Brown relied more on touring outside the United States where he continued to perform for sold-out crowds in cities such as London, Paris and Lausanne. In , Brown provided the score for the blaxploitation film Black Caesar. He also recorded another soundtrack for the film, Slaughter's Big Rip-Off. Following the release of these soundtracks, Brown acquired a self-styled nickname, "The Godfather of Soul", which remains his most popular nickname.
In he returned to the No. Admirers of Brown's music, including Miles Davis and other jazz musicians, began to cite him as a major influence on their own styles. However, Brown, like others who were influenced by his music, also "borrowed" from other musicians. The riff was composed by Alomar, who had briefly been a member of Brown's band in the late s. Brown credited his then-wife and two of their children as writers of the song to avoid concurrent tax problems with the IRS. Starting in October , Brown produced, directed, and hosted Future Shock , an Atlanta-based television variety show that ran for three years.
Although his records were mainstays of the vanguard New York underground disco scene exemplified by DJs such as David Mancuso and Francis Grasso from onwards, Brown did not consciously yield to the trend until 's Sex Machine Today. After 's "Bodyheat", he also failed to appear on the Billboard Hot As a result, Brown's concert attendance began dropping and his reported disputes with the IRS caused his business empire to collapse.
In addition, Brown's former bandmates, including Fred Wesley, Maceo Parker and the Collins brothers, had found bigger success as members of George Clinton 's Parliament-Funkadelic collective. By the release of 's The Original Disco Man , Brown was not providing much production or writing, leaving most of it to producer Brad Shapiro , resulting in the song "It's Too Funky in Here" becoming Brown's most successful single in this period.
After two more albums failed to chart, Brown left Polydor in It was around this time that Brown changed the name of his band from the J. The band retained that name until his death. Despite the decline in his record sales Brown enjoyed something of a resurgence in this period, starting with appearances in the feature films The Blues Brothers , Doctor Detroit and Rocky IV , as well as guest-starring in the Miami Vice episode "Missing Hours" In , he teamed with rap musician Afrika Bambaattaa on the song " Unity ".
A year later he signed with Scotti Brothers Records and issued the moderately successful album Gravity in It included Brown's final Top 10 pop hit, " Living in America ", marking his first Top 40 entry since and his first Top 10 pop entry since Produced and written by Dan Hartman , it was also featured prominently on the Rocky IV film and soundtrack.
In , Brown worked with the production team Full Force on the new jack swing -influenced album I'm Real. Meanwhile, the drum break from the second version of the original hit "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" the recording included on the compilation album In the Jungle Groove became so popular at hip hop dance parties especially for breakdance during the early s that hip hop pioneer Kurtis Blow called the song "the national anthem of hip hop".
Brown's release from prison also prompted his former record labels to reissue his albums on CD, featuring additional tracks and commentary by music critics and historians. Hammer had been noted, alongside Big Daddy Kane , for bringing Brown's unique stage shows and their own energetic dance moves to the hip-hop generation; both listed Brown as their idol. Big Daddy Kane sampled many times.
Before the year was over, Brown—who had immediately returned to work with his band following his release—organized a pay-per-view concert following a show at Los Angeles' Wiltern Theatre , that was well received. On June 10, , James Brown and a star-filled line up performed before a crowd at the Wiltern Theatre for a live pay-per-view at-home audience. James Brown: Living in America — Live! It featured M.
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This was Brown's first public performance since his parole from the South Carolina prison system in February. He had served two-and-a-half years of two concurrent six-year sentences for aggravated assault and other felonies. Brown continued making recordings. In his album Universal James was released. Brown also released the singles "How Long" and "Georgia-Lina", which failed to chart. In , Brown returned to the Apollo and recorded Live at the Apollo It included a studio track titled "Respect Me", which was released as a single; again it failed to chart.
