Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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In Europa testen wir den Markt noch mit unseren Partnern. Am wichtigsten ist, von Anfang an die richtigen Entscheidungen zu treffen und nachhaltig zu wachsen. Wie sieht das genau aus? Kollektion gewonnen. Wie siehst du die Zukunft im Sporteinzelhandel? Wir finden, dass die Kunden und die von uns gebotene Markenerfahrung immer im Mittelpunkt stehen sollten.

Das muss sich in allem, was wir tun, widerspiegeln, sowohl online als auch offline. Omni-Channel ist der klare Sieger der Evolution im Einzelhandel. Dabei ist es egal, wie der Kunde sich Informationen besorgt, wo er die Produkte kauft und abholt oder Rezensionen und Empfehlungen abgibt — so lange die Markenerfahrung mit deiner Grundaufgabe und Position im Einklang steht. John John Florence bestand zum Beispiel darauf, dass seine Signature-Kollektion aus umweltfreundlichen Produkten besteht.

Was sind die wichtigsten Marketinginitiativen von Dakine in diesem Jahr? Wir starten voll im Bike-Bereich durch. Alles in limitierter Auflage, die bestimmt schnell weg geht! Und was sehr ihr als eure wichtigsten Produktkategorien? Das rasanteste Wachstum sehen wir momentan bei Handschuhen und im Mountainbike-Bereich. Orientierungshilfe liefert unser Trend Report von David Bianic. Trotz der allgemein sehr gesunden Marktsituation gibt es auch in Europa interne Probleme, etwa durch Billigware. Die Bretter der Light Edition. Tito: Surfen ist mein ganzes Leben.

Ich begann mit dem Surfen, als ich 16 war. Wir mussten einen Weg finden, um an Surfboards und Boardshorts zu kommen. Australische Brands wie Rip Curl kamen gerade erst nach Frankreich und wir versuchten, sie nach Spanien zu bringen. Was war die wichtigste Lektion, die ihr in Bezug auf Orders und Verkauf gelernt habt?

Das, und das Surfen einfach zu leben. Wenn ihr euch Verkaufszahlen anseht, was habt ihr in den letzten zwei Jahren in den unterschiedlichen Produktkategorien gelernt? Slater Designs. Vor ein paar Jahren begannen wir, unsere eigenen Produkte herzustellen. Wir entschieden uns dazu, weil wir qualitativ hochwertige Produkte, die in Europa produziert werden, zu einem guten Preis anbieten wollten.

Baumwolle oder Merino? Eng anliegend oder mit Freiraum im Schritt? Von Dirk Vogel.

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Die Produkte sind Weiterhin haben wir Modelle mit Wholester, unserem eingearbeiteten Suspensorium. Das zweitwichtigste Material ist Bambus. Letztere sind besonders beliebt bei Leuten, die ihre Unterhosen nicht bis in die Stiefel haben wollen. Die meisten Marken sponsern Athleten im Boardsport, die ihrerseits wichtiges Feedback als Innovationsgrundlage liefern.

All das ist Longboarding, aber in unterschiedlichen Spielarten und mit verschiedenen Boards und Shapes. Hier sind die aktuellen Trends der drei Kategorien im Longboarding:. Skateboarder werden zunehmend vielschichtiger. Downhill und Racing bergen ernstzunehmende Risiken — und verlangen ernstzunehmendes Equipment. Aktuelle Downhill-Shapes bringen Rocker und Dips sowie kreative Concaves ins Spiel und bestehen aus fortschrittlichen Laminaten sowie technisch hochwertigen Konstruktionen.

Im Freestyle-Bereich geht der Trend zu kleineren Rollen zwischen mm. Quiksilver stellt mit Euroglass eine Reihe von surfigen Longboards her. Die Shops sollten das den Leuten ans Herz legen. Das Team von Uitto hat dank umfangreicher Produktentwicklung ein komplettes Deck aus recycelten Holzfasern aus finnischer Herstellung produziert.

Wir haben unsere Preise so weit es geht angepasst. Die Shops sollten das den. With the help of team rider, Malachi Greene, we developed the Dusters Bones, a true downhill machine.


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Constructed with a custom shape, W-Concave, slight rocker, multiple truck mounting options, routered wheel wells and a ply veneer layup, this board was built for speed and feel. We also used extra coarse printed grip tape to give the rider more control over the board. Finally, we paired this bad boy with all new 70mm 78A Gliders wheels, designed by Dusters for smoother slides while still keeping a grip in tight turns.

