Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Wild Man Blues offered a hilariously uncomfortable portrait of an icon in all his complexity. Kopple profiled another icon of American cinema two years later as she filmed actor Gregory Peck on an in-conversation tour across the country. In Peck, just as in Atticus Finch, Kopple found an embodiment of all-American values and goodwill as he regaled the audience both onstage and offstage with stories about his life on screen. Sometimes the ideal could be real. The hidden gem of the Kopple canon is her expansive chronicling of Woodstock in My Generation.

Any delay in the production was in her favour, though, since Kopple then shot the last Woodstock of the Millennium in and captured the seismic shifts in cultural values encapsulated by the all-out bastardization of the-once groovy fest. This sweeping tapestry wove the social history of music and Americana by cross-cutting archival footage of the Woodstock concert and the 25th anniversary effort that tried to re-capture the magic for a new generation.

What Kopple found, however, was a change in tune for Woodstock as corporate culture overwhelmed the concert with sponsorship, merchandise, prohibitively expensive tickets and concessions, and an overall jaded attitude. Where Woodstock once embodied the way-out hopefulness of free love and idealism, the concert morphed from acoustic lovefest to plugged-in rage against the machine.

American youths came looking for solace from the fast-paced consumer culture their parents created and found no escape.


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This remarkable film went behind the scenes with the Dixie Chicks when they fell from the top of the charts after singer Natalie Maines joked in a London concert that she was ashamed that the President of the United States was from Texas. The film watched as fans, nudged by the alt-right group The New Republic, charged the all-American girls with treason via trial by media.

Radio stations encouraged fans to burn their Dixie Chicks albums, yet the doc witnessed the band hit new creative heights by channelling the experience, which included legitimate death threats against Maines, into music. A revisit to the film in brought chills with its story of the power of the alt-right using sensational rhetoric and the guise of patriotism to silence democracy. Even before the toxicity of Twitter, hate for the Chicks fuelled all-American rage. Shut Up and Sing became more relevant than ever as time passed with its buoyant, anthemic message about the virtues of a country in which people can debate their ideals and become stronger together.

However, while Running from Crazy offered a sunny and balanced portrait of Hemingway, it really delivered a disarming look at the ways mental illness can impact a family. Kopple found the best subject in her streak of celebrity portraits with the late soul sister Sharon Jones. Miss Sharon Jones! The film showed a life well-lived in its observation of her determination and tenacity to claim the spotlight her talent deserved.

Four decades after Harlan County, USA Kopple delivered not one but two films in with This is Everything: Gigi Gorgeous and A Murder in Mansfield , the latter of which trickled onto the festival circuit late in the year and is still continuing its run. The film, a YouTube Red original, showed the positive impact the web could have for giving voice to marginalized communities as Kopple chronicled numerous people thanking Gigi both in person and online for helping them find hope.

This is Everything: Gigi Gorgeous caught a much different fight than Kopple saw in Harlan County , but one that was every bit as relevant in representing voices outside the mainstream. Like the Maysles, Kopple has filmed everything from great musical concerts to profiles of eccentric characters to films that proved socially and artistically influential.

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Hot Docs runs April 26 to May 6. But these deeply perceptive social or psychological insights into his own people which arose in his dreams, are only one of many facets the Native American peoples found in their dream life. And of course Black Elk is only one of the men and women of the Native American people who were visionaries. Ishi explains how his dream of what turned out to be the coming of the railroad and the train, was central to his whole life and its tragedy. Nevertheless his dreams warned him of the presaging deadly events for his tribe, and helped him find strength to meet what came about.

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As already pointed out, personal initiation was one of the most fundamental of the facets. Individuals, through prayer, fasting and lonely vigils, sought from their dreams, a vision of their destiny as an individual, and an image to aid a personal link with the Spirit pervading all life. With such a dream the young man or woman could feel themselves to be a real part of their group and their environment. But even this cannot be taken as a generalisation. Nevertheless, although details varied as to when and how such dreams were sought, the visionary dream was held as sacred.

Sometimes the ways of seeking these visions were very quiet, as when retiring to ones lodge, and sometimes very drastic, when braves suspended themselves from poles on hooks.

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Fasting has been used as a spiritual discipline by many past cultures, but it has not been really understood. For otherwise we are all addicts — addicts to eating too much or too little; addicts to wanting to be important; addicts to sex; addicts to power, money and ego, even to killing or maiming others — and many other things.