Brown's final studio albums, I'm Back and The Next Step , were released in and respectively. Both albums were produced by Derrick Monk. Brown's concert success, however, remained unabated and he kept up with a grueling schedule throughout the remainder of his life, living up to his previous nickname, "The Hardest Working Man in Show Business", in spite of his advanced age. Brown celebrated his status as an icon by appearing in a variety of entertainment and sports events, including an appearance on the WCW pay-per-view event, SuperBrawl X , where he danced alongside wrestler Ernest "The Cat" Miller , who based his character on Brown, during his in-ring skit with The Maestro.
Brown then appeared in Tony Scott 's short film Beat the Devil in Brown also made a cameo appearance in the Jackie Chan film The Tuxedo , in which Chan was required to finish Brown's act after having accidentally knocked out the singer. In , Brown appeared in Undercover Brother , playing himself. In February and March, he participated in recording sessions for an intended studio album with Fred Wesley, Pee Wee Ellis, and other longtime collaborators.
Though he lost interest in the album, which remains unreleased, a track from the sessions, " Gut Bucket ", appeared on a compilation CD included with the August issue of MOJO. In , Brown continued his "Seven Decades of Funk World Tour", his last concert tour where he performed all over the world. His final U. His last shows were greeted with positive reviews, and one of his final concert appearances at the Irish Oxegen festival in Punchestown in was performed for a record crowd of 80, people.
Brown's last televised appearance was at his induction into the UK Music Hall of Fame in November , before his death the following month. Before his death, Brown had been scheduled to perform a duet with singer Annie Lennox on the song "Vengeance" for her new album Venus , which was released in On December 23, , Brown became very ill and arrived at his dentist's office in Atlanta , Georgia, several hours late.
His appointment was for dental implant work. During that visit, Brown's dentist observed that he looked "very bad Instead of performing the work, the dentist advised Brown to see a doctor right away about his medical condition.
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Brown went to the Emory Crawford Long Memorial Hospital the next day for medical evaluation and was admitted for observation and treatment. Yet, Bobbit said, the singer had a history of never complaining about being sick and often performed while ill. Bobbit was at his bedside  and later reported that Brown stuttered, "I'm going away tonight," then took three long, quiet breaths and fell asleep before dying. In , an investigation by CNN and other journalists led to suggestions that Brown had been murdered. After Brown's death, his relatives, a host of celebrities, and thousands of fans gathered, on December 28, , for a public memorial service at the Apollo Theater in New York City and, on December 30, , at the James Brown Arena in Augusta, Georgia.
A separate, private ceremony was held in North Augusta, South Carolina , on December 29, , with Brown's family in attendance. Al Sharpton officiated at all of Brown's public and private memorial services. Brown's memorial ceremonies were all elaborate, complete with costume changes for the deceased and videos featuring him in concert.
His body, placed in a Promethean casket—bronze polished to a golden shine—was driven through the streets of New York to the Apollo Theater in a white, glass-encased horse-drawn carriage. During the public memorial there, a video showed Brown's last performance in Augusta, Georgia, with the Ray Charles version of " Georgia on My Mind " playing soulfully in the background. Brown signed his last will and testament on August 1, , before J.
Strom Thurmond Jr. His will covered the disposition of his personal assets, such as clothing, cars, and jewelry, while the irrevocable trust covered the disposition of the music rights, business assets of James Brown Enterprises, and his Beech Island estate in South Carolina. The irrevocable trust had also been established before, and not amended since, the birth of James II.
On January 24, , Brown's children filed a lawsuit, petitioning the court to remove the personal representatives from the estate including Brown's attorney, as well as trustee Albert "Buddy" Dallas and appoint a special administrator because of perceived impropriety and alleged mismanagement of Brown's assets. Hynie's suit asked the court both to recognize her as Brown's widow and to appoint a special administrator for the estate. The decision was based on the grounds that Hynie's previous marriage was invalid and that James Brown had abandoned his efforts to annul his own marriage to Hynie.
On February 19, , the South Carolina Supreme Court intervened, halting all lower court actions in the estate and undertaking to review previous actions itself. Brown's wife. For many years, Brown's touring show was one of the most extravagant productions in American popular music. At the time of Brown's death, his band included three guitarists, two bass guitar players, two drummers, three horns and a percussionist. Before James Brown appeared on stage, his personal MC gave him an elaborate introduction accompanied by drumrolls, as the MC worked in Brown's various sobriquets along with the names of many of his hit songs.
