penalty for the defendants. Meanwhile, Belarusian human rights activists and independent observers do not consider the guilt proved. The terrorist explosion killed 15 people and injured more than people at the Oktyabrskaya metro station in Minsk on April On November Attempt such unlawful acts was foiled by law enforcement officials , reports "Interfax".

At this time, the government house in the press conference the head of South Ossetia , in which he urged citizens to remain calm in South Ossetia. Kokoity said he would not allow destabilization. Some 3, supporters of South Ossetia's former presidential candidate Alla Dzhioyeva are taking part in a peace march in Tskhinval, demanding acknowledgement of her victory in the republic's presidential election.

The peace march is a form of public disagreement with the authorities' decision, selected by Dzhioyeva's election headquarters. The march went past the Russian Embassy in South Ossetia, and the headquarters of Anatoly Bibilov, who was Dzhioyeva's rival, and proceeded to the square in front of the government building. Police tightened security around the square. Alla Dzhioyeva and General Anatoly Barankevich are in the first rank of the march; a crowd of people around them is guarding them.

It is snowing in Tskhinval at present. According to Lipowicz's office, the action is "in relation to media reports" following clashes during Independence Day marches between nationalists and opponents. On Tuesday, Polish daily Rzeczpospolita reported that "anarchists and leftists are proud of their brutal attacks on people with right-wing sympathies," and that this was being flaunted on internet forums.

Some people were arrested amid the clashes that ensued, 92 of whom were Germans with anti-fascist affiliations. An internet forum user claimed that he had joined in an attack on three men because "they looked like nationalists. Car theft continues to be a major issue for Chilean drivers, as nearly 33, cars were stolen in in the country between Jan. The officials figures show that the number of cars stolen has continually increased since Police were able to recover 80 percent of the stolen cars, or 25, units, so far this year.

The neighborhoods in Chile? Police cited increasing car sales in Chile as a reason for growing theft, but the National Automotive Association of Chile Anac responded by calling the explanation too simplistic. Anac points instead to increased demand for cars that were obtained illegally. Carabineros, in turn, point their fingers to a new law in Bolivia which allowe undocumented vehicles to be registered without proof of ownership and to move freely in that country.

Carabineros reported that 1, cars stolen in Chile were found in Bolivia. The growing incidence of car theft has led a group of parliamentarians to promote a bill that increases penalties for car theft. The initiative would punish car thieves with at least five years in prison, as opposed to current regulations that set minimum sentences at 61 days in jail. By Mariana Penaforte editor santiagotimes. Newmont Mining Corp said it has suspended construction work at its Conga project in Peru in agreement with the government, for the safety of employees and the community.

During the past month, the Conga project and nearby operations have been halted intermittently due to protests. Local community and political leaders worry Newmont's project would cause pollution and sap water supplies used by farmers. The company has said its environmental study adheres to the highest standards.

El transporte pesado logra rebaja para legalizar? Obtuvo una reducci? En ese sentido, considerando la situaci? La viceministra de Pol? Lo que significa que si un remolque o semirremolque tiene una antig? La determinaci? El presidente de la C? El convenio dispone que en el marco de la Ley , todas las? Durante la ma? En el Valle, cerca de camiones de alto tonelaje obstruyeron el paso en el puente de Parotani, carretera al occidente, donde el sector cerr? En Oruro, la C? El presidente de la organizaci?

En Sucre, cuatro accesos fueron obstruidos por 50 camiones de alto tonelaje, entre ellos El Tejar y Yotala, que conecta a la capital con Potos? En el departamento de Santa Cruz se efectu? El sector industrial expres? Estos bloqueos afectan el traslado de los productos, por lo que no podemos comercializarlos. Se calcula que por cada d? Se reanudan los viajes desde la terminal Horas antes de que se conozca el acuerdo suscrito entre el Gobierno y los transportistas, las salidas de buses desde la terminal de La Paz se reanudaron a Oruro, Sucre, Potos? Hasta las El jefe de la terminal de buses de La Paz, coronel Agust?

Por ello, indic? Dijo que los choferes de los buses tuvieron que? Sin embargo, sostuvo que en el sector del puente de Parotani no existen v? Por este motivo, el jefe policial asegur? Moreno sostuvo que desde las Anoche, La Raz? Sin embargo, Moreno no contest? Los dirigentes del transporte pesado informaron de que dieron instrucciones a sus afiliados para desbloquear todas las rutas. En dos operativos se incautaron de 1. En el aeropuerto Jorge Wilstermann se aprehendi? En los mismos estaba h? Posteriormente, en un alojamiento de la avenida Aroma, detuvieron a un presunto distribuidor con 84 sobres de coca?

El ciudadano es boliviano y en las pr? En otro operativo, en la avenida Sajama, otras dos personas fueron detenidas con 13 gramos de coca? Los vecinos de la zona fueron desalojados La Polic? El allanamiento se lleva a cabo en una vivienda m? Los agentes estar? A group of workers at the mine downed tools Monday to protest what they said were unmet contract demands. Collahuasi workers held a one-day strike earlier this year and in held a day work stoppage during their collective bargaining process.

This was the longest ever strike at a privately-held copper mine in Chile. FARC official Rodrigo Granda was captured in the Venezuelan capital in , although Colombian forces initially claimed that he was detained on Colombian territory. Uribe also stated that his requests to carry out intelligence work in the neighboring country fell on deaf ears. I replied it was necessary to do intelligence before sending soldiers, silence.

La embarcaci? La dependencia agreg? Este caso no es el? Otras 1,5 toneladas de coca? Se descubri? El viernes pasado, la Polic? Antes de eso, agentes desmantelaron dos laboratorios para procesar droga en Pallatanga Chimborazo y en el cant? Pedro Gallegos, director de Antinarc? Ese alcaloide? La Direcci?

De este n? La mejor egresada de esta promoci? Paralelamente, la Polic? Los motivos de estas bajas van desde la comisi? Los hombres fueron arrestados cuando navegaban en una canoa en el r? La operaci? El juez del caso, Walter P? El pasado 16 de noviembre, un militar ecuatoriano muri? El presidente de Ecuador, Rafael Correa, atribuy? En la frontera binacional, de unos km, operan la guerrilla de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia FARC, marxistas , traficantes de drogas y contrabandistas de combustibles, seg?

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A new report detailing just how well armed right-wing extremists are in the country will do little to assuage their fears. Over weapons were confiscated from radical groups in and For more detailed information, please click on the "i" symbol. Germany's neo-Nazis, it would appear, are better armed than previously thought. According to a report filed this week by the German Interior Ministry in response to a parliamentary inquiry, authorities in the country confiscated weapons from right-wing extremists in the two-year period from to Included among the finds were handguns, rifles and even military-grade firearms.