Das haben wir bereits im Windsurfen, im Snowboarden und vielen anderen Modewellen erlebt. Wann und wie hat eure Firma angefangen? Damals hatte der Handel nur sehr minderwertige und veraltete Designs zu bieten. Wer sitzt bei Arcade im Management-Team? Wie lautet eure Firmenphilosophie? Wie hebt ihr euch von der Konkurrenz ab? Und wir entwerfen. Welche Art von Marketing betreibt ihr?

Wir investieren in Leute. Sie investieren in unsere Marke und wir erwidern den Gefallen gerne. Arcade wird weiter in unsere Produkte, Branche und Leute investieren. Dann ergibt sich der Rest in Zukunft ganz von alleine. Und wie seht ihr die Zukunft der Boardsportbranche? So lange sie attraktiv bleiben, hat die Branche eine Zukunft. Aber sie wird weiter bestehen.

Wir scheuen keine Kosten, um Schuhe herzustellen, die toll aussehen und jede Menge aushalten. Wer sitzt bei euch im Management? In dieser Zeit habe ich auch bei anderen Marken als Sales Manager ausgeholfen, bis ich die Firma verlassen habe. In den letzten Jahren. Mit welchen Silhouetten arbeitet ihr? Der Shape ist auf einem etwas schmaleren Leisten aufgebaut, den wir selbst entwickelt haben. Wie funktioniert der Fokus auf Core Skate Shops? Wir hatten alle keine Lust auf eine Marke, bei der es um irgendetwas anderes als um Skateboarden geht.

Wir wollen bei dem bleiben, was wir kennen, und das ist Skaten. Welche Features machen State Shoes so gut zu skaten und gleichzeitig so robust? Mit diesen Jungs sind wir schon beim Filmen und wollen. Footwear wird in den ersten ein bis zwei Jahren unsere Hauptkategorie bleiben. Dabei werden wir uns auf Prints und Accessoires konzentrieren. Vor allem, wenn man teures Equipment dabei hat, wie es bei vielen Boardsport-Enthusiasten der Fall ist.

Das schnittfeste, leichte, starke. Wer ist im Management Team? Pacsafe hat vor kurzem viele Mitarbeiter eingestellt, um die weltweite Expansion mit einem erfahrenen Management Team fortzusetzen. Wie siehst du die Zukunft eures Unternehmens? Die Partner von Outdoor Vorarlberg stehen allen Mountainbikern und jenen die es endlich wollen werden professionell zur Seite.. The Outdoor Vorarlberg Partners are professionally available to all mountainbikers and those who maybe want to become mountainbikers..

Whether just for the hire of top mountainbikes, of electric bikes or guided tours of all standards of difficulty, tailored according to individual fitness and skills , riding technique classes and technical advice.. Vorzeigen handwerklichen Geschicks oder konzeptuelle Strategie?. All six factions bring huge new spaceships and diverse technologies into the final showdown in space..

Create a galactic empire, master culture and trade, prove diplomatic skills , explore new technologies and command powerful space fleets to conquer your enemies.. Take the battle for galactic supremacy to its ultimate level in Sins of a Solar Empire:. Das Bildungsprogramm richtet sich an Lernende und fordert diese auf in den eigenen Betrieben, an der Schule oder im Alltag Energiesparpotentiale und Klimaschutzmassnahmen zu entdecken und umzusetzen..

The Climate Laboratory aims to develop environmental knowledge and to blend commitment with technical expertise , a spirit of innovation and design skills.. This education programme targets trainees and encourages them to explore and realise potential energy savings within their own firms, at school and in day-to-day life.. We are using the following form field to detect spammers. Please do leave them untouched. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Please note that the vocabulary items in this list are only available in this browser.

Once you have copied them to the vocabulary trainer, they are available from everywhere. Unique: The editorially approved PONS Online Dictionary with text translation tool now includes a database with hundreds of millions of real translations from the Internet. See how foreign-language expressions are used in real life. Real language usage will help your translations to gain in accuracy and idiomaticity! The search engine displays hits in the dictionary entries plus translation examples, which contain the exact or a similar word or phrase.

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This new feature displays references to sentence pairs from translated texts, which we have found for you on the Internet, directly within many of our PONS dictionary entries. The PONS Dictionary delivers the reliability of a dictionary which has been editorially reviewed and expanded over the course of decades. In addition, the Dictionary is now supplemented with millions of real-life translation examples from external sources. So, now you can see how a concept is translated in specific contexts. We are able to identify trustworthy translations with the aid of automated processes.

