Since she was an oriental scholar her works deal mainly with travel and "exotic" subject matter. He was an important figure in the development of romanticism and the founder of the aesthetic movement in France usually referred to as art for art's sake "l'art pour l'art". L'Histoire du Romantisme is a valuable account of Gautier's understanding of the romantic movement in France. It includes portraits of the major literary and artistic figures of the period, and describes some of the principal events in which he participated such as the infamous opening night of Hernani by Victor Hugo.
This play caused a scandal and announced the battle between the classicists and the romantics. He was a prominent member of several groups of young romantics — called cenacles — and wrote a humorous satire of the attitudes and aspirations of the young generation of romantic artists in Paris, entitled Les Jeunes France Among her many novels is Un Mariage sous l'Empire She was a prominent educational writer, novelist and memoir-writer whose views were a mixture of progressive ideas and reactionary attitudes. Her 10 volume memoirs were published in A successful poet and dramatist, she maintained a famous salon which brought together the major romantic writers of her generation.
In her Lettres parisiennes she chronicled the important events of her time. Her fiction includes La Canne de Monsieur de Balzac The two brothers were very influential writers who were largely responsible for the revival of interest in French 18th century art and letters after a period of neglect. In addition to their important works of art criticism they maintained a Journal which is an invaluable resource for an intimate knowledge of the lives of artists and painters in the second half of the 19th century. It was not published in its entirety until The main function of the Academy is to award an annual prize to the best novel of the year.
The brothers are also known as novelists who wanted to continue the tradition of Balzac and give a truthful, scientific portrayal in an artistic style of the complex aspects of contemporary society. They did not limit themselves to life in Paris. After the death of his brother, Jules continued to produce novels which were an artistic documentation of contemporary customs and manners.
Probably the greatest writer of the romantic era who excelled in all genres: theater, fiction, poetry, memoirs, and was an excellent painter as well. He became a national institution and his funeral in Paris was an event of great proportions. His list of works dealing with Paris is extensive; they cover most of the major events in the 19th century in which he was a participant and prime witness. Among his novels there are several important texts about life in Paris.
Hugo's many volumes of poetry include individual poems that treat the history of France and especially events from the Revolution of through the Commune in Throughout the volumes of lyric poetry there are also many poems devoted to the city; in Les Contemplations , for example, is found the masterpiece "Melancholia" which offers a series of portraits of the poor and marginalized inhabitants of Paris, including the poet who is alienated and misunderstood. Hugo also wrote poetry with political themes from the beginning to the end of his career. There are poems glorifying Napoleon and the Revolution of ; works dealing with the events of and when Hugo played a political role in the life of his country as an elected senator.
The poetry about political issues traces his own development from a young royalist in the first collections, to a centrist after , and then a socialist who exiled himself during the entire reign of Napoleon III in the Second Empire. Many of his works in prose present his views on the recent history of the city; Choses Vues posthumous, is a valuable document offering his perspective on historical figures he knew and important events which he had witnessed himself.
Hugo's theater was very influential in establishing the romantic tradition, and the new admiration for Shakespeare, as opposed to the classical French dramatic conventions; it does not deal with contemporary life but presents history plays often dealing with Spain and the Renaissance period in France.
Joris-Karl , An important novelist and art critic whose work evolved from novels written in the style and philosophy of naturalism. He was known as a major writer of the decadence, the disillusioned generation after the Revolution of Its protagonist, Des Esseintes, lives a solitary life in a Paris suburb in which he has created a totally artificial existence to counteract the meaninglessness of life.
His final novels illustrate his development into a religious and mystical phase. He also wrote studies of writers and actors like Alexandre Dumas and the celebrated actress Rachel. As a playwright he is best known for Ubu-roi a satire of the bourgeoisie and the monarchy which became an important precursor of the theater of the absurd. He was a leading socialist thinker, a director of the French workers' mouvement , and probably the greatest orator of the 3rd Republic. His major writings are articles and essays on socialism, the Dreyfus affair, and the history of revolution in France. His Histoire socialiste appeared from An important poet in the symbolist school, he produced many volumes of poetry influenced by Baudelaire and Verlaine as well as art criticism.
He and his son, Henri, wrote many successful light comedies and vaudeville characterized by their bourgeois taste and clever observations of contemporary life and customs in Paris and its suburbs.
A typical example of his boulevard style comedy is La Pucelle de Belleville He also wrote a series of sketches of Parisian life. She came to Paris from Poland at the age of Primarily a poet she is credited to be the first to develop free verse in France. She died in poverty. Her collected works include Rythmes pittoresques and Joies errantes She left an important memoir that describes her youth at Court, her experiences during the Revolution, emigration and life under Napoleon.