In addition, police seized 40 explosive devices, all manner of pepper sprays and well over blades. The news comes as Germany continues to reel from revelations that a neo-Nazi terror cell based in the eastern German town of Zwickau was responsible for a nine-victim murder spree targeting immigrants from to in addition to the killing of a police officer in While neo-Nazi violence in Germany has long been acknowledged, the discovery of the murderous trio, which had spent 14 years under cover, has come as a shock.

Massive criticism in recent weeks has centered on the Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Germany's domestic intelligence agency. The agency has chapters in every German state in addition to the federal agency, and critics have said that internal communication problems were a significant reason for the fact that the crime spree remained unsolved for so long. In addition to the details about weapons finds, the Interior Ministry report also indicated that, since , 13 right-wing groups had been investigated under German laws prohibiting the creation of a terrorist organization.

In addition to the three core members -- Uwe B? On Tuesday, officers arrested yet another man thought to be connected to the cell. Ralf Wohlleben, a former official with the far-right National Democratic Party of Germany NPD , is suspected of having provided a gun and ammunition to the trio. The PP and Amaiur celebrate the results of the Spanish general election. A political party has greater state funding, more members on committees, more chance to propose laws and amend them and more access to classified information if it can form a parliamentary group than if its members have to join the mixed group of small parties.

No one from the PP was immediately available for comment. The strict interpretation of the rules limiting parliamentary groups proposed by the PP would also prevent another minority party, the anti-regionalist UPyD, from forming a group, the right-leaning 'El Mundo' reported. Spain has 17 autonomous regions that have extensive control over their own finances. Some, including the Basque Country and Catalonia, have distinctive cultures and their own languages.

ETA announced a permanent end to its armed struggle for a Basque homeland on October 20th after four decades of bombings and shootings in which more than people were killed. Political parties must have 15 members of parliament or 15 percent of the votes in the districts where they fielded candidates or 5 percent of the total votes cast in the election to be allowed to form a parliamentary group.

Amaiur obtained Anti-regionalist centrist party UPyD obtained just short of 5 percent of votes cast nationally and could be denied a parliamentary group on the same grounds, 'El Mundo' said. Ayacucho decomis? Durante el operativo se pudo intervenir el cami? La fuente policial precis? Cuatro detenidos La acci? De igual forma se detuvo al ayudante Lerner David V?

Durante la intervenci? Los detenidos ser? Astucia y creatividad Pese a la astucia y creatividad de los narcotraficantes quienes a diario inventan nuevas formas de trasladar la ilegal mercader? Ha sido muy dif? Muy cerca de ese lugar, se encontr? Como en otras oportunidades, los presuntos narcotraficantes fugaron del lugar al advertir la presencia de las fuerzas del orden.

Se pudo conocer que a la cita asisten tambi? Se inform? Estados Unidos y Per? El subsecretario de Estado para asuntos antinarc? Traigo tres mensajes: primero el concepto de corresponsabilidad y el hecho que Per? Para eso hay que priorizar nuestros esfuerzos y concentrar nuestros recursos en las? Para el llamado zar antidrogas estadounidense el tercer punto es el mensaje de socios, es decir, explicar a la comunidad internacional que quiz?

Hace 30 a? Finalmente, refiri? Si no me equivoco para este a? Yo soy responsable en mi posici? In another incident, Kirkuk's Police Director, Lt-Brigadier, Sarhad Qader, said that "a joint force had inspected a number of villages in al-Riyadh township, 45 km to the southwest of Kirkuk, arresting 3 persons, wanted for Article-4 - Terrorism - along with confiscating a number of leaflets of al-Qaeda, Naqshabandiya and Saraya al-Haq groups. Kirkuk is km ot the northeat of Baghdad.

The security source gave no further details, but said that the gunmen have fled for an unknown destination. Un nuevo enfrentamiento entre la polic? Los hechos de violencia registrados ayer, temen, podr? Las primeras versiones daban cuenta de que cerca de las a. Dicha versi? Esta cifra contrasta con la presentada por el Ministerio del Interior, que se? El funcionario agreg? El Ministerio del Interior hab? Todos ellos, sostuvo, se encuentran fuera de peligro: el caso m?

El resto present? Spain has 17 autonomous regions that have extensive control over their own finances. Some, including the Basque Country and Catalonia, have distinctive cultures and their own languages. ETA announced a permanent end to its armed struggle for a Basque homeland on October 20th after four decades of bombings and shootings in which more than people were killed. Political parties must have 15 members of parliament or 15 percent of the votes in the districts where they fielded candidates or 5 percent of the total votes cast in the election to be allowed to form a parliamentary group.

Amaiur obtained Anti-regionalist centrist party UPyD obtained just short of 5 percent of votes cast nationally and could be denied a parliamentary group on the same grounds, 'El Mundo' said. Ayacucho decomis? Durante el operativo se pudo intervenir el cami? La fuente policial precis? Cuatro detenidos La acci? De igual forma se detuvo al ayudante Lerner David V? Durante la intervenci? Los detenidos ser? Astucia y creatividad Pese a la astucia y creatividad de los narcotraficantes quienes a diario inventan nuevas formas de trasladar la ilegal mercader?

Ha sido muy dif? Muy cerca de ese lugar, se encontr? Como en otras oportunidades, los presuntos narcotraficantes fugaron del lugar al advertir la presencia de las fuerzas del orden. Se pudo conocer que a la cita asisten tambi? Se inform? Estados Unidos y Per? El subsecretario de Estado para asuntos antinarc? Traigo tres mensajes: primero el concepto de corresponsabilidad y el hecho que Per? Para eso hay que priorizar nuestros esfuerzos y concentrar nuestros recursos en las?

Para el llamado zar antidrogas estadounidense el tercer punto es el mensaje de socios, es decir, explicar a la comunidad internacional que quiz? Hace 30 a? Finalmente, refiri? Si no me equivoco para este a? Yo soy responsable en mi posici? In another incident, Kirkuk's Police Director, Lt-Brigadier, Sarhad Qader, said that "a joint force had inspected a number of villages in al-Riyadh township, 45 km to the southwest of Kirkuk, arresting 3 persons, wanted for Article-4 - Terrorism - along with confiscating a number of leaflets of al-Qaeda, Naqshabandiya and Saraya al-Haq groups.

Kirkuk is km ot the northeat of Baghdad. The security source gave no further details, but said that the gunmen have fled for an unknown destination. Un nuevo enfrentamiento entre la polic? Los hechos de violencia registrados ayer, temen, podr? Las primeras versiones daban cuenta de que cerca de las a. Dicha versi? Esta cifra contrasta con la presentada por el Ministerio del Interior, que se?