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This includes measures to invest in strategic technologies. It includes steps to help workers whose jobs are at risk to retrain and find new work, as well as safeguarding and developing the key skills of some of the most valued technicians in Europe. It includes a determined and concerted effort to combat any move towards protectionism in global markets. And of course, the industry will benefit directly from the core measures of the European Economic Recovery Plan to get credit moving again, as well as from specific measures like the European green cars initiative.

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This European framework for the automotive sector shows how the intelligent application of EU and national policies can not only offer a cushion for the automotive industry in a time of intense pressure, but a springboard for the future. The common goal is a dynamic, competitive and sustainable automotive sector in the EU for the coming decades. The particular situation of the automotive sector The automotive industry is central to Europe's prosperity. The EU is the world's largest producer of motor vehicles, producing over 18 million vehicles a year and almost a third of the world's passenger cars.

It is a huge employer of skilled workforce, directly employing over 2 million people but responsible for some 12 million jobs. In addition, the sector plays a central part in tackling many of the key economic, social and environmental challenges faced by Europe today, such as sustainable mobility and safety. Automotive manufacturing is closely linked with many other sectors.

Electronics, mechanical and electrical engineering, information technology, steel, chemicals, plastics, metals and rubber are all key suppliers. It also has a very significant cross-border dimension in Europe and globally. Within the EU, the production lines are split between 16 Member States, and every single Member State is involved in the supply chain for manufacturing and the downstream chain for sales.

Any downturn in the automotive sector therefore strongly affects other sectors and all EU Member States. The current economic crisis is being marked by a sudden downturn for manufacturing. EU industrial production slumped by 8. The difficult situation of the European automotive industry has three major reasons: First, there has been a sharp and uniform drop in demand for passenger and commercial vehicles both in the EU and worldwide.

Tight credit conditions, declining share and asset prices, and the uncertainty created by the global economic environment are translating into very low consumer confidence and declining purchasing power. New passenger car sales fell by 1. The producers of commercial vehicles were even harder hit with orders for heavy duty vehicles falling from The situation varies between individual Member States but the downturn has now reached every market in the EU, and all major producers on the European market are severely affected.

Second, parts of the automotive industry are reporting problems with access to credit financing and fears of liquidity shortages. Some companies are unable to get loans on reasonable terms, with credit ratings downgraded in light of market outlook. In addition, suppliers are expressing an additional concern about money not moving down the supply chain. The situation is particularly difficult for smaller lower-tier suppliers which are less capitalised and diversified than their larger counterparts. Third, the industry suffers from longer-term structural problems pre-dating the crisis.

Automotive companies already faced a very competitive business environment. High fixed costs, structural overcapacity and intensive price competition has meant that many automotive companies were already focusing on reducing costs and improving internal efficiency.

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There has also been significant consolidation in the supply sector. Globally, vehicle production capacity is currently at ca. The situation is aggravated by the rising risk of protectionism , threatening reduced access to third country markets for European producers who have thrived on the export market. The first cases have come in the form of new import licensing requirements, e. Current forecasts for are not encouraging. This is likely to put further pressure on the whole automotive value chain particularly in terms of production volumes, capacity utilisation, employment and research investment.

Falling production levels and subsequent cost-cutting by automotive firms has already led to reductions in employment. Up to now it has mainly affected temporary workers. Negative employment effects could be magnified as a result of regional impacts because of the clustered and geographically concentrated nature of the automotive industry.

Additional pressure comes from potential spill-over effect from restructuring of GM and Chrysler. For example GM has announced that out of However, the long term global outlook for the automotive industry is promising: world-wide demand for vehicles is projected to double or even triple in the next 20 years as a result of motorisation in emerging markets.

The imperative of a "greener" car fleet will bring new opportunities for innovative technology. And since the current decline in demand in mature markets such as Europe and U. This makes it particularly important for the EU automotive industry to be able to weather the downturn and be ready to take advantage when demand returns. A key priority for the future is to ensure that European industry is able to respond to the current crisis and emerge from it in a stronger position to compete globally once market conditions improve.

This will be notably the case if the automotive industry will master the triple challenge of technological leadership with an environmental and safety performance that is world class. The Recovery Plan emphasises the importance not only of addressing the causes of the current problems of the automotive sector, but doing so in a way which will secure and further reinforce the longer-term competitiveness of the industry.

