John T. Wolfreys, Julian, ed. Introducing Criticism in the 21st Century. Yver, Jacques. Edited by Marie-Ange Maignan. ISBN —2———1. Lizelle Bisschoff and David Murphy. Oxford: Legenda Moving Image, 5 , ISBN —1——51—6. Artifice and Invention in the Spanish Golden Age.
ISBN —1——16—2. Asian American Literature and the Environment. Atkin, Rhian. ISBN —1——43—8. Cyril Edwards. Brewer Arthurian Archives, 19 , Bauer, Esther K. Bauer, Margaret Donovan. Bell, Lucy. ISBN —1——13—1. Books and Periodicals in Brazil — ISBN —1——32—2. Brannigan, John. Britain, Spain and the Treaty of Utrecht — Trevor J. Dadson and J. ISBN —1——22—3. British Romanticism: Criticism and Debates.
Mark Canuel. Bunge, Hans, and Eisler, Hanns. Sabine Berendse and Paul Clements. ISBN ———4. The Cambridge Companion to the French Enlightenment. Daniel Brewer. Carver, Beci. Granular Modernism. ISBN —0—19——3.
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Deb, Basuli. ISBN —1—13——2. ISBN —0———9. De Santis, Vincenzo. Disability, Health, and Happiness in the Shakespearean Body. Sujata Iyengar. ISBN —1—13——9. Drowne, Kathleen. Understanding Richard Russo. Duffy, Larry. Flaubert, Zola, and the Incorporation of Disciplinary Knowledge. English, Elizabeth. Epistolario de Pilar de Zubiaurre — Epplin, Craig. Late Book Culture in Argentina. On Doubt. Siegfried Zielinski. Rodrigo Maltez Novaes.
ISBN —1——24—6. Fung, Paul. Dostoevsky and the Epileptic Mode of Being. ISBN —1——08—7. The Future of Postcolonial Studies. Chantal Zabus. Godwin, William. The Letters of William Godwin. Volume II: — Pamela Clemit. ISBN —0—19——6.
Gottsched, Luise, and Pope, Alexander. Hilary Brown and Ritchie Robertson. ISBN —0——5. Hammond, Meghan Marie. Empathy and the Psychology of Literary Modernism. Hasegawa, Yoko. Japanese: A Linguistic Introduction. Houghton-Walker, Sarah. Representations of the Gypsy in the Romantic Period. Howe, Elizabeth Theresa. Gloria Allaire. Brewer Arthurian Archives, 20 , Jaques, Zoe. Jennings, Lauren McGuire. Kareem, Sarah Tindal. Eighteenth-Century Fiction and the Reinvention of Wonder. ISBN —0—19——1. Kavaloski, Joshua. High Modernism: Aestheticism and Performativity in Literature of the s. Lesser, Zachary.
ISBN —0—— —2. Jochen Achilles and Ina Bergmann. Llewellyn, Kathleen M. Lurie, Peter, and Abadie, Ann J. Faulkner and Film. Mary Wroth and Shakespeare. Paul Salzman and Marion Wynne-Davies. Maus, Derek C. Understanding Colson Whitehead. McKeane, John. Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe: Un timely Meditations. ISBN —1——42—1. Mieder, Wolfgang. Miranda-Barreiro, David. ISBN —1——15—5. ISBN —2———0. Murray, Ros. Antonin Artaud: The Scum of the Soul. Dorothea Heiser and Stuart Taberner. Peter Davies and Andrea Hammel. Nexus 2: Essays in German Jewish Studies. William Collins Donahue and Martha B.
Noble Wood, Oliver J. Norman, Barnaby. ISBN —1——29—2. Powell, Rosalind. Prager, Debra N. Renfrew, Alastair. Mikhail Bakhtin. Rethinking British Romantic History, — Porscha Fermanis and John Regan. Rix, Robert W. Roberts, Adam. Roe, Glenn H. Monika M. Elbert and Lesley Ginsberg. Rorato, Laura. Oxford: Legenda Italian Perspectives, 30 , ISBN —1——00—1.
Tristram, Anna. ISBN —1——95—0. Scott, Malcolm. Chateaubriand: The Paradox of Change. ISBN —3———7. Jean Andrews and Isabel Torres. Tambling, Jeremy. ISBN —1—13——0. Lynn M. Kutch and Todd Herzog. Stephen D. Dowden and Thomas P. John Bastable and Hannah McGill. ISBN —0—— Unamuno, Miguel de.