El funcionario agreg? El Ministerio del Interior hab? Todos ellos, sostuvo, se encuentran fuera de peligro: el caso m? El resto present? En esta? La falsa noticia de la muerte de dos comuneros ya hab? El ataque ocurri? Cajamarca, nuevamente, vivi? Comercios, bancos y varias entidades del sector p? Las personas que llegaron desde la costa se vieron perjudicadas por los bloqueos de las carreteras. Vilma Acu?

Dinoes , llegaron en tres vuelos para contrarrestar cualquier situaci? Se supo que los militares fueron trasladados al cuartel Zepita, donde esperaban cualquier orden en caso se declare en situaci? Para hoy, pese a que Yanacocha anunci? Hoy, tambi? Se supo que planean bloquear la Panamericana Norte a la altura de la localidad de Ciudad de Dios, donde est?

El Ej? Las funciones policiales en forma temporal le fueron acreditadas anoche a las Fuerzas Armadas mediante un decreto de interpretaci? En el caso de capturas y allanamientos, los militares ejercer? Respaldo un? El diputado nacionalista, Francisco Rivera pidi? A continuaci? Por lo dem? CN puede interpretar Los diputados Mario P? Al respecto, dijo que los jueces y magistrados al momento de aplicar la ley hacen su correspondiente interpretaci? El decreto aprobado interpreta el art? Para realizar las funciones policiales en forma temporal -dice el decreto- "debe el Poder Ejecutivo emitir el correspondiente Decreto de Emergencia, estableci?

La UD, a trav? El diputado Sergio Castellanos, UD dijo hoy "el tigre est? El auditor jur? En las acciones de seguridad interna que realicen las Fuerzas Armadas deben acompa? Four of the escapees are members of Los Zetas, in prison for murder. One of them is Jose Contreras, who is believed to be the head of the Zetas in Puebla and has escaped from three other prisons. Investigators have reportedly determined that prison officials aided the inmates in their escape.

Warden Jorge Daniel Martinez, deputy security chief Arturo Parra and six prison guards have all been detained pending an investigation. Without the participation and acts of corruption of the detained, the escape would have been impossible.? AG Borguet said the inmates paid the officials and guards who in turn, did not watch the cells at night,?

Keys were discovered in the locks of some of the cells, according to prosecutors. In September, Los Zetas engineered a coordinated breakout at three separate prisons in Veracruz resulting in the escape of 32 inmates. The Mexican Navy later captured 14 of them at a Zetas training camp. Ezequiel Cardenas Rivera was detained last Friday along with four associates while he attended a party at a house in Matamoros, a border city in the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, the secretariat said.

The arrest of Cardenas Rivera, known as "El Junior," was made possible by a tip and "naval intelligence work, " the secretariat said, without explaining why it waited four days to announce the capture. The suspects, who were armed, were detained as they started to drive away from the house "in a hurry," the Navy Secretariat said, adding that no shots were fired in the operation.

Jose de Jesus Garcia Hernandez, 32, suspected of being the Gulf cartel's boss in Matamoros, located across the border from Brownsville, Texas, and Rene Alberto Munguia Elizondo, 43, who worked as an accountant for the criminal organization, were arrested along with Cardenas Rivera. The other two suspects d etained in the operation were identified as Javier Enrique Farias Garcia, 49 , another Gulf cartel money man, and Erasmo Garcia Galvan, 37 , who specialized in smuggling drugs into the United States.

Marines seized three rifles, six ammunition clips, rounds of ammunition, five fragmentation grenades and three vehicles from the suspects. All of the suspects were flown to Mexico City and handed over to the Siedo organized crime unit of the Attorney General's Office last Saturday, the secretariat said. The Gulf cartel was founded by Juan Nepomuceno Guerra in the s and was later led by Juan Garcia Abrego, who was arrested in and extradited to the United States. Osiel Cardenas Guillen later became the Gulf cartel's undisputed boss.

Cardenas was arrested in , but he continued running the Gulf cartel, one of the most violent and powerful criminal organizations in Mexico, until his extradition to the United States four years later. Antonio Ezequiel Cardenas Guillen took over the Gulf cartel's leadership following his brother's extradition to the United States.

Sidney Brown Tactical Intern sidney. The man, identified as Mohammed al-'Abus, was arrested after clashed with the police in the Nahrwan district, west of Mosul, according to police Maj. Mahdi Sabih al-Gharawi. One policeman was killed during the fight. Nineveh Operations Command had listed 'Abus as a wanted criminal for his involvement in over 50 car bombs, thousands of IED attacks, and assassination of civilians and officials in Nineveh. Meanwhile, police arrested five other wanted in a truck in Yermuk district, west of Mosul.

The suspects carried eight Katyusha-style rockets. Mosul - km north of Baghdad? It is the site of daily bombings and killings. Mosul is the bloodiest of all Iraq? In recent months targeted attacks against government officials and military officers have been stepped up, often making use of silenced weapons and roadside bombs. The Iraqi government believes that al-Qaeda is operating in Mosul to finance insurgent operations in Afghanistan.

The Chancellery of National Reconciliation and the Iraqi government claimed to have information that indicate this connection. Deputy Interior Minister Ayden Khaled said at a press conference in Baghdad that the Interior Ministry received intelligence information, saying that terrorist groups have re-instated their activities.

He was confident that Iraqi forces have the capacity to chase these groups and end their insurgency. Iraq was hit hard by a series of insurgent attacks especially in Basra and Baghdad that left about 50 people dead. On Monday evening, insurgents even attacked the Council of Representatives. Ambassador James Jeffrey said Sunday that some of the bombings were possibly carried out by al-Qaeda. Ahmed Shehani, adviser in the Iraqi government, said that Malaysia demanded that Iraq has to sign a prisoners exchange agreement first.

Former member of parliament Daini was charged in with the masterminding of murders, kidnappings and bombings, including an attack on the Iraqi parliament in The only evidence against Daini seemed to be the confessions of two of his bodyguards. Daini was elected in and belonged to a group of Sunni politicians who constantly criticized the Shia government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki of sectarian actions and partnering with Iran.

He claimed that the charges against him were politically motivated He fled the country in , when the case against him was being assembled. On January 25, , the Central Court in Baghdad? The Merced County District Attorney? Later on Tuesday, Morse said that event had been postponed until probably next week. Morse said the meeting was postponed because his office is still in the midst of coordinating the press conference with partner agencies involved in the operation.