Such an approach will in turn make a major contribution to make industry fit for the low-carbon economy and thus to achieving Europe's ambitions in reducing CO2 emissions and improving energy security. Primary responsibility for dealing with the crisis lies with industry , individual companies and their managements. Industry itself is called upon to address the structural problems of production efficiency and capacity utilisation in a way that improves its long-term competitiveness and sustainability.

In addition, as part of the overall industrial policy approach, the EU and its Member States can contribute to creating framework conditions in which industry can thrive. They can also promote fair competition in open global markets. This public support should preferably be covered by horizontal policy instruments applicable to industry as a whole and should be met through a combination of European and Member State level action.

At an informal meeting with Ministers on 16 January, Member States shared these views and agreed to a number of key principles to guide their responses to the current situation, such as the need for open global markets, fair competition, respect of better regulation as well as cooperation and transparency. It will be important to ensure that measures taken at Member State level be coherent, efficient and co-ordinated.

As much of the importance of the European automotive industry is derived from its knock-on impact for the broader EU economy, it is particularly important to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market, and retain competitive neutrality and a level playing field, thus also ensuring solidarity between the Member States. In the European Economic Recovery Plan, the Commission has set out the key elements of the public support relevant for the automotive sector.

Some of these measures are general, while others target specifically the automotive industry. The main objectives of the proposed approach are: 1 to support demand in order to assist with remedying the effects of the credit squeeze; 2 to facilitate the adjustment by cushioning the costs associated with restructuring, in particular for workers and upgrade their training 3 to encourage the modernisation of the plants with a view to ensure a sustainable competitiveness of this industry at world level and 4 to assist industry to implement the radical technological change required by the climate change challenge.

While some progress has been achieved already, it is important to ensure that the objectives are fully met in an efficient and coherent way. In the current economic climate, a clear orientation towards long-term competitiveness, based on innovation, safety and environmental performance, is even more important. The Commission therefore reconfirms its commitment to fully take into account the recommendations of the CARS 21 process see Annex 1 , fully respecting the principles of Better Regulation.

The Commission will ensure that a coherent and co-ordinated forward-looking approach to future road transport and sustainable mobility requirements is adopted through the follow-up to CARS Given the impact of the current crisis the Commission will weigh up the costs and benefits of any new legislative initiative and seek, as far as possible, to avoid creating new economic burdens. Ensuring that the financial system starts operating properly remains the first priority in steering the economy towards recovery.

This is particularly important in the automotive sector, characterised by capital intensity and credit financed private demand.. The car industry will have to finance research and innovation in particular to design new engines that meet the ambitious European legislation on the reduction of CO2 emissions, starting from The new vehicles will also have to comply with stricter thresholds for pollutant emissions and tougher safety requirements.

It is therefore imperative to assist companies to access finance. The issue of financing is not only relevant to the future of the European automotive industry, but to the economy as a whole. In this respect the Commission has already taken important initiatives, with the adoption of the Communication concerning the application of State aid rules for the banking sector[2] and the Communication on recapitalisation of financial institutions in the current financial crisis[3].

With specific regard to the automotive sector, it should be noted that the financial branches of car makers may also qualify for aid under the schemes adopted by the Commission for the banking sector. In addition, the Commission is conscious of potentially damaging liquidity problems, in particular in the supply sector and will, together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the Member States, seek ways to improve the flow of credit to SMEs, including automotive suppliers.

From the State aid perspective, the new Temporary Framework for State aid measures adopted in December [4] slightly adapted on 25 February was designed to allow Member States to provide aid to companies facing problems of acess to liquidity. Typical instruments authorized under this framework are subsidised loans, subsidised guarantees and subsidised loans for the production of "green" products including cars.

In this context it needs to be stressed that aid granted on the basis of these frameworks fully respect internal market rules in order to avoid distortions and fragmentation. This framework only applies to companies whose difficulties do not pre-date the crisis. For companies whose difficulties are mainly due to structural problems rather than the current crisis, any State aid must be supported by a restructuring plan that ensures long term viability, in line with the objectives of promoting the competitiveness of this industry.

The wide range of "traditional" State aid instruments see list in Annex 2 available to Member States for supporting their industries can also be an important tool for promoting research and innovation, environmental development and restructuring, where this appears necessary, for the automotive industry, while maintaining a level playing field within the internal market. The Commission, together with the European Investment Bank and the Member States, will support industry in their efforts to maintain investments into future technologies particularly green technologies such as fuel efficiency and alternative propulsion throughout the economic downturn.