Alexander Waid. ISBN —0———2. Wehling-Giorgi, Katrin. Gadda and Beckett: Storytelling, Subjectivity and Fracture. Oxford: Legenda Italian Perspectives, 29 , ISBN —1——99—8. Weineck, Silke-Maria. Whidden, Seth. Authority in Crisis in French Literature, — Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, Woodford, Charlotte. Oxford: Legenda Germanic Literatures 6 , ISBN —1——26—1. Arkinstall, Christine. Spanish Female Writers and the Freethinking Press , — Gloria Allaire and F. Regina Psaki.
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Bart Miller, F. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi Francopolyphonies , ISBN —90———4. Britton, Celia. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, Cosgrove, Mary. Dadson, Trevor J. Woodbridge: Tamesis, Logan J. Dempsey, James. The Tortured Life of Scofield Thayer. Farner, Geir. La Fontaine, Jean de. Selected Fables. Christopher Betts. Hempfer, Klaus W. Lyrik: Skizze einer systematischen Theorie. ISBN —3———6. Herrmann, Anne. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, Lackey, Michael.
La Sale, Antoine de. Roberta L. Krueger and Jane H. Mack, Michael. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, Miller, Steven. New York: Fordham University Press, Miller, Tyrus. Modernism and the Frankfurt School. ISBN —1——55—6. Reed, Walter L. Romantic Literature in Light of Bakhtin.
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Ribeiro de Menezes, Alison. Embodying Memory in Contemporary Spain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Ryan, Lorraine. Taylor, Jane H. Brewer Gallica, 53 , Tinajero, Araceli. Orientalisms of the Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World. New York: Escribana Books, ISBN —1——09—9. Vlacos, Sophie. Whiskin, Margaux. Wright, Barbara. Ruth Cruickshank and Adam Watt.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Nottingham French Studies, Valerie Minogue. The Conquest of Plassans. Helen Constantine. Dominic Keown and Tom Owen. ISBN —90———8. Backscheider, Paula. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Beusterien, John. Bisdorff, Claire. Intimate Enemies: Translation in Francophone Contexts. Kathryn Batchelor. Boniface, C. ISBN —1——64—8. Bowie, Malcolm. Alison Finch. ISBN —1——48—6. ISBN —1——49—3. Burdett, Carolyn. Olive Schreiner. Caiani, Fabio and Cobham, Catherine.
Camilletti, Fabio A. Oxford: Legenda Italian Perspectives, 28 , ISBN —1——91—2. Les Costeaux ou les Marquis Frians. ISBN —1——33—4. Faudree, Paja. Feilla, Cecilia. The Sentimental Theater of the French Revolution. Fuss, Diana. Dying Modern: A Meditation on Elegy. Federica Pedriali. Garrington, Abbie.
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Modernism is a major literary movement of the first part of the twentieth-century. The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. Irish writers were especially important in the twentieth-century, including James Joyce and later Samuel Beckett , both central figures in the Modernist movement. Americans, like poets T.
Eliot and Ezra Pound and novelist William Faulkner , were other important modernists. British modernists include Joseph Conrad , E. In the mid-twentieth-century major writers started to appear in the various countries of the British Commonwealth , including several Nobel laureates. In the early 20th-century literary modernism developed in the English-speaking world due to a general sense of disillusionment with the Victorian era attitudes of certainty, conservatism, and belief in the idea of objective truth. Frazer — , Karl Marx —83 Das Kapital , , and the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud — , among others.
A major British lyric poet of the first decades of the 20th century was Thomas Hardy — Though not a modernist, Hardy was an important transitional figure between the Victorian era and the 20th century. A major novelist of the late 19th century, Hardy, after the adverse criticism of his last novel, Jude the Obscure , concentrated on publishing poetry. On the other hand, another significant transitional figure between Victorians and modernists, the lateth-century novelist, Henry James — , continued to publish major works into the 20th century. James, born in the US, lived in Europe from , and became a British citizen in However, the Victorian Gerard Manley Hopkins 's —89 highly original poetry was not published until , long after his death, while the career of another major modernist poet, Irishman W.
Yeats — , began late in the Victorian era. Yeats was one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of both the Irish and British literary establishments, in his later years he served as an Irish Senator for two terms. Yeats was a driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival. In he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature , the first Irishman so honoured. In addition to W. Yeats other important early modernist poets were the American poets T. Eliot — and Ezra Pound — Eliot became a British citizen in but was born and educated in America.
Ezra Pound was not only a major poet, first publishing part of The Cantos in , but an important mentor for other poets, most significantly in his editorial advice for Eliot's poem The Wasteland. Gertrude Stein — , an American expatriate living in Paris, famous for her line " Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose ," was also an important literary force during this time period. American poet Marianne Moore — published from the s to the s. But while modernism was to become an important literary movement in the early decades of the new century, there were also many fine writers who, like Thomas Hardy, were not modernists.