La Familia Michoacana has been linked to kidnappings and beheadings in Mexico. When asked to provide further details about the operation Tuesday, Morse declined. One of the so-called "trap" vehicles used to carry drugs and money and which features complex hidden compartments will be on display at the upcoming news conference, Morse said. It is "very important" to compare notes with China on traffic control, Attorney General Miguel Angel Mancera said in an interview with Xinhua. Cameras are taking pictures and detecting irregularities, and all these high technology systems are critical to a city where you want to have order," Mancera said.

The chief prosecutor said city officials are interested in exchanging views with China not only in traffic law enforcement, but also in other areas. This combination of law enforcement and the use of technology has been something we've been prioritizing," the attorney general said. On Mexico City's achievements in combating crime, he said the police have made "substantial improvements in dealing with car theft, kidnappings, as well as homicide cases.

With this, we don't only rely on police forces, but also on the machines and advanced technology," Mancera said. Six people, including a spiritual leader of the radical group created in the beginning of the year that Kariyev was part of, were apprehended in suspicion of organizing the criminal act. The group was planning to commit robberies and armed assaults on shops, banks and currency exchange offices.

Almost each member of the group has a criminal past and was involved in violent crimes. The investigators obtained proof of the murder they committed back in when they were robbing visitos of Zheke Batyr sanatorium at Borabai resort and later committed more robberies in Karatal town in The investigators also obatined information on the violent crimes committed by the group in Almaty and Atyrau.

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This information is being checked,? According to the investigators, Kariyev was in a state of narcotic intoxication during the attack in Taraz. Earlier Tengrinews. The criminal blew himself up during apprehension. El otro hecho fue a eso de las 11 horas, en la 15 avenida y 5a. Producto del hecho qued? El tema fue tratado en una reuni?

When I took my mobile to call the police he started to fire. We carried them into ambulances. Turkish security forces shot dead the gunman after a one-hour siege. Shooting could be heard in live television footage from outside the palace, which normally opens to tourists at 10 am GMT. State-run Anatolian news agency said a soldier and private security worker were wounded in the courtyard of the Topkapi Palace. An unidentified witness told a DHA television reporter he had seen the attacker and had helped to carry the wounded into ambulances.

When I took my mobile to call the police he started to fire," the witness said. We carried them into ambulances," he added. German ambassador Ernst Reichel and his Austrian counterpart Johann Brieger "strongly condemned the violence used against soldiers of NATO-led KFOR and expressed their concern over its intensity," the embassies said in a joint press release. The German and Austrian diplomats "called upon the people in the north of Kosovo not to allow themselves to be used by the perpetrators of violence for their own goals and to respect the mandate of KFOR to secure the freedom of movement.

The clashes erupted after KFOR soldiers seized a Serb-set roadblock near Zupce in the north of Kosovo, where the vast majority of the population are Serbs who reject Kosovo's declaration of independence. Last week 21 KFOR soldiers were wounded in similar clashes with Kosovo Serbs when they tried to dismantle another roadblock close to one of two disputed border crossings.

Una orden de captura fue girada en contra de Gloria Torres y sus hijas. Se acusa a la hermana de la ex primera dama por caso especial de estafa, confirm? Un grupo de agentes de la Polic? Preliminarmente se habla de la detenci? En unos minutos, el MP brindar? Isaac Mosquera, owner of the Albrook Flight School remains free, but 13 other accused are in jail. Escrito por Estela Henr? Aponte, al ser consultada sobre las posibilidades reales de que el pa?

El ministro de la Defensa, Jos? Atilio Ben? Yo conozco la voluntad y la entrega del ministro que va a unir fuerzas. Que no llegue a hacer lo mismo, porque si no seguimos igual? Ponerse metas obliga al funcionario a trabajar con mayor dedicaci? Carlos Ascencio, director de la Polic? La Polic?

Embassy hosted a press conference Tuesday to announce a major donation to an organization that works to end human trafficking. Courtesy of the U. Embassy To fight human trafficking, the U. The money will fund a two-year project. The project's primary objectives are to prevent human trafficking, protect victims and promote criminal proceedings against traffickers.

At a press conference Tuesday, Mariliana Morales, director of Fundaci? The project will focus on manning ports and borders since Costa Rica is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking. In addition, a television advertising campaign will call attention to the problem. Another aim is to promote a new anti-trafficking law in the Costa Rica Legislative Assembly that imposes harsher penalties for trafficking crimes. The current law article of the Costa Rica penal code calls for prison terms between years for those involved in trafficking, depending on the severity of the crime.

But according to the U. State Department trafficking of persons report "the government's Costa Rica law enforcement efforts lagged with respect to holding trafficking offenders accountable for their crimes and in adequately addressing domestic cases of human trafficking. It will provide training and protection to 3, public and private employees in the country and strengthen efforts to combat trafficking. Empresarios ya se reunieron con? Aunque la propuesta tiene un extra: la construcci? Estamos viendo c? Esta es una idea que en su momento no la consideramos, pero habr?

En el pasado, la posibilidad de incluir a la empresa privada para invertir en el sistema penitenciario no pas? Incluso fue parte de las propuestas que la Asociaci? La ANEP lo hizo en el marco de la discusi? Ahora, Mungu? Si necesitamos seis c? El jefe del gabinete de Seguridad admite que hay anticuerpos a esta medida, pero considera que puede? El sector privado recibi? Las gremiales consideran que el planteamiento de Mungu? Luis Cardenal, presidente de la C?

Se puede hacer una mejor asignaci? No decimos que se haga, sino que se analice. Porque si seguimos haciendo lo mismo vamos a seguir teniendo los mismos resultados? Ayer, durante una entrevista en UFG Radio, admiti? No acept? Se pueden utilizar los cuarteles para las personas en r?

No solo las granjas que ya est? Se puede hablar con el Ministerio de Defensa para que preste instalaciones como Caballer? Nohora Valentina Mu? The arrests are the result of an ongoing investigation by the Prosecutor General's Office. Though the leftist guerrilla group has denied involvement in the kidnapping, Minister of Defense Juan Carlos Pinzon has said intelligence information, including recorded communications , leaves no doubt that the FARC were responsible.

The Red Cross has declined to comment on the identity of the kidnappers. Mp Hussein al-Miribi described the situation as "disappointing to the security forces". Fadhila Party Media Center said that "the parliamentarian security commission should recalculate the situation". An explosion took part in the parliament last Monday which led to the injury of a Kurdish Alliance MP, Muayad al-Tayib, and some killings. The nature of the explosion is not decided yet, where viewpoints differed between a bombed car or a mortar shelling.