This will be done primarily through the European Investment Bank as well as through the 7 th Research Framework Programme. Loans granted to automotive industries can also draw on horizontal programmes, in particular those targeting SME's, convergence or safety. The Commission and the EIB will continue working together closely to ensure that the financing provided is as effective as possible. The possibility to further front load the lending planned for and is being kept under permanent review.

Procedures for granting support have been streamlined allowing the shortest possible processing for decisions following a request for support while maintaining strict appraisal procedures to ensure the viability of investments in the long term. In line with preparatory work done under the 7th Research Framework Programme and the relevant European Technology Platforms, the main focus of this partnership will be on the development of "green" vehicles including passenger cars, buses, urban vehicles and trucks, but also addressing related issues such as infrastructure and logistics. Finally, the Commsssion is working on establishing the necessary standardisation required to ensure that future technological solutions are provided with legal certainty and can be applied throughout the internal market.

As nine Member States have already established vehicle recycling and recovery schemes "scrapping schemes" and more are considering doing so, the Commission invited Member States experts for the first time on 16 February in order to ensure transparency of all initiatives and provide for an exchange of best practices. The Commission has discussed with the Member States common principles which shall allow smooth adoption of such scrapping schemes see Annex 3. The Commission invites Member States to make full use of public procurement to boost demand for cleaner and more fuel efficient vehicles in the short term, assessing the possibility to advance investment into infrastructure and into the renewal of the public transport fleet including heavy duty vehicles.

Member States will have to face substantial challenges and several regions may be hit very hard. In line with this, the European social partners and industry organisations of the sector have launched in October a " European Partnership for the anticipation of change in the automotive sector". A comprehensive two-year work programme is being carried on to anticipate and mitigate the social impact of restructuring.

Various EU funds and policy instruments can be mobilised to support the social cost of adjustment and to ensure that necessary skill levels required for the future competitiveness of industry are retained in the industry. This should be done in ways which support moves over time to new forms of production and should not preclude necessary restructuring. Such measures apply to all sectors; they are particularly relevant for the automotive sector with its supply chain as it will have to tackle significant overcapacities.

The Commission has also proposed an increase of advance payments from the European Social Fund ESF , and simplification of the criteria. This can be used to support to implementing measures to retain jobs and combat unemployment in the automotive industry, such as: i supporting short-time workers by financing training and a part of wage and non-wage labour costs; ii supporting company and sector restructuring; iii financing retraining; iv anticipating change requirements and matching skills.

There are already successful examples of how the ESF has supported restructuring in the automotive industry in the past, which can be drawn on for inspiration. The EGF has already intervened in four automotive sector cases with a fifth in the pipeline. This will allow the Fund to intervene more swiftly and, for a limited period of time, will allow interventions to be justified by the current economic crisis, irrespective of any link to globalisation.

Fair competition in open markets can help to fight the current crisis, whereas any protectionist measures threaten to deepen it. The EU is committed to avoid any new trade restrictions being created towards third countries. It expects the same attitude from its trading partners and will not tolerate a revival of protectionism.

The Commission will follow closely international developments and encourage international dialogue , in particular with its main trade partners including the US, Japan, Korea and China. Together with them it will work to keep world markets open and to ensure fair competition. It will keep progress under constant review. The Commission suggests that the CARS 21 process should be strengthened, with a round table with Member States, automotive industry producers and suppliers and trade unions.

Its main aims should be to provide a platform of mutual information, dialogue and best practices. It should support the efforts of the sector to restructure so that it can compete in world markets with a strong focus on retaining skills in the industry, retraining workers for future tasks and for new jobs in this and other sectors. The round table should also monitor the development in the following areas: - Reviving private demand and frontloading public demand : - Financial support for research - Active support for reducing overcapacity while maintaining skilled workforce via the European Social Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund; - Strict respect of CARS 21 recommendations , in particular as regards Better Regulation and the need to weigh up costs and benefits of any new legislative initiative with a view to avoid, as far as possible, creating new economic burdens; The Commission stands ready to make full use of the potential of the TEC to intensify the dialogue with the US with regards to the situation of US automotive producers and its spill-over to the EU.