Journal d'une femme de cinquante ans was first published in An excellent playwright of comedies and vaudeville who produced one hundred plays about French life and manners. He was an important member of the symbolist school of poetry who published in contemporary journals and is remembered for melancholic, ironic poems in collections like Les complaintes Lamartine is considered the first great poet of the romantic era. His successive collections reaffirmed his position as the great French romantic poet, but have little to do with Paris.
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However, he also had an important political career and became the provisional president of the Second Republic after the Revolution of He incarnated the romantic ideal of the poet, a spiritual leader and humanitarian guide of the people. His term was brief because he was unable to act decisively and choose between the right and the left politically. His most important prose work L'Histoire des Girondins was very popular and influential at the time of the Revolution of ; it was a political manifesto presenting the Girondin group of the first Revolution , a centrist party of moderation, as a kind of model for political action.
In after his fall from power he published L'Histoire de la Revolution de He prepared a series of autobiographical works called Les Confidences after They present the point of view of the poet- politician during this time of revolution and change. The romantic philosopher who proclaimed himself a socialist exerted an important influence on Hugo and especially George Sand in her utopian, socialist novels. He played a role in the Revolution of but always insisted on the need for solidarity among the classes instead of conflict. He was primarily for the elevation of the poorer classes through reform not violence, and advocated democratic principles to favor the extension of property to the proletariat, not the abolition of traditional values like the followers of Saint-Simon.
He was one of the mystic, occultist thinkers who influenced the romantic writers, especially Victor Hugo in his later religious works such as La Fin de Satan. A poet and novelist usually considered as a member of the decadent school, he was influenced by Baudelaire and the symbolist poets. He is best known for his novel M.
De Phocas that seems to be modeled on the life of the elegant dandy and friend of Proust, Robert de Montesquiou. Loti was a well-known novelist whose works are primarily about travel to lands considered exotic at the time. One of the greatest French poets, he was a leader of the symbolist school and wrote rich, complex works with little attention to the city. He is celebrated for his short stories about his native province, Normandy, and the Franco-Prussian war of He also has a cycle of Parisian short stories in which he depicted the world of the working middle class La Parure , En Famille , or the world of leisure Yvette , La Femme de Paul.
He is also the author of important novels which make him the contemporary Balzac; he presents the life of the ambitious opportunist in Bel-Ami in a historical portrait of Parisian life like those of Balzac. The protagonist has indeed been called the Rastignac of the Third Republic. Other important novels are Pierre et Jean which treats the world of middle class shopkeepers, and Fort comme la mort ; it presents the loves of a contemporary painter.
A popular playwright of light comedies who collaborated with the composer Offenbach on several operettas such as La Vie Parisienne He was a very important writer of short fiction and plays during the romantic period. He frequented the other famous writers of his time in Paris, but is best known for his stories with a foreign or exotic setting such as the Spain of Carmen She was a teacher who played a role in the uprising of the Commune.
An activist and anarchist, Michel wrote a series of books about the plight of the poor and the inferior condition of women. She wrote her souvenirs in Souvenirs et aventures de ma vie His study of the people of France Le Peuple , , also presents the life of the city. A minor poet of the pre-romantic period whose volumes of poetry include Les Embellissements de Paris He was a novelist, playwright and journalist of the realist and naturalist school who is best known for his naturalist novel, Journal d'une femme de chambre His plays Les Corbeaux and Les Affaires sont les Affaires are virulent satires of the moneyed classes.
The journal published many writings of the young romantics, their manifestoes and articles of criticism. Finally, in the opera version by Verdi it became perhaps the most famous story in opera about 19th century artistic life. The expression popular bohemia is now used to express his version of the suffering but optimistic artist living on the margins of bourgeois society.
He remains the archetypical French romantic poet whose works define the young romantic generation of Paris in He excelled as a playwright; his works often dealt with Renaissance themes Lorenzaccio , Andrea del Sarto or the pursuit of a perfect but impossible love On ne badine pas avec l'amour. They are victims of the failures of their fathers — the revolution and the restoration left the young generation with the feeling of helplessness and lack of meaning.
The text is thus an essential document describing the situation of the young Parisian artist in His best poetry also presents the emotions and anguish of the young poet especially the series entitled Les Nuits and Rolla. In addition to his very personal poetry based on his emotions and love experiences, he wrote art criticism and a series of satirical letters gently mocking his own generation of writers; the Lettres de Dupuis et Cotonet is an important document about the contemporary condition of artists in Paris to be compared with Les Jeunes-France of Gautier.
His correspondence should be consulted, especially the letters between him and Goerge Sand. A prolific writer of novels and plays no longer read, he is best known for his passionate defense of his brother Alfred in the novel Lui et Elle It was published in the same year as George Sand's presentation of her side of the famous love affair between her and Alfred de Musset Elle et Lui which took place in Venice.