The introduction by Fats Gonder, captured on Brown's album Live at the Apollo is a representative example:. So now ladies and gentlemen it is star time, are you ready for star time? Thank you and thank you very kindly. It is indeed a great pleasure to present to you at this particular time, national and international[ly] known as the hardest working man in show business, the man that sings " I'll Go Crazy " Dynamite, the amazing Mr. James Brown's performances were famous for their intensity and length.
Brown danced vigorously as he sang, working popular dance steps such as the Mashed Potato into his routine along with dramatic leaps, splits and slides. In addition, his horn players and singing group The Famous Flames typically performed choreographed dance routines, and later incarnations of the Revue included backup dancers.
Male performers in the Revue were required to wear tuxedoes and cummerbunds long after more casual concert wear became the norm among the younger musical acts. Brown's own extravagant outfits and his elaborate processed hairdo completed the visual impression. A James Brown concert typically included a performance by a featured vocalist, such as Vicki Anderson or Marva Whitney , and an instrumental feature for the band, which sometimes served as the opening act for the show. A trademark feature of Brown's stage shows, usually during the song "Please, Please, Please", involved Brown dropping to his knees while clutching the microphone stand in his hands, prompting the show's longtime MC, Danny Ray, to come out, drape a cape over Brown's shoulders and escort him off the stage after he had worked himself to exhaustion during his performance.
Brown's routine was inspired by a similar one used by the professional wrestler Gorgeous George , as well as Little Richard. Brown performs a version of the cape routine over the closing credits of the film Blues Brothers and in the film of the T. The Police refer to "James Brown on the T. You gotta be on time. You gotta have your uniform.
Your stuff's got to be intact. You gotta have the bow tie. You got to have it. You can't come up without the bow tie. You cannot come up without a cummerbund You just gotta have this stuff. This is what [Brown expected] He bought the shoes. And if for some reason [the band member decided] to leave the group, [Brown told the person to] please leave my uniforms. Brown also had a practice of directing, correcting and assessing fines on members of his band who broke his rules, such as wearing unshined shoes, dancing out of sync or showing up late on stage.
Although audiences thought Brown's dance routine was part of his act, this practice was actually his way of pointing to the offending member of his troupe who played or sang the wrong note or committed some other infraction. Brown used his splayed fingers and hand signals to alert the offending person of the fine that person must pay to him for breaking his rules.
Brown's demands of his support acts were, meanwhile, quite the reverse. As Fred Wesley recalled of his time as musical director of the JBs, if Brown felt intimidated by a support act he would try to "undermine their performances by shortening their sets without notice, demanding that they not do certain showstopping songs, and even insisting on doing the unthinkable, playing drums on some of their songs. A sure set killer. Brown's main social activism was in preserving the need for education among youths, influenced by his own troubled childhood and his being forced to drop out of the seventh grade for wearing "insufficient clothes".
Due to heavy dropout rates in the s, Brown released the pro-education song, " Don't Be a Drop-Out ". Royalties of the song were donated to dropout-prevention charity programs. The success of this led to Brown meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House. Johnson cited Brown for being a positive role model to the youth. A lifelong Republican, Brown gained the confidence of President Richard Nixon, to whom he found he had to explain the plight of Black Americans. Edgar Hoover and the IRS, probably because Hoover thought it "dangerous" that a young "Black radical" had the ear of the president.
Throughout the remainder of his life, Brown made public speeches in schools and continued to advocate the importance of education in school. Upon filing his will in , Brown advised that most of the money in his estate go into creating the I Feel Good, Inc. Trust to benefit disadvantaged children and provide scholarships for his grandchildren. Brown often gave out money and other items to children while traveling to his childhood hometown of Augusta. A week before his death, while looking gravely ill, Brown gave out toys and turkeys to kids at an Atlanta orphanage, something he had done several times over the years.