German to English: Glossary - Subject Names. Konversation Akt. Arbeitsvorbereitung Arbeitswiss. AVT Aufbau- und Verbindungstechn. Werkzeugbau Automat. Kunststofft, Werkz. Schaltungen Bauelem. Bautenschutz Bautenschutztechnik Bekleidungstechnik Berechn. Konstruktionslehre Berechn. Anlagen u. Betriebliche Kostenrechnung Betriebsfestigkeit Betriebskostenr. Fertigung Betriebskostenrechnung Betriebsl. Betriebslehre Betriebslehre u. Betriebsorganisation Betriebsplanung und Org. Betriebsplanung und Organisat. Betriebspsychologie Betriebspsychologie 1 Betriebspsychologie 2 Betriebssoziologie Betriebssysteme Betriebssysteme 1 Betriebssysteme 2 Betriebsw.

Arbeitsvorb Bilanz und Steuern Bildverarb. Simulation in Autom. Engin Com. VisualWorks Einf. Internet u. Aktoren und Sensoren El. Ausl El. Maschinen Vertiefungsf. Energietechnik Labor Elektr. Maschinen und Anl. Maschinen und Anlagen Elektr. Messen mech. Elektronik 1 Energiemaschinen Energiesysteme Energietechnik und techn. WPF Energieumwandlung Energieversorg. Englisch English for Mechanical Engin. Halbleiterschaltungen Entwurf integr. Schaltkreise Erg. Bauteile Fertigung und Werkzeugmasch. Fertigung warmfester Bauteile Fertigungs- und Automat. Elektrot,3 u. Aufbau- und Verb.

Wasser- u. Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte Instr. Analytik u. Instrumentelle Analytik Int. Marketing 1,2 Int. Finanz12 Interdiszipl. Projektarbeit Internat. Kostenrechnung Investitions- u.

Kostenrechnung Investitions-u. Mechanik 2 Konstruieren mit Kunststoffen Konstrukt. Farbe Kosten- u. Regelsysteme Labor Dig. Regelungstechnik Labor Dig. Signalverarbeitung Labor Digitale Signalverarb. Aktoren und Sensoren Labor Elektr. Labor Elektr. Elektrotechnik Labor Grundl. Elektrotechnik 1 Labor Grundl. Elektrotechnik 2 Labor Grundl. Umwelta Labor Kar. Intelli Labor Meth. Realit Labor Nachrichtentechnik Labor Objektorient.

Lackherstellung Labor Prakt. Werkstoffe Labor Prakt. Lack Labor Prakt. Kunststoffanalyse Labor Prakt. Kunststofftechnik Labor Prakt. Kostenrechnung Labor Qual. Labor Systeman. Labor Technol. Labor Telekom. Rechnernetze Labor Telekomm. Vertrieb Marketing-Sem. Elektronikentwicklung Methoden d. Signalverarbeitung Methoden d. Fort Obj. C Objektor.

Programmierung Objektorient. Programmieren Objektorient. Optoelektronik Optoelektronik 1 Optoelektronik 2 Organ. Chemie polymerer Werkst. Physik Physik 1 Physik 1,2 Physik 2 Physik der elektr. Sensoren Physik der elektr. Sensoren Physik el. Bindemittel Planung u. Operations Research Planung u. Lack Praktikum Applikationst. Lacke Praktikum Bauten-u. Lacke Praktikum Werkstoffp. Produktionswirtschaft Produktionswirtschaft-Seminar Prodwirtsch. Automatisierung Rechnergest. Konstruktion, CAD Rechnergest. Rechnertechnik Rechnertechnik 1 Rechnertechnik 2 Recht Recht in d. Verbindungst Seminar Automatisierungstechn.

Seminar Business and Engineer. Care Servicet. Schaltungen Simulat. Fertigung Spezielle Makromoleku. Studienschwerpunkt Kon.

Studiertechniken Systemanal. Simulation Systementwurf: El. Betriebssysteme2 Systemprogram. Betriebssys1 Systemtechnik Techn. Festigkeitslehre 1,2 Techn. Vertrieb 2, Vertr. Mechanik und Konstr. Physik und Math. Methoden Techn. Mikroelektronik Technologie d. Rechnernetze Telekommunikation u. Thermische Energietechnik Thermische Masch. Wertanalyse Windows u. Programmierung Windows-Programmierung Wirtschaftlich-techn.

Stg WPF Anwendungsfach and. WPF aus and. WPF betriebswirtsch. WPF fertigungstechn. WPF Fertigungsverfahren and. St WPF Fremdsprache and. WPF Gruppe A aus and. WPF Gruppe B aus and. WPF Informatik and. WPF Konstruktion and. WPF math. WPF Methodenfach and. WPF nichttechnisch and. WPF Prod. WPF technisch and.