Colombia will now undergo the domestic legislative processes for ratification of and accession to the OECD Convention. It must undergo a rigorous examination of its anti-corruption legislation, to ensure that it respects the organization's norms and that they are actually enforced in the country. As it steps up its investment abroad, it? We are confident that Colombia? The convention, which came into force in , outlaws the bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions.

The aim is to create a "level playing field for fair competition. Since the convention came into force, people and 91 companies have been sanctioned for foreign bribery offenses. Russia, also a member of the anti-corruption workgroup, will soon sign the convention. Debieron pasar varias horas para que las autoridades pudieran ingresar al inmueble de a la par, el , para buscar a las sindicadas.

Ingresaron fiscales para catear los ambientes y los minutos pasaban, mientras las personas que segu? A las 9. Sin embargo, minutos despu? Rolando Rodenas, jefe de la Fiscal? Para el MP, Torres es la principal integrante de la banda, en la cual hay civiles y funcionarios p? Otros allanamientos ten? Alfano stratfor. Wagner was released in Darfur on Monday after being held by her kidnappers for more than days.

Wagner, an American, was abducted in Darfur and held for more than three months before being freed in It was, at the time, a rare case against an NGO. However, a new report suggests more aid workers might file lawsuits against their organisation as litigation spreads to areas that were unthinkable only a few years ago, it said, citing the military. Titled "Can you get sued? It said although aid agencies have taken many practical steps to respond to this changing reality, they have often failed to consider their legal responsibilities to their staff.

But the systems are mainly self regulatory and often inconsistent," it added. M: The militants, however, belong to armed organizations that have not carried out deadly attacks against civilians and Iraqi security forces. The Awakening Councils or Sons of Iraq were formerly Sunni tribal insurgents who turned against al-Qaeda militants in after they were organized by major sheikhs and chieftains into the Councils. They were later recruited in the Iraqi army and police.

The recruitment is still in progress. The slow process has raised fears that the unsatisfied Sahwa may return to al-Qaeda. Awakening Council militiamen are frequently targeted by al-Qaeda and other insurgent groups who see them as traitors. Earlier today, gunmen in the city of Kirkuk shot dead a high school student with machine guns while he was coming out of school.

Kirkuk is one of the multi-ethnic provinces of Iraq populated by Kurds, Arabs, Turkmen and Christians. Each group is trying to expand their control over the oil-rich province. El ex gobernador del estado de M? El mexiquense a? Y enfatiz? Mientras que el virtual abanderado de la izquierda a la presidencia de M? Y opin? Aunado a esto L? Carlos Cort? Durante el lanzamiento del Cap? Asimismo, consider? La Acams es una asociaci? Formar parte de la Acams permitir? A, Nov. In a meeting held in Sana? He also hailed the German support for the Yemeni security services, especially in the field of modernization and development of the security services.

For his part, the German diplomat praised the wisdom of the Yemeni leadership and the signing process of the initiative aimed to end the country? He pointed out the cooperation between the two friendly countries witnessed a remarkable development in all fields, especially in the fields of security, combating terrorism and organized crime. Un menor de edad fue asegurado en el municipio de Corregidora, Quer?

Mediante un comunicado de prensa, el procurador Arsenio Dur? El menor, est? En el relato del operativo, se dio a conocer que los elementos de la Procuradur? Tras llevar a cabo la investigaci? El menor de edad fue entregado por elementos de la Direcci? De acuerdo con la informaci? XICO Notimex. La reforma castiga con una pena mayor cuando los secuestradores son o fueron miembros de las fuerzas de seguridad, o cuando finjan pertenecer a?

En tanto, quienes ya han sido procesados por secuestros, y proporcionen elementos para la liberaci? La modificaci? El estado de Chihuahua, al norte del pa? Los cambios a esta norma buscan sancionar de manera m? La iniciativa fue presentada por otro diputado del PRI, Jes? Durante los?

El Comercio reports that the chief of the Ecuadorian National Police? This is 30 percent more than , in which authorities claimed to have seized 18 tons. However, the figure is still far lower than the amount of cocaine seized in , which the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime said was 65 tons. On top of this, it is unclear whether this increase is due to improved interdiction efforts or the country?

According to the U. Department of State? The trend seems to be increasing, as both Colombian and Mexican drug trafficking organizations are thought to be deepening operations in the country. Indeed, the diversity of transnational criminal groups that are based in Ecuador caused one U. The conflict, which began in spring as a one-sided crackdown on peaceful anti-government protests, is now sliding toward civil war.

Soldiers are defecting with their weapons to take on Assad loyalist troops. Piling pressure on Assad, Syria's biggest trade partner Turkey suspended all financial credit dealings with Damascus and froze its assets, joining the Arab League in isolating Assad over the military crackdown.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said clashes erupted in the southern town of Dael when security forces moved in during the early morning, and continued well into afternoon. Seven troops were killed," said Rami Abdel Rahman, head of the observatory, adding that 19 people were wounded, four critically. An activist from the town, in the province of Deraa, said some 30 busloads of security men had stormed into Dael but two of the buses were blown up in fighting between security forces and defectors, the Observatory said. One bus had been empty. In the north of Syria, at least six civilians were shot dead Wednesday when security forces broke up an anti-government demonstration in the city of Idlib, the Observatory said.

Today they fired at a crowd thousands who were marching from a roundabout to the main Mohafaza Square," said Fares, an activist who helped transport three of the injured to Turkey. The European Union weighed in one day later. Turkey, a NATO member with a km long border with Syria, says it does not want military intervention in Syria but was ready for any scenario. Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said Turkey would block delivery of all weapons and military supplies to Syria. Relations with Syria's central bank were suspended and a cooperation agreement was halted until there was a new government in place.

Assad's rule had reached "the end of the road," he said. Turkey now hosts Syrian army defectors and opposition group. Syria does not admit most foreign journalists. It says it is fighting an insurgency by armed groups supported from abroad, who have attacked its troops trying to defend the peace.

Military funerals were held for 14 members of the army and security forces Tuesday, evidence of the rising cost of its battle to smother the revolt inspired by Arab uprisings that toppled the leaders of Tunisia, Egypt and Libya this year. Rebels Tuesday ambushed an army vehicle in the north killing three soldiers, the Human Rights Observatory said. Those liberated did "not have Syrian blood on their hands. Some prisoners were released earlier this month, SANA said. European and Arab diplomats say the top United Nations human rights forum will paint a grim picture of events in Syria at a special session Friday which is likely to condemn the Syrian government for crimes against humanity.

The U. Friday's session is partly designed to put pressure on China and Russia, which have blocked measures by the Security Council to condemn Syria, to take a stronger stand, say diplomats. A heavily armed man opened fire at one of Istanbul? The motive for the assault at Topkapi Palace was not immediately known. But police said the man, a Libyan with Syrian citizenship, had entered Turkey only three days ago.