During the early decades of the 20th century the Georgian poets like Rupert Brooke — , Walter de la Mare — , and John Masefield —, Poet Laureate from maintained a conservative approach to poetry by combining romanticism, sentimentality and hedonism, sandwiched as they were between the Victorian era, with its strict classicism, and Modernism, with its strident rejection of pure aestheticism.
Edward Thomas — is sometimes treated as another Georgian poet. Irish playwrights George Bernard Shaw — and J. Synge — were influential in British drama. Shaw's career began in the last decade of the 19th century, while Synge's plays belong to the first decade of the 20th century. Synge's most famous play, The Playboy of the Western World , "caused outrage and riots when it was first performed" in Dublin in Many of his works, such as Hay Fever , Private Lives , Design for Living , Present Laughter and Blithe Spirit , have remained in the regular theatre repertoire.
Amongst the novelists, after Joseph Conrad , other important early modernists include Dorothy Richardson — , whose novel Pointed Roof , is one of the earliest example of the stream of consciousness technique, and D. Lawrence — , who published The Rainbow in , though it was immediately seized by the police.
Ulysses has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement". William Faulkner 's The Sound and the Fury is another significant modernist novel, that uses the stream of consciousness technique. Novelists who are not considered modernists include: Rudyard Kipling — who was also a successful poet; H. Chesterton — ; and E. Forster 's — , though Forster's work is "frequently regarded as containing both modernist and Victorian elements". Other novels include Kipps and Mr Polly Forster's most famous work, A Passage to India , reflected challenges to imperialism, while his earlier novels, such as A Room with a View and Howards End , examined the restrictions and hypocrisy of Edwardian society in England.
Another major work of science fiction, from the early 20th century, is A Voyage to Arcturus by Scottish writer David Lindsay , first published in It combines fantasy , philosophy, and science fiction in an exploration of the nature of good and evil and their relationship with existence. It has been described by writer Colin Wilson as the "greatest novel of the twentieth century",  and was a central influence on C.
Lewis 's Space Trilogy. The most popular British writer of the early years of the 20th century was arguably Rudyard Kipling , a highly versatile writer of novels, short stories and poems, and to date the youngest ever recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature Kipling's reputation declined during his lifetime, but more recently postcolonial studies has "rekindled an intense interest in his work, viewing it as both symptomatic and critical of imperialist attitudes".
Chesterton was a prolific and hugely influential writer with a diverse output. His best-known character is the priest-detective Father Brown , who appeared only in short stories, while The Man Who Was Thursday published in is arguably his best-known novel. Of his nonfiction, Charles Dickens: A Critical Study has received some of the broadest-based praise [ by whom? The modernist movement continued through the s and s and beyond.
During the period between the World Wars, American drama came to maturity, thanks in large part to the works of Eugene O'Neill — O'Neill's experiments with theatrical form and his use of both Naturalist and Expressionist techniques had a major influence on American dramatists. Cummings and Wallace Stevens were publishing from the s until the s.
Similarly William Faulkner continued to publish until the s and was awarded a Nobel Prize in Wodehouse — who was not a modernist and D. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover was published privately in Florence in , though the unexpurgated version was not published in Britain until Her essay A Room of One's Own contains her famous dictum "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction". In the s W. Auden and Christopher Isherwood co-authored verse dramas, of which The Ascent of F6 is the most notable, that owed much to Bertolt Brecht.
Eliot had begun this attempt to revive poetic drama with Sweeney Agonistes in , and this was followed by The Rock , Murder in the Cathedral and Family Reunion There were three further plays after the war. In Parenthesis , a modernist epic poem by David Jones — first published in , is probably the best known contribution from Wales to the literature of the First World War. An important development, beginning in the s and s was a tradition of working class novels actually written by working-class background writers.
Henry Miller 's Tropic of Cancer then appeared in , though it was banned for many years in both Britain and America. This same year Graham Greene 's —91 first major novel Brighton Rock was published. Then in James Joyce 's published Finnegans Wake , in which he creates a special language to express the consciousness of a dreaming character. Yeats , died. British poet W. Auden was another significant modernist in the s.
Though some have seen modernism ending by around ,  with regard to English literature, "When if modernism petered out and postmodernism began has been contested almost as hotly as when the transition from Victorianism to modernism occurred". Furthermore, Basil Bunting , born in , published little until Briggflatts in and Samuel Beckett , born in Ireland in , continued to produce significant works until the s, including Waiting for Godot , Happy Days , Rockaby , though some view him as a post-modernist.
Among British writers in the s and s were novelist Graham Greene whose works span the s to the s and poet Dylan Thomas , while Evelyn Waugh , and W. Auden continued publishing significant work. In Malcolm Lowry published Under the Volcano , while George Orwell 's dystopia of totalitarianism, , was published in One of the most influential novels of the immediate post-war period was William Cooper 's naturalistic Scenes from Provincial Life , a conscious rejection of the modernist tradition.