WPF versorgungstechn. Stg WPF wirtschaftswiss. WPF wirtschaftswiss. Computer-Aided Automation Lab:. Translation - English not mandatory waste settlement fiscal charge, tax, levy, duty tax code delegate redress descendant, scion redemption delegation selling co-operative-society brit. English to German: Glossary - Project Management. Source text - German 1.

Eine Einigung auf gemeinsame Mindestnormen bei diesen Verfahrensrechten erleichtert die Anwendung des Grundsatzes der gegenseitigen Anerkennung. Mai gebilligt wurde. Jede Person hat das Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit. Jede angeklagte Person hat mindestens folgende Rechte: a. Artikel 1 - Geltungsbereich Artikel 2 — Recht auf Verdolmetschung Artikel 6 - Regressionsverbot Durch diesen Artikel soll sichergestellt werden, dass durch die Festlegung gemeinsamer Mindestanforderungen im Einklang mit diesem Rahmenbeschluss bestimmte Mitgliedstaaten nicht zur Absenkung ihrer Standards gezwungen werden und dass die Standards der EMRK beibehalten werden.

Artikel 7 — Umsetzung Dieser Artikel verpflichtet die Mitgliedstaaten, den Rahmenbeschluss bis zum xx. Artikel 8 - Berichterstattung Artikel 9 - Inkrafttreten Oktober den Grundsatz der gegenseitigen Anerkennung zum Eckstein der justiziellen Zusammenarbeit innerhalb der Union sowohl in Zivil- als auch in Strafsachen. Die Bestimmungen dieses Rahmenbeschluss erleichtern die praktische Anwendung dieses Rechts. Sie sollten eine etwaige Benachteiligung erkennen und entsprechende Schritte einleiten, um die Rechte der betreffenden Person zu wahren.

Artikel 2 Recht auf Verdolmetschung 1. Oktober C 12 vom November , Serie A Nr.. Er kommt zum Ergebnis, dass das in Art. Dezember , Serie A Nr. No such evidence appears from the documents in the file or the statements of the witnesses heard on 23 April Die Aktenlage und die am September — Nr. The right […]to the free assistance of an interpreter applies not only to oral statements made at the trial hearing but also to documentary material and the pre-trial proceedings.

Paragraph 3 e art. The interpretation assistance provided should be such as to enable the defendant to have knowledge of the case against him and to defend himself, notably by being able to put before the court his version of the events. In view of the need for the right guaranteed by paragraph 3 e art. Artikel 6 Absatz 3 lit. Damit das in Artikel 6 Absatz 3 lit. Translation - English 1. This proposal for a Council Framework Decision aims to set common minimum standards as regards the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings throughout the European Union.

The proposal is envisaged as a first step in a series of measures designed to replace the Commission's proposal for a Council Framework Decision on certain procedural rights in criminal proceedings throughout the European Union - COM , Agreement could not be reached on that proposal, despite 3 years' discussions in the Council Working Group, and it was effectively abandoned in June , after a fruitless discussion in the Justice Council.

Adopting a step-by-step approach is now seen as a generally acceptable way to proceed; it will also gradually help build confidence and contribute to enhancing mutual trust. This proposal should therefore be considered as part of a comprehensive package of legislation which will seek to provide a minimum set of procedural rights in criminal proceedings in the European Union. Rights covered in the proposal were, besides the right to free interpretation and translation, the right to legal advice, the right to information about rights Letter of Rights , the right to specific attention for vulnerable defendants, the right to communicate with consular authorities and the right to communicate with the family.

For this proposal, the Commission has decided to concentrate on the right to interpretation and translation as it was the least controversial right in the discussions of the proposal and there was information and research available on this right. This proposal seeks to improve the rights of suspects who do not understand and speak the language of the proceedings. Having common minimum standards in relation to these rights should facilitate the application of the principle of mutual recognition.

As regards the legal basis, the proposal is based on Article 31 1 of the Treaty on European Union. Article 31 1 c envisages that the EU may develop "common action" so as to ensure compatibility in rules where necessary to improve cooperation. For judicial cooperation, in particular mutual recognition, it is necessary to have mutual trust. A certain degree of compatibility is necessary to improve mutual trust and hence, co-operation.

The right to interpretation and translation, which stems from the European Convention on Human Rights ECHR , is fundamental for a person facing a criminal charge who does not understand the language of the proceedings so that the suspect knows the charges against him and understands the procedure. The suspect must be in a position to understand of what he is accused.