A heavily armed gunman wounded a soldier and a security guard at the entrance of Istanbul? Police said the attacker arrived at the palace in a car with Syrian license plates. Minutes before the attack, Turkey? Multiple gun shots were heard from behind the high walls of the Topkapi Palace before the attacker was killed, and some tourists threw themselves on the ground to avoid the violence , officials and witnesses said.

Topkapi Palace, the seat of the Ottoman sultans for almost years, is located in the city? The palace? Witnesses said the man shot the soldier in the leg and the guard in the abdomen before running into the palace courtyard through the main gate, chanting in Arabic? God is Great!? Mutlu said the gunman made no demands and that police decided to shoot him when he refused to surrender.

Authorities would divulge further details about the man? The prosecutor? A spokesman for Libya? The man was seen at an outdoor cafe in the area before going on his rampage, witnesses told Associated Press television. A photo obtained by The Associated Press shows the attacker carrying a rifle and a cartridge belt around his neck. I saw the gunman carrying a gun on his shoulder, like a hunter.

He had ammunition around his neck and a backpack. His overcoat was buttoned, I couldn? Por eso no hago uso de ellos como fuentes en el presente estudio. Rensberger y Lindemann Vale la pena, con todo, tratar de describir con el mayor cuidado posible lo que podemos conocer.

Su lenguaje lleva el aliento de la ciudad. Pfitzner Judge ; , ; Malherbe a, Sabemos esto porque fue el gobernador 3. Bietenhard , Afirmado ya por Justino Dial Betz , 73s.

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Este punto aparece subrayado en un manuscrito de John A. Meeks y Wilken , Ninguno de los dos es convincente 9 Cf. Los resultados no se hicieron notar al principio en la pros- peridad de la vida urbana. Frend, sobre todo Frend Se estabi- lizaron los impuestos, que se recaudaron con mayor equidad y efi- cacia e incluso, en algunos casos, se redujeron temporalmente. La alianza entre el estado romano y las ciudades griegas de las Rostovtzeff , 1, Bowersock , Magie , 1, Rostovzeff , 1, y passim.

Para todos estos temas, cf. En realidad, las conexiones se limitaban a las aristo- cracias urbanas, de suerte que las oportunidades eran, sobre todo, para que los ricos y poderosos incrementaran su riqueza y poder. Bruneau , Magie , 1, s. Levick , El ambiente urbano del cristianismo paulino 31 titudes y estrategias diferentes a la presencia efectiva de ese poder en sus ciudades. Pero la rea- lidad no siempre era tan simple Burr ; E.

Turner ; Smallwood , Otros consideran improbable el informe de Hechos. Sin embargo, en los pue- Pero hay que hacer notar que los textos no los presentan como campesinos, sino como pescadores que poseen barcas y casa y cuentan con trabajadores asalariados Me 1, y par; cf. Wuell- ner Hech 14, ; cf.

Era el lugar donde estaba el imperio y donde empezaba el futuro. Hacerse ciudadano significaba verse involucrado en un movimien- to MacMullen , Hengel a, Hock , 27; cf. Casson , Sobre el papel de Febe, cf. Sobre la importancia de Rom 16, cf. Pero ese mie- do no era insuperable, evidentemente.

Magie , 1, Sobre el sistema de comunicaciones y los medios de viaje, cf. Charlesworth , 82s; Magie , 1, Charlesworth , s. Muchos de los viajes por estas calzadas, aparte las operaciones militares y administrativas del Imperio, se realizaban con fines de comercio o de lucro profesional. Collart , ; cf. Charlesworth , Casson , , Charlesworth , 82s.

El que fue en Cambridge decano de los historiadores sociales, A. Muchos plebeyos acauda- lados ascendieron al decurionato. Pero, en general, las clases eran hereditarias. Las familias terratenientes ricas participaron, durante generaciones, en los consejos de las ciudades. Los propietarios de fincas cultivaban sus haciendas ancestrales, y otro tanto hay que decir de los arrendatarios Esto n o significa que todas las personas libres vivieran mejor que todos los esclavos, ni m u c h o menos.

Jones , 89; cf. MacMullen , ; Finley , Sin duda, el grado de conciencia de status en la muestra de Flory puede ser excep- cional, porque se trata de familias excepcionales: una de ellas fue la de la emperatriz Livia.

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Eran los miembros de la familia cae- saris, de la familia del emperador Algunos estu- dios recientes sobre inscripciones demuestran el ascenso constan- te de los esclavos imperiales Weaver calcula que casi dos tercios de los miembros masculinos de Xa familia caesaris, contando a escla- vos y libertos, se casaban con mujeres libres.

Pomeroy , Weaver , s; cf. Pomeroy , s. Algunas mujeres opinaban que sus papeles tradicionales eran demasiado estrechos. Tampoco faltaban oportunidades para las mujeres de clase baja. Las inscripciones muestran que las mujeres desplegaban su activi- dad en el comercio y en la manufactura igual que sus maridos y utilizaban el dinero que ganaban en obras que les granjeasen la gra- titud de su ciudad.

Otra mujer, Mamia, hizo construir el templo del Genius de Augusto Sobre Eumaquia, cf. Al- gunas inscripciones recuerdan los nombres de sacerdotisas de di- versos cultos antiguos Josefo, Ant. Heyob Georgi , 37, y especialmente Becher Leipoldt , 9. Admitido, entre otros, por Becher , Sobre la vida cas- ta exigida a las devotas, cf Apuleyo Met Ticio Justo, otro pagano theosebomenos, vive cerca de la sinagoga.

La pauta Pero hay al- gunos problemas; cf. Pero su estrategia parece haber sido muy diferente a la que se describe en los Hechos. Las cartas no dicen nada sobre las sinagogas, aparte de los ya mencionados azotes. Otras alusiones se encuentran en 2 Cor 11, 9 y en FIp 4, 15s. Sobre el contexto y el significado de 1 Tes 2, cf. Malherbe ; y sobre el trabajo de Pablo, Hock Las fami- lias y las casas de ciertas personas aparecen como puntos de des- pegue, y las conexiones de tipo artesanal y comercial parecen haber revestido importancia.

Por eso nos fal- ta un cuadro, no ya general, sino detallado de la vida en una ciu- dad provincial del siglo I, donde poder insertar nuestras escasas piezas sueltas cristianas. Algo sabemos sobre magnitudes y dimensiones. El ambiente urbano del cristianismo paulino 55 Una consecuencia de esto era el escaso margen para la vida pri- vada. Pero las reacciones ante las noticias no siempre eran violentas, como es obvio; la curiosidad era tan grande como la suspicacia.