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Though Brown performed at benefit rallies for civil rights organizations in the mids, Brown often shied away from discussing civil rights in his songs in fear of alienating his crossover audience. In the song, Brown performed a rap , advocating patriotism and exhorting listeners to "stop pitying yoursel[ves] and get up and fight".
At the time of the song's release, Brown had been participating in performing for troops stationed in Vietnam. According to the documentary, The Night James Brown Saved Boston , then-mayor Kevin White had strongly restrained the Boston police from cracking down on minor violence and protests after the assassination, while religious and community leaders worked to keep tempers from flaring.
White also persuaded management at the Garden to give up their share of receipts to make up the differences. Responding to pressure from black activists, including H. Rap Brown , to take a bigger stance on their issues and from footage of black on black crime committed in inner cities, Brown wrote the lyrics to the song " Say It Loud — I'm Black and I'm Proud ", which his bandleader Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis accompanied with a musical composition.
Released late that summer, the song's lyrics helped to make it an anthem for the civil rights movement. Brown only performed the song sporadically following its initial release and later stated he had regrets recording it, saying in , "Now 'Say It Loud — I'm Black and I'm Proud' has done more for the black race than any other record, but if I had my choice, I wouldn't have done it, because I don't like defining anyone by race. To teach race is to teach separatism. The song is obsolete now But it was necessary to teach pride then, and I think the song did a lot of good for a lot of people People called "Black and Proud" militant and angry — maybe because of the line about dying on your feet instead of living on your knees.
But really, if you listen to it, it sounds like a children's song. That's why I had children in it, so children who heard it could grow up feeling pride The song cost me a lot of my crossover audience. The racial makeup at my concerts was mostly black after that. I don't regret it, though, even if it was misunderstood. In , Brown recorded two more songs of social commentary, " World " and " I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing ", the latter song pleading for equal opportunity and self-reliance rather than entitlement. In , he began touring Africa, including Zambia and Nigeria.
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He was made "freeman of the city" in Lagos, Nigeria , by Oba Adeyinka Oyekan, for his "influence on black people all over the world". During the presidential campaign , Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies. Brown began supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to perform at Nixon's inaugural ball in January Kennedy and thenyear-old U. Senator, and former Dixiecrat , Strom Thurmond , stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democratic or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.
He's like a grandfather to me. I love the country and I got — you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard. Brown had diabetes that went undiagnosed for years, according to his longtime manager Charles Bobbit. Even though she was only 17, Brown became sexually involved with Terrell in a relationship that continued until she escaped his abuse.
Brown was married four times. His first marriage was to Velma Warren in , they had three sons together. Brown's second marriage was to Deidre "Deedee" Jenkins, on October 22, They had two daughters together. The couple were separated by , after what his daughter describes as years of domestic abuse,  and the final divorce decree was issued on January 10, It was a contentious marriage that made headlines due to domestic abuse complaints; Rodriguez died in January They married in On December 23, , Brown and Hynie held a wedding ceremony that was officiated by the Rev.
Larry Flyer. Following Brown's death, controversy surrounded the circumstances of the marriage, with Brown's attorney, Albert "Buddy" Dallas, reporting that the marriage was not valid; Hynie was still married to Javed Ahmed, a man from Bangladesh. Hynie claimed Ahmed married her to obtain residency through a Green Card and that the marriage was annulled but the annulment did not occur until April Brown's eldest son, Teddy, died in a car crash on June 14, The first one of them to be identified is LaRhonda Pettit born , a retired air stewardess and teacher who lives in Houston.
For most of his career, Brown had a strict drug- and alcohol-free policy for any member in his entourage, including band members, and would fire people who disobeyed orders, particularly those who used or abused drugs and alcohol. Some early members of Brown's vocal group the Famous Flames were fired due to alcohol use. Despite the policy, some of the original members of Brown's s band, the J. However, by the mids it was alleged that Brown himself was using drugs. This drug usage resulted in violent outbursts from him and he was arrested several times for domestic violence against Rodriguez while high on the drug.