These two works and Musset's Confession constitute important cultural documents concerning romantic attitudes and the psychology of love. The great French photographer captured images of the famous writers and celebrities of his time. He also wrote plays and short stories of a satirical, comic nature. He was one of the most important poets of his time whose influence extends to the surrealists; his work makes extensive use of myth, the worlds of dream and madness.
Paris was not really his subject, and yet he is remembered, like Verlaine later, as a Parisian poet. He was a member of the Cenacle of artists associated with Gautier, and for some is the quintessential romantic artist living in the world of his own imagination. He wrote texts about his many travels such as Le Voyage en Orient , and is associated with the countryside outside of Paris around Senlis which he immortalized in his short story "Sylvie.
The famous short story writer developed a French brand of the genre of the fantastic, le conte fantastique, in which the world of dreams predominates. The melodrama was the most popular genre in the theater during the first half of the 19th century. He was known as the king of the boulevard for his innumerable plays and particularly melodramas.
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He was a friend of the great romantics, including Vigny and G. Sand, and is best known for his many articles and portraits of contemporary artists and writers in the important literary journal, La Revue des Deux Mondes. A minor poet and playwright he wrote several comedies of interest to those who would study the customs of the business world in Paris in the middle of the 19th century, L'Honneur et l'argent and La Bourse Pierre-Joseph , He is a philosopher, socialist and student of art whose thought had a great influence in the middle years of the century.
He defined a kind of French version of socialism that stresses solidarity, equality and justice without the presence of a state bureaucracy. His influence waned with the advent of Marxism and the rise of industrialization in France.
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A close friend of the realist painter Courbet, his treatise on art and literature is entitled Du principe de l'art et de sa destination sociale Antoine-Chrysostome , Known as the influential esthetician of neo-classicism, he was called the French Winckelmann. He defended the classical ideal in art and esthetics during his entire career against the development of romantic art. One of his many treatises on art and esthetics is Essai sur la nature, le but et les moyens de l'imitation dans les beaux-arts An important political figure, as a deputy he was exiled at the beginning of the Second Empire for his impassioned support of the Revolution of He was also a prolific writer who produced many texts about the history of France and especially the Revolution.
He is an important precursor of a group of poets who specialized in the poem in prose, including Baudelaire. His best works are included in the posthumous edition of entitled L'Album d'un pessimiste. Marguerite Eymery wrote under the pseudonym of Rachilde. Primarily a novelist she was also a dramatist and journalist. Her very well-written novels treat gender transpositions, sadism and the love of the artificial; they were often considered to be scandalous. He wrote short fiction and novels not primarily concerned with the city. It is interesting for his efforts to transpose art works, mainly marble sculpture and metal pieces into poetic form in collections such as Les Medailles d'argile.
A writer of fiction best known for Poil de Carotte , he became an important representative of theater in Paris at the turn of the century with theatrical adaptations of his works. One of the greatest French poets, he became a visionary whose rebellion from bourgeois values and natural genius revitalized French poetry.
He was born in the provinces and died in Marseille. While most of his poems celebrate forms of evasion from the stifling confines of contemporary life, several deal with the Paris Commune, while The Illuminations contain pieces with urban themes, ostensibly inspired by a trip to London. An important journalist, he was considered to be the very incarnation of the Parisian temperament at the end of the century.
He founded La Chronique parisienne in and later was editor of Charivari. He was a very important playwright whose plays often featured the famous actress Sarah Bernhardt. His best known works are Cyrano de Bergerac , and L'Aiglon his play about the tragic life of Napoleon's son which was a favorite role of the great actress. One of his last plays was Chantecler a poetic fable. His works are not particularly concerned with the city but seem to continue the romantic tradition of history and poetic theater. He was the most influential critic of his age; he strongly supported the first romantic generation, especially Victor Hugo, and lived to befriend the generation of Flaubert and Baudelaire.
Derived from the verb assuage , meaning to ease or alleviate, swage is an old British dialect word that can be used to mean to take in food, to let your stomach settle, or, most importantly, "to relax after a good meal. Speaking of swaging , what better place to do it than a triclinium? BY Paul Anthony Jones. Amour fou Used in English since the early s, an amour fou is an uncontrollable and obsessive passion for someone, and in particular one that is not reciprocated.
Tant bien que mal Tant bien que mal has been used in English since the 18th century to describe anything that is only partly or moderately successful. This story originally ran in Subscribe to our Newsletter! Gut-Gullie Gut has been used to mean the stomach or, originally, the abdomen and its contents since the Old English period, and is the root of a host of gluttonous words like gut-foundered , which means hungry to the point of near starvation; gut-head , a 17th century word for someone who appears dull and slow witted from overeating; and gut-gullie , an old Scots dialect verb meaning to overeat or eat greedily.