My energy for turbid emotions, for sexual activity, for thinking and trying to think things out, just faded away. They were all aspects not of my central self or spirit — which I discovered was a quiet awreness — but of my bodys animals desires. When I fasted I was about ten years old, that being the age at which grandparents generally desire their grandchildren to fast.

About the middle of the little bear month, that is, February, my grandmother came to my house to fetch me. I did not know what she wanted of me. After two days she told me why she had come. So the next morning I received very little to eat and drink. There were about seven of us fasting at the same time. All day we would play together, watching each other lest anyone eat during the day. We were to keep this up for ten days. However, at the end of the fifth day I became so hungry that, after my grandmother had gone to sleep, I got up and had a good meal.

In the morning, she found out that I had eaten during the night and I had to start all over again. After a while, they built me a little wigwam. It was standing on four poles and about three to four feet from the ground. This was my sleeping-place. My little wigwam was built quite a distance from the house, under an oak tree.

I believe the wigwam was built in the most convenient place for the old folks to watch it during the day. The first morning my grandmother told me not to accept the first one that came, for there are many spirits who will try to deceive you, and if one accepts their blessings he will surely be led on to destruction.

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The first four nights I slept very soundly and did not dream of anything. On the fifth night, however, I dreamt that a large bird came to me. It was very beautiful and promised me many things. However, I made up my mind not to accept the gift of the first one who appeared. So I refused, and when it disappeared from view, I saw that it was only a chickadee. The next morning, when my grandmother came to visit me I told her that a chickadee had appeared in my dream and that it had offered me many things. She assured me that the chickadee had deceived many people who had been led to accept this offering.

Then a few nights passed and I did not dream of anything. On the eighth night, another big bird appeared to me and I determined to accept its gift, for I was tired of waiting and of being confined in my little fasting wigwam. In my dream of this bird, he took me far to the north where everything was covered with ice. There I saw many of the same kind of birds. Some were very old. They offered me long life and immunity from disease. It was quite a different blessing from that which the chickadee had offered, so I accepted. Then the bird who had come after me, brought me to my fasting wigwam again.

When he left me, he told me to watch him before he was out of sight. I did so and saw that he was a white loon. In the morning when my grandmother came to me, I told her of my experience with the white loons and she was very happy about it, for the white loons are supposed to bless very few people. Since then, I have been called White Loon. Not only did White Loon gain his name from his dream, and therefore his adult identity, and whatever respect gained by it from his family and tribe, but he also gained the image of himself as living into old age and having freedom from disease.

Many live under constant fear of serious illness or early death, and businesses are built catering to such fears. Jung, writing about a meeting with some Pueblo Indians in the USA, explains that their religion rests upon the belief that through their frequent ritual, they help the sun to rise each day.

Without their tribal attention to the sun, they are sure the sun will no longer rise. Our Christian religion — like every other incidentally — is permeated by the idea that special acts or a special kind of action can influence God — for example through certain rites or by prayer, or by a morality pleasing to the divinity. The point Jung makes overall however is that through their beliefs the Pueblo Indians as a group of people, have an intense peace and satisfaction with their life.

I am not trying to argue for irrationality, but the comparison does, I believe, highlight something that arose from the Amerindian beliefs and use of dreams for guidance and spiritual sustenance. This pride and sense of belonging that was often a marked feature of such tribal peoples prior to the coming of the white races, illustrates one of the main functions of the dreaming process — the psychological compensation or self-regulatory process — and how it acts on the personality if it is deeply accepted.

Because the native peoples of America had such trust in the products of their unconscious in dreams and visions, the compensatory images presented were of great benefit, and fulfilled their task of keeping the balance in the individualised identity. Unfortunately the rational attitudes of the invading nationalities, questioning the power of the dream and vision as they did, offered nothing to take the place of the dream. At least, nothing that produced such an obvious sense of pride and tribal and personal identity. The coming of the chickadee in early dreams was an accepted part of the vision fast, and can be found in many other such dreams of people in his culture while fasting.

When an Indian became a Christian, through exposure to a different set of cultural ideas, his or her dream content changed radically. Nevertheless, many dreams were of a personal psychological nature also, showing the individual relationships with the culture and their own inner life. It was out of this sort of observation that Jung developed his theory of the archetypes and the collective unconscious.

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Something else that is apparent in comparing the visions experienced by native Americans with those of present day individuals — perhaps those using LSD or experiencing visions due to stress such as illness — is that the native Americans entered their visions with some understanding of what to expect and how to deal with the experience. Our own cultural attitudes frequently put us at odds with our own unconscious processes and visionary upsurge. Many people who are confronted by the opening of the unconscious and the events that follow, believe they are going mad, or that they will be overpowered by forces that are antagonistic to them, and will sweep them to their doom.