At one point during the interview, Brown began shouting out his song titles to one of Friedman's questions. The interview later went viral and led some to assume that Brown, who refused to take off his shades throughout the interview, was either drunk or on drugs. One of Brown's former mistresses recalled in a GQ magazine article on Brown some years after his death that Brown would smoke PCP "until that got hard to find", and cocaine, mixed with tobacco in Kool cigarettes. A week after his release, he was arrested for an unlawful use of a handgun and possession of cannabis.
Brown's personal life was marred by several brushes with the law. At the age of 16, he was convicted of theft and served three years in juvenile prison. During a concert held at Club 15 in Macon, Georgia in the early s during a performance held by Otis Redding when he was performing alongside his former band, Johnny Jenkins and the Pinetoppers, Brown reportedly had a shootout with a musical rival, purported to be singer Joe Tex , which led to multiple people being shot and stabbed.
On July 16, , after performing at the Apollo , Brown was arrested for reportedly failing to turn in records from one of his radio stations after the station was forced to file for bankruptcy. He was convicted of carrying an unlicensed pistol and assaulting a police officer, along with various drug-related and driving offenses. Although he was sentenced to six years in prison, he was eventually released on parole on February 27, , after serving two years of his sentence.
Brown's FBI file, released to The Washington Post in under the Freedom of Information Act,  related Brown's claim that the high-speed chase did not occur as claimed by the police, and that local police shot at his car several times during an incident of police harassment and assaulted him after his arrest. In , a woman named Mary Simons accused Brown in a civil suit of holding her captive for three days, demanding oral sex and firing a gun in his office; Simons' charge was eventually dismissed.
The police were summoned to Brown's residence on July 3, , after he was accused of charging at an electric company repairman with a steak knife when the repairman visited Brown's house to investigate a complaint about having no lights at the residence. For the remainder of his life, [ clarification needed ] Brown was repeatedly arrested for domestic violence. Adrienne Rodriguez, his third wife, had him arrested four times between and on charges of assault. In January , Brown was arrested in South Carolina on a domestic violence charge after Tomi Rae Hynie accused him of pushing her to the floor during an argument at their home, where she suffered scratches and bruises to her right arm and hip.
Later that year in June , Brown pleaded no contest to the domestic violence incident, but served no jail time. In January a woman named Jacque Hollander filed a lawsuit against James Brown, which stemmed from an alleged rape. When the case was initially heard before a judge in , Hollander's claims against Brown were dismissed by the court as the limitations period for filing the suit had expired.
Hollander claimed that stress from the alleged assault later caused her to contract Graves' disease , a thyroid condition. Hollander claimed that the incident took place in South Carolina while she was employed by Brown as a publicist. Hollander alleged that, during her ride in a van with Brown, Brown pulled over to the side of the road and sexually assaulted her while he threatened her with a shotgun.
In her case against Brown, Hollander entered as evidence a DNA sample and a polygraph result, but the evidence was not considered due to the limitations defense. Hollander later attempted to bring her case before the Supreme Court, but nothing came of her complaint. Brown received awards and honors throughout his lifetime and after his death. In the City Council of Steamboat Springs, Colorado , conducted a poll of residents to choose a new name for the bridge that crossed the Yampa River on Shield Drive. The bridge was officially dedicated in September , and Brown appeared at the ribbon-cutting ceremony for the event.
During his long career, Brown received many prestigious music industry awards and honors. In he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. Brown was one of the first inductees into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural induction dinner in New York on January 23, Brown was also honored in his hometown of Augusta, Georgia , for his philanthropy and civic activities.
Afterwards, officials renamed the city's civic center the James Brown Arena , and James Brown attended a ceremony for the unveiling of the namesake center on October 15, Shirley A. Lewis, president of Paine College , a historically black college in Augusta, Georgia, bestowed posthumously upon Brown an honorary doctorate in recognition and honor of his many contributions to the school in its times of need. Brown had originally been scheduled to receive the honorary doctorate from Paine College during its May commencement.