Smell-Feast Noah Webster gave two definitions for a smell-feast. Groak … or growk , which means to stare at someone intently and expectantly, hoping that they give you some of their food. Linnard The linnard is the last member of a group to finish their meal. Tarnisher Tarnisher is an old Scots and Irish dialect word for a huge meal.
Forenoons The forenoon is the portion of the day between waking up in the morning and midday, which makes a forenoons a brunch or a light snack taken between breakfast and lunch. Speustic The adjective speustic first appeared in a 17th century dictionary called Glossographia by the English lexicographer Thomas Blount. Swage Derived from the verb assuage , meaning to ease or alleviate, swage is an old British dialect word that can be used to mean to take in food, to let your stomach settle, or, most importantly, "to relax after a good meal.
Triclinium Speaking of swaging , what better place to do it than a triclinium? France established a number of colonies in North America, mostly in Canada and west of the Appalachian mountain chain and also in the Mississippi region and the West Indies, in the 16th century and 17th century. Royal flag of France before the French Revolution. The French wanted to keep the British colonies in North America confined to a small area along the east coast so France could expand its own colonies and gain control of the trade industries there, according to Alfred A.
Cave in his book The French and Indian War:. To that end, the French undertook construction on a chain of forts on western and northern lands claimed by Great Britain. In , Britain attempted to expel the French from the Ohio country after the French built a series of forts there, which then resulted in the first battles of the French and Indian War. After two years of fighting in North America, Britain officially declared war on France on May 17, In the build up to the French and Indian War, the British colonists realized that the lack of unity among the 13 British colonies and the regional differences between them made it hard for them to agree on many issues and was a threat to their safety and security against the French and their Indian allies.
The long-term goal of the meeting was to achieve greater colonial unity and thus bolster their common military defense against France. At the meeting, Pennsylvania representative Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union, which called for a loose confederation of the colonies led by a president general with a limited authority to levy taxes to fund a central treasury.
Although it failed, the Albany Congress was a defining moment in American politics because it was the first time the colonies had met to discuss uniting together.
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After the war broke out in , tens of thousands of British colonists actively fought in the war, which provided these soldiers with valuable military experience that later served them well in their own war against the British during the Revolutionary War. The military force of the British colonies consisted of the British Army, British Navy and American volunteer military units supported by only a few tribes of American Indian allies. Unlike the British colonies, where self-rule was established early on, there were no elected assemblies in New France.
Decisions were made by local magistrates on behalf of the French king so the French colonists had little say in the war with the British. The military force of New France consisted of the French Army, French Navy and Canadian volunteer military units which were supported by a large number of independent American Indian allies and American Indian militia units. This military force was ultimately no match though against corrupt French officials and the superior British military, according to an article on the Canadian History Project website:.
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The Iroquois Confederacy claimed that it owned the lands that made up the Ohio Country. The British government, which argued that the Iroquois were their subjects, used the Iroquois claim to assert that it held legal title to the land. Morris in an article in American Heritage Magazine:. But the bonds between England and her Indian allies had been stretched to the breaking point as the Iroquois observed with increasing alarm the rising military might of France.
Their tension mounted when the French boldly established Fort Niagara on Lake Erie as a bastion against them. To the Six Nations the alliance with England seemed to have less and less military value. As the French became more aggressive the Six Nations moved toward neutrality. In , the Albany Congress attempted to recruit the Iroquois to fight alongside the British by showering them with gifts, provisions and promises of redress of grievances. After the war began, the Iroquois watched as the British lost many of the early battles of the war and feared the British would lose the war, thus bolstering their decision not to ally with them.
Realizing that the British might win, the Iroquois reasoned it would benefit them to be on the winning side. The Catawba Indian Nation had been trading partners with the British since the colonists first arrived in North America in the 17th century. During the conflict with France, the Catawbas sided with the British and patrolled the frontier and provided guides and about three hundred warriors to the British forces.
In , although the colony was not under widespread attack, Catawba warriors killed two Frenchmen and three of their Indian allies, probably a scouting party, in North Carolina. In , when Carolina leaders received news of Cherokee scouting parties attacking and robbing English settlers along the Broad River and Catawba River, two colonial militia companies were ordered to patrol the area and a shipment of gun power and lead were sent to the Catawba to help them defend the backcountry.
In , a smallpox outbreak reduced the Catawba population to around people and about warriors. This led the Catawbas to establish a smaller settlement at Twelve Mile Creek in South Carolina and a land reservation of 15 square miles in present-day counties of York and Lancaster.