Neither do many people, trained in modern Western ideals of behaviour, know how to exist in the land of vision. See: abreaction ; active imagination. Like other primitive cultures, dreams were seen by the Amerindians as having certain marked features that could be gained from them. There could be an initiatory dream such as we have already considered. There could also be dreams telling where to hunt; dreams showing a new ritual giving some sort of power such as warding off illness, or finding a new relationship with everyday life, or attracting a lover; dreams could show the use of a herb for medicine; dreams might be caused by some sort of evil within ones body, or an external evil such as someone wishing you harm or an evil spirit; there could be a shared dream with another person; the dream might be a revelation from someone who was dead and now in the spirit world; or a dream, as in the third example below, could be a map supporting and guiding the dreamer throughout their whole life.

Dreams were often considered to be bad or good. If a dream were considered bad something had to be done about it, such as a cleansing or healing ritual.

As an example of an Indians attitudes to dreams, this statement of White Hair, a medicine man, is interesting. Whenever the evil spirits influence it, it is certain to happen. Whenever we dream a bad dream we get a medicine man to perform sing and say prayers which will banish the spirit. The following description by a medicine man explains how he had a dream showing him a new medicine. I felt sorry for the dog and carried him home and took care of him. I slept with the dog beside me. While there I had a bad dream.

The dream changed and the dog became a man. Whenever you see someone who is ill and feel sorry for him, use this medicine and he will be well. At the age of about sixteen a youth went alone to a place where he fasted for sixteen days. It is a fortunate thing for you to have taken me for your master. None of the demons who haunt these countries will have any power to harm you. One day you will see your own hair as white as mine. You will have four children, the first two and last will be males, and the third will be a girl.

After that your wife will hold the relation of a sister to you. At manhood he did have four children as described. The man himself felt that had he eaten the human flesh in the vision, he would have been a warrior instead of a hunter. Such dreams as the above, about the use of a herbal root for medicine, show how many herbal treatments, not only among the Amerindians, but from tribal people throughout the world, came about. In fact many tribes attributed the origins of many of their cultural artefacts, their religion, the use of fire, to a specific dream experienced by a past tribal member.

Because of the great many Amerindian tribes, and their different dream beliefs, it is impossible to summarise the views of life, death and human origins arising from their dreams and visions. The following description of the beliefs of the Naskapi Indians is so pure and simple however, that it probably holds in it many of the beliefs of other tribes. Von Franz. This was on the Crow Reservation in Montana, and I was proud to know that my people had a medicine that was God-powerful. Listen to me, peyote does have many amazing powers. I have seen a blind boy regain his sight from taking it.

Once a Crow boy was to have his infected leg cut off by reservation doctors. After a peyote ceremony, it grew well again. This may be considered only exuberant witch-doctor talk, but reliable observers have confirmed that these economically deprived peoples are in better-than average health and that when they do become sick and turn to peyote, the drug seems to help them. One day, I asked one of my patients how he stayed so healthy, and he told me that he chewed peyote buttons then, I became interested in these drugs that could promise physical as well as mental health.

The inward journey does not always turn out this way. The following account published in Psychiatry, February of the phantasy of a Chippewa Indian woman of 34 living in Northern Wisconsin, furnishes an interesting comparison. It brings in the same characteristic symbolism. And it shows how such an experience can remain unrealised. We were living out in the woods at that time. Everything was still and quiet there. I was lying on a bed. I thought about my relatives and my friends, my parents who were dead and gone. I had no one to call upon except for my old man. I lay still, and my mind was working all the time.

Everything that I can remember I thought I did right. What is wrong with me that I have so many visions of different things and different people? It was a beautiful day. No wind. Plenty of sunshine. I walked along this trail for about an hour until I heard the sound of tinkling bells in the distance. As I came nearer to the sound, I saw four men sitting around something that was round.

One of these men called me his grandchild.

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He pointed to his snow-white hair. He told me that my hair would be just like his some day, if I did what I was told. On all of these four there sits a man who waits and wants to receive your tobacco. You have a name that you bear, which means a great deal to me. Your name means a whole lot.

Your thinking power is working real hard. It will get you somewhere, if you listen to it. Here is the mandala symbolism, as in the vision of the sword and the cross-the four old men sitting around something that is round. The woman is told there is something she knows, something in her, that she should tell people. And she is reminded of her name. I like to receive your tobacco once in a while too. I will tell you what you are supposed to do once in a while.