During the 49th Annual Grammy Awards presentation on February 11, , James Brown's famous cape was draped over a microphone by Danny Ray at the end of a montage in honor of notable people in the music industry who died during the previous year. Earlier that evening, Christina Aguilera delivered an impassioned performance of Brown's hit "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" followed by a standing ovation, while Chris Brown performed a dance routine in honor of James Brown.
This box was designed and painted by local artist, Ms. Robbie Pitts Bellamy and has become a favorite photo opportunity to visitors and locals in Augusta, Georgia. Comedian Michael Coyer was the MC for the event. As of , a significant collection of James Brown clothing, memorabilia, and personal artifacts are on exhibit in downtown Augusta, Georgia at the Augusta History Museum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American singer.
For other people named James Brown, see James Brown disambiguation. American singer, songwriter, musician, and recording artist. Barnwell, South Carolina , U. Atlanta, Georgia , U. Singer songwriter dancer musician record producer bandleader. Velma Warren m. Deidre Jenkins m. Adrienne Rodriguez m. Tomi Rae Hynie m. Funk soul rhythm and blues. Vocals organ drums harmonica guitar.
Mercury Republic UM e. The Famous Flames The J. Main article: The Famous Flames. Main article: The J. For an extended list of albums, compilations, and charting singles, see James Brown discography. Please Please Please Try Me! This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Included are recommended Scriptures to read; an explanation of the stages of grief; approaches to conducting funerals in special circumstances such as suicide, victims of crime, multiple family deaths, or when the deceased is unknown to the pastor; signs of healthy and unhealthy grief, and how to help survivors cope.
This new edition contains a chapter on ministering to victims of terrorism. It is also recommended for chaplains and hospice caregivers. Todd Billings. At the age of thirty-nine, theologian Todd Billings was diagnosed with incurable cancer.
The questions were acute: Why me? Why now? Where is God in all of this? The problem of suffering is often raised by those who question the goodness or the power of God. In this book, newly revised and expanded, R. Sproul provides biblical answers to the questions all of us ask about suffering and addresses some of the many unbiblical conclusions that are put forth today. They urge readers to look to Christ, even in suffering, to find the greatest confidence, deepest comfort, and sweetest fellowship they have ever known.
The Problem of Pain by C. Lewis offers answers to these crucial questions and shares his hope and wisdom to help heal a world hungering for a true understanding of human nature. The revelations changed his life. Tragedy, grief, loss, and death are part of life. The question of why there is pain and suffering in the world has confounded every generation; yet there has not been a major book from a Christian perspective exploring why they exist for many years.
When God Weeps is not so much a book about suffering as it is about God. It tackles tough questions about heaven and hell, horrors and hardships, and why God allows suffering in this life. Through a panoramic overview of what the Bible says about suffering, the authors make clear who God is, why he permits so much heartache and pain, and how it is we can trust him. With both a practical edge and heartfelt warmth, When God Weeps offers dependence on his love and mercy in spite of our doubts, fears, longings, and questions.
Despair and discouragement are rampant. Instead, attempting to avoid tragedy and suffering, many Christians confuse simple formulas for faith. But where does that leave the family who loses a son on a military mission? When God Weeps is for people like these. Why Suffering?
Why would a loving and powerful God allow so much pain and suffering? Ravi Zacharias and Vince Vitale carefully walk you through a variety of responses that considered together provide a clear, comprehensive, and convincing answer. Responses like: Where there is the possibility of love, there has to be the reality of freedom, and therefore the possibility of pain. Wishing God had made a different world is to wish yourself out of existence. In comparison with other world religions, the Christian response is highly distinctive.
Here is a book written with great respect for the complexity of the issue, recognizing that some who read it will be in the trenches of deep suffering themselves and others questioning the very existence of a loving God. It is excellent everything she writes is and also weaves really sound theology which is something I needed desperately when grieving. A list of books for grieving children would be wonderful if you know of any. Thanks for the good list! A good many of these are new to me. I blog for the glory of God, to nourish the church, and to clarify my mind. Read More…. FTC Disclosure of Material Connection: I sometimes share affiliate links, meaning if you make a purchase through a link, I make a small commission at no extra cost to you to cover blogging expenses.