En Filipos, los misione- Downey y , s; Liebeschuetz , 40s, Formar parte de una familia significaba, pues, participar en una vasta trama de relaciones, que se pueden clasificar en dos tipos. Entre esta De off. Judge a, ; Malherbe a, Sobre Pompeya: Mau , , planos de habitaciones ; M. Grant , s, ; Tanzer , 19, Estas co- nexiones, sin embargo, no siempre eran formales. Los clubes, bajo denominaciones muy variadas, existie- ron en las ciudades griegas desde el siglo V a.

Pa- Flory , Kornemann Poland , n. Flory , 22; otros ejemplos en Waltzing , 3, Vogliano Conforme avanza la lista disminuyen los nom- bres latinos, mientras que predominan los griegos. Se ha discutido, Jones , ; cf. MacMullen , 75; cf. Rostovtzeff , 1, s. Roben , , n. Poland , , N o han faltado intentos de situar a Pablo en el marco de di- versos tipos de judaismo.

La cifra que da Josefo tomada de Es- trabon de talentos de la misma provincia, conquistada por Mitndates un cuar- to de siglo antes Ant La sinagoga fue descubierta en por el equipo Cornell-Harvard diri- gido por George Hanfmann y ha sido parcialmente restaurada. LSJ, cf. Sobre esta y otras exenciones posteriores de leyes contra los clubes, cf. Smallwood , Sobre comidas en la sinagoga cf.

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Sobre hospitalidad para visitantes y otras actividades: Krauss , 55s, Applebaum Smallwood , s Ibtd, Josefo, JW 7. Foerster , cf. Meeks-Wilken , , Sobre Roma, cf. Sobre asociaciones de ciudadanos romanos en las nuevas pro- vincias de Asia Menor, cf. Para diversos ordenamientos de po- liteumata en colonias, cf.

Cracco Ruggim Tuvo Kuhn y Kuhn-Stegemann Mellink , s. Otros ejemplos, comenzando por Hecateo de Abdera, aparecen re- cogidos en Stern ; cf. Sherwin-White , ; Sevenster Heinemann , Goodenough , La respuesta no es tan sencilla como se ha hecho creer a veces. En la gran sinagoga de Sardes, por ejemplo, algu- nas inscripciones recuerdan con orgullo los nombres de socios de la sinagoga que fueron sardinaioi e incluso magistrados de la ciu- dad.

Y el autor del libro de los Hechos, al margen de que su Mos 1. Tchenkover , C , descubierta en copia de papiro el primer decenio del presente siglo. Dos factores los movieron a hacer- lo. Hech 16, 37s; 21, 39; 22, 3. La verdad es que el comportamiento de Roma no siempre era be- nigno. El ambiente urbano del cristianismo paulino 73 autoridades? La lista de la sinagoga de Afrodisia, descubierta recien- temente, incluye un orfebre, un calderero, dos reposteros, un ca- zador de aves?

Hengel , s. Josefo Ant Los Hechos no relatan nada de esta ac- tividad o de la hostilidad del etnarca del rey Aretas 2 Cor 11, 32s; cf. Hech 9, Las cosas discurrieron de modo muy distinto en Macedonia, Grecia y Asia Menor occidental y central. Pues- Levick , ; Magie , 1, Como observa Levick , 33s correctamente. Levick , 33s. Al oeste de Galacia estaba la provincia de Asia, muy diferente en historia y cultura.

C , su reino pasara al pueblo romano. Luciano Alex Todas las ciudades de Asia donde nos consta la existencia de comunidades paulinas participaban de esa prosperidad general; todas ellas eran centros de comercio. Todas ellas Jones , Magie , 2: , n. Col 1, 2; 2, 1; 4, ; para Laodicea, cf. El en- sayo de Lightfoot The Churches of the Lycus sigue siendo importante. Lightfoot , 4; Jones , 73s. Magie ; 1, Kraabel , Supra, n. Elliger , Collart , Levick , ; sobre sistema monetario antioqueno, s. La lengua que hablaban todos estos grupos era el grie- go Elhger , Lemerle, p.

El ambiente urbano del cristianismo paulino 85 go de su eje este-oeste Char- les Edson ha publicado la serie de inscripciones griegas Los egip- Lemerle , , ; Collart , , n. Vickers , que enmienda, partiendo de hallazgos recientes, a von Schnoenebeck Excavaciones del foro: Petsas IG Roben Charlesworth , s; Vacalopoulos , 3, Charlesworth, ibid. La lengua griega supera claramente a la latina en las inscripciones que conocemos 2 M.

Vacalopoulos , 9. Roben en REG 77 , n. Moe ; Kraabel Vacalopoulos , La vertiente italiana de la colonia era visible en otros aspectos. Fowler , 24s. Bowersock , 94s. Stillwell en Fowler , , ; Stillwell , ; , Broneer , Hech 18, Hayes , Kent , Bowersock , cap. Su obra en bronce fue particularmente famosa Plinio Hist.

Horace Leonard Jones en la Loeb edition. West , s, cita de Fowler , Malherbe a, 75; cf. Kent Powell , 61 N o es de hecho muy grande: 93 cm. Uno de los descubrimientos importantes realizados en el muelle meridional fue una estructura absidal perteneciente probablemente al templo de Isis menciona- do por Pausanias 2. Dado que las limitaciones de nuestras fuentes nos obligan a evitar el argumento de silencio, es- tas omisiones no hacen sino excitar nuestra curiosidad. Simone 23 Lip- sius-Bonnet , 1, Justino 2 Apol. Pero cf. Tertuliano, Apol. Deissmann , especialmente el cap.

Robert M. Malherbe a, Filson , cita de p. Grant , Para un observador, la mezcla de clases que se pro- duce en la Iglesia demuestra que el movimiento cristiano se amol- da inevitablemente a la estructura de la sociedad en su conjunto; para otros, denota un conflicto fundamental entre los valores del grupo cristiano y los de la sociedad en general Va- Finley , Lipset , Finley , 49s. Grant, Malherbe y Theissen , El status general de una persona es un com- puesto de sus rangos en todas las dimensiones relevantes.

Hay que tener en cuenta otras consideraciones. En primer lugar, no todas las dimen- siones tienen el mismo peso. Barber Lipset , ; cf. Malewski Lipset , ; Pettigrew ; Merton and Rossi Hemos visto ya como Tony Reekmans pudo emplear el concepto de inconsistencia de status analizando las actitudes de Juvenal sobre el cambio social, o P.