Translations should be provided of essential procedural documents. In accordance with the ECHR, interpretation and translation must be provided free of charge. The options set out were as follows: a Maintaining the status quo would entail no EU action. The current situation whereby Member States are expected to comply with their ECHR obligations could be expected to continue as now with the perceived imbalance between prosecution and the accused which has hitherto hampered mutual recognition.

This would have negligible economic consequences. This option would lead to better awareness of ECHR standards by disseminating and recommending practices which help compliance. It would not achieve further approximation of legal standards. The economic impact would be twofold, first the cost of putting services in place to ensure rights are respected, and second, the gain in reduced costs of appeals.

It would need careful consideration so that any potential issue of discrimination between categories of suspects involved in cross-border versus domestic proceedings is addressed appropriately. As with the previous option, the economic impact would be twofold, first the cost of putting services in place to ensure rights are respected, and second, the gain in reduced costs of appeals, but to a lesser extent than above since it is less ambitious in scope. The Impact Assessment identified the combination of options b and e as the preferred approach maximising synergies between legislative and non-legislative action.

Therefore this Framework Decision should be followed up by a document on best practice. The Presidency Conclusions of the Tampere European Council[1] stated that mutual recognition should become the cornerstone of judicial cooperation, but makes the point that mutual recognition " These parameters include mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of suspects parameter 3 and the definition of common minimum standards necessary to facilitate application of the principle of mutual recognition parameter 4.

This proposal for a Framework Decision represents an embodiment of the stated aim of enhancing the protection of individual rights. Article 5 ECHR — Right to liberty and security - stipulates that: " 1 Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law: … f the lawful arrest or detention of a person …with a view to …extradition.

The European Court of Human Rights ECtHR has held on Article 6 ECHR that the accused has the right to interpretation free of charge, even in the event of his conviction, that he has a right to receive the documents setting out the charge in a language that he understands, that the interpretation must be sufficient to allow the person charged to understand the proceedings and that the interpreter must be competent. Germany [5].

In Kamasinski v. Austria[6] , it was established that the interpretation provided should be of a high enough standard to enable the defendant to have knowledge of the case against him and to defend himself. The right applies to documentary material and the pre-trial proceedings. The ECtHR held that the standard of interpretation must be "adequate" and that details of the charge must be given to the person in a language that he understands Brozicek v. It is for the judicial authorities to prove that the defendant speaks the language of the court adequately and not for the defendant to prove he does not[8].

The interpreter must be competent and the judge must safeguard the fairness of the proceedings Cuscani v. The Reflection Forum on Multilingualism and Interpreter Training[10] produced a report with recommendations on the quality of interpretation and translation. This Report was the fruit of meetings of the Reflection Forum convened by the Commission's Directorate-General for Interpretation during to identify whether there is a need for action and if so, what action could be taken.

The Forum concluded that there was a need and set out Recommendations as to how to improve the provision of competent and qualified interpreters in criminal proceedings. The Recommendations included having a Curriculum in Legal Interpreting and a system of accreditation, certification and registration for legal interpreters. Article 1 - Scope of application The scope covers all persons suspected in respect of a criminal offence until final conviction including any appeal.

Here, the term "suspect" is used to cover such persons. This is intended as an autonomous term, irrespective of the designation of such persons in national proceedings. Since the case-law of the ECtHR has clarified that persons being questioned in relation to offences, whether or not formally charged, should be covered by Article 6 ECHR, persons arrested or detained in connection with a criminal charge also come within the ambit of this provision. These rights start to apply from the time when the person is informed that he is suspected of having committed an offence e.

The Article clarifies that the proposal also applies to European Arrest Warrant cases. It is an important point that European Arrest Warrant cases are covered since the Framework Decision concerning the European Arrest Warrant only addresses these rights in general terms. Article 2 - The right to interpretation This Article lays down the basic principle that interpretation should be provided during the investigative and judicial phases of the proceedings, i. The right is also extended to legal advice given to the suspect if his lawyer speaks a language that he does not understand.

Article 3 - The right to translation of essential documents The suspect has the right to translation of essential documents in order to safeguard the fairness of the proceedings. Austria[11] , the ECtHR stated that the right to interpretation applied to "documentary material" and that the accused should have sufficient knowledge of the case against him to enable him to defend himself[12]. The essential documents for the criminal proceedings should therefore include the charge sheet or indictment and any relevant documentary material such as key witness statements needed in order to understand "in detail, the nature and cause of the accusation against him" in accordance with Article 6 3 a of the ECHR.