Other novelists writing in the s and later were: Anthony Powell whose twelve-volume cycle of novels A Dance to the Music of Time , is a comic examination of movements and manners, power and passivity in English political, cultural and military life in the midth century; comic novelist Kingsley Amis is best known for his academic satire Lucky Jim ; Nobel Prize laureate William Golding 's allegorical novel Lord of the Flies , explores how culture created by man fails, using as an example a group of British schoolboys marooned on a deserted island who try to govern themselves, but with disastrous results.
Philosopher Iris Murdoch was a prolific writer of novels throughout the second half of the 20th century, that deal especially with sexual relationships, morality, and the power of the unconscious, including Under the Net , The Black Prince and The Green Knight Scottish writer Muriel Spark pushed the boundaries of realism in her novels. Her first, The Comforters concerns a woman who becomes aware that she is a character in a novel; The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , at times takes the reader briefly into the distant future, to see the various fates that befall its characters. Anthony Burgess is especially remembered for his dystopian novel A Clockwork Orange , set in the not-too-distant future, which was made into a film by Stanley Kubrick in In the entirely different genre of Gothic fantasy Mervyn Peake —68 published his highly successful Gormenghast trilogy between and One of Penguin Books' most successful publications in the s was Richard Adams 's heroic fantasy Watership Down Evoking epic themes, it recounts the odyssey of a group of rabbits seeking to establish a new home.
Another successful novel of the same era was John Fowles ' The French Lieutenant's Woman , with a narrator who freely admits the fictive nature of his story, and its famous alternative endings. This was made into a film in with a screenplay by Harold Pinter. Angela Carter —92 was a novelist and journalist, known for her feminist, magical realism, and picaresque works.
Margaret Drabble born is a novelist, biographer and critic, who published from the s into the 21st century. Her older sister, A. Byatt born is best known for Possession published in Martin Amis born is one of the most prominent of contemporary British novelists. His best-known novels are Money and London Fields Pat Barker born has won many awards for her fiction. English novelist and screenwriter Ian McEwan born is another of contemporary Britain's most highly regarded writers.
Atonement was made into an Oscar -winning film. McEwan was awarded the Jerusalem Prize in Zadie Smith 's Whitbread Book Award winning novel White Teeth , mixes pathos and humour, focusing on the later lives of two war time friends in London. He has also written crime fiction under the pseudonym Dan Kavanagh. Banville is also an adapter of dramas, a screenwriter,  and a writer of detective novels under the pseudonym Benjamin Black.
Scotland has in the late 20th century produced several important novelists, including James Kelman , who like Samuel Beckett can create humour out of the most grim situations. An important cultural movement in the British theatre which developed in the late s and early s was Kitchen sink realism or "kitchen sink drama" , a term coined to describe art the term itself derives from an expressionist painting by John Bratby , novels, film and television plays.
The term angry young men was often applied [ by whom? It used a style of social realism which depicts the domestic lives of the working class, to explore social issues and political issues. Arnold Wesker and Nell Dunn also brought social concerns to the stage. Again in the s, the absurdist play Waiting for Godot originally En attendant Godot , , by Irish writer Samuel Beckett profoundly affected British drama. The Theatre of the Absurd influenced Harold Pinter born , author of The Birthday Party , , whose works are often characterised by menace or claustrophobia.
Stoppard's works are however also notable for their high-spirited wit and the great range of intellectual issues which he tackles in different plays. Both Pinter and Stoppard continued to have new plays produced into the s. Michael Frayn born is among other playwrights noted for their use of language and ideas. He is also a novelist. An important new element in the world of British drama, from the beginnings of radio in the s, was the commissioning of plays, or the adaption of existing plays, by BBC radio. This was especially important in the s and s and from the s for television.
Many major British playwrights in fact, either effectively began their careers with the BBC, or had works adapted for radio. Most of playwright Caryl Churchill 's early experiences with professional drama production were as a radio playwright and, starting in with The Ants , there were nine productions with BBC radio drama up until when her stage work began to be recognised at the Royal Court Theatre.
But he made his debut as an original playwright with The Dock Brief , starring Michael Hordern as a hapless barrister, first broadcast in on BBC Radio 's Third Programme , later televised with the same cast, and subsequently presented in a double bill with What Shall We Tell Caroline? Mortimer is most famous for Rumpole of the Bailey a British television series which starred Leo McKern as Horace Rumpole, an aging London barrister who defends any and all clients. It has been spun off into a series of short stories, novels, and radio programmes.