Weaver cuando describe la movilidad ascendente de los esclavos y libertos imperiales. Jackson , Jackson and Burke , H. Taylor , Hornung MacMullen , app. B, ; cf. Si este Sostenes, coautor de 1 Cor, fuese el arjisynagogos de Corinto Hech 18, 17, sucesor, al parecer, de Crispo, v. Restan treinta personas de cuyo status social conocemos poco. No hay razones convincentes para identificar- lo con Lucio de Cirene Hech 13, 1 o con la persona conocida por la forma abre- viada del mismo nombre, Lucas Flm 24; Col 4, 14; 2 Tim 4, Sil- Lietzmann , s.

Flm 23 Epafras y Col 4, 10 Aristarco. Eck , Koestermann de Junia con Junia Lepida, hija de M. Sobre Junia, cf. Se trata, evidentemente, de un hombre bas- tante acaudalado Por eso es correcto, seguramente, colocar a Esteban en una escala de riqueza muy elevada, aunque probablemente no a la altura de Gayo y Crispo. Landvogt Magie , 2, ; Theissen c, Theissen c, El nivel social de los cristianos paulinos tanto de habla griega como latina, especialmente entre las muje- res El texto no dice si ella mis- ma era cristiana y tampoco puede inferirse con seguridad Tal es la madre de Rufo Rom 16, N o podemos, sin embargo, otorgar mucho peso a esta posibilidad.

Poland , Sobre el uso del latino patronus en contextos similares en inscrip- ciones griegas, cf. Bowersock , 12s. Pese a la existencia de una cierta rivali- dad entre los partidarios de uno y de otro en Corinto 1 Cor 1, 12; 3, , 6 , parece que las relaciones entre Pablo y Apolo fue- ron buenas 16, Hock Taylor ; Magie , 1, s; 2, , ; Gealy Ap, 7. Judge y Thomas, en cambio, lo toman en serio , De las tres personas restantes nombradas en los Hechos se dice que acogieron y protegieron a Pablo y sus socios. Disponemos de algunos indica- dores sobre su status.

En tercer lugar, ella era una pagana adhe- Haenchen , , n. El primer converso de Acaya no fue una familia ateniense, sino la familia de Esteban en Corinto. Lake y Cad- bury , 4, , estiman que el adjetivo Derbaios iba en el original con el nom- bre siguiente, Timoteo, y esto les permite identificar a este Gayo con el macedo- nio mencionado junto con Aristarco en 19, Haenchen ad loe.

Era, en fin, cabeza femenina de familia. Es evidentemente un pagano que lleva nombre griego. Posee una casa y alguna fortuna. Su nombre indica que puede ser ciudadano romano 75 : pertenece al grupo latino dominante de la colonia. Nuestro repaso de los nombres mencionados en las cartas pau- linas ha aportado pocos datos sobre el nivel social de los cristia- nos paulinos. Sin embargo, han aparecido algunos modelos que tienen su im- portancia. Antes de resumir estos resultados, sin embargo, conviene examinar otros testimonios, menos directos, que pueden recoger- se en las cartas.

Se afirma a menudo, citando generalmente a Kuhn y Stegemann , cois. Ticio Justo. Kummel , Lightfoot , Dibehus, tbia. Croix y Gayer Entre las series de avisos morales o paraenesis, hay en las car- tas algunos pasajes dirigidos a los trabajadores o mercaderes li- Best , Van Unnik , s; Dibehus , El nivel social de los cristianos paulinos expresa del dinero.

BAGD, cf. Conzelmann ad loe. La misma expectativa se expresa en 2 Cor 1,16 para su viaje a Judea, y Pablo pide el mismo servicio, entretanto, para Timoteo 1 Cor 16, Stahlin , especialmente s. Malherbe b, , n. Sampley y Plutarco censura a los ricos avaros por retener y alma- cenar su riqueza para sus hijos y herederos Sus acciones suponen un De amore divit.

La sociedad estaba es- tructurada en collegia, donde se asignaba a veces a los funciona- rios mayor cantidad de alimentos que a los miembros ordinarios. Pablo se refiere a ellos en su respues- ta a la consulta que le hicieron los corintios, y en parte se identi- fica con su punto de vista Theissen cita de Marcial 3. Theissen c. Rom 15, 1, donde Pablo infiere una norma general de la experiencia corintia. Por fortuna, nosotros no ne- cesitamos resolver todos estos problemas para hacer las pocas ob- servaciones que son pertinentes para nuestro tema.

Algunos manuscritos traen los v. Los documentos de este siglo II no ofrecen testimonios directos que puedan ayudar a describir la estructura social del cristianismo paulino tal como lo he definido antes, pero muestran hasta cierto punto la variedad y el rigor de las reacciones a la inconsistencia de status y al que- branto de las convenciones. Sobre estas Haustafeln, cf.

MacDonald sostuvo ingeniosamente que las cartas pastorales fueron una respuesta directa a los Hechos de Pablo y Tecla y al amplio movimiento de Asia Menor que ese documento representaba.

Entradas populares

Judge Yo no los encuentro convincentes en absoluto. Estratos mixtos, status ambiguo Los testimonios que hemos considerado son fragmentarios, aleatorios y a menudo oscuros. Sin em- bargo, hemos encontrado algunas indicaciones convergentes que permiten establecer un cuadro impresionista de estos grupos. Es un cuadro donde aparecen juntos individuos de diverso nivel so- cial.

El extremo superior e inferior de la escala social grecolatina no aparecen en el cuadro. Pudo haber miembros de las comunidades paulinas que vi- vieran a un nivel de subsistencia, pero nada sabemos de ellos. Incluso algunos de ellos poseen casas y esclavos, tie- nen posibilidades para viajar y muestran otros signos de riqueza. Ejercieron, de hecho, el papel de protectores. Lee , Encontramos arte- sanos y comerciantes ricos: de ingresos elevados, aunque inferio- res en prestigio profesional.

Encontramos mujeres ricas e indepen- dientes. Son personas en movilidad ascendente; su status adquirido es su- perior a su status atribuido. Estas preguntas hacen referencia a sentimientos y actitudes, a 1. Homans , ; cf. Homans , 4 y passim. Schreiber Analizaremos en particular los factores que contribuyeron a darles el sentido de per- tenencia a un grupo concreto y su forma de distinguir este grupo de su entorno social.

Hech 16, 15 Lidia ; 16, carcelero de Filipos ; 18, 8 Crispo, el ar- jisynagogos de Corinto. En Co- rinto, por ejemplo, Pablo otorga una prioridad especial a la familia de Esteban, como hemos visto 1 Cor 1, 16; 16, 15s. A pesar de su importancia para el cristianismo paulino, la fa- milia no basta para explicar otros aspectos de la vida de grupo.