The new political circumstances did not allow for hesitation or impartiality: faced with the possibility of a right-wing reaction, one had to be either for or against the Directory. Whether this argument was a mere sophism used by proponents of the center to discredit their extremist opponents is a different question.
The only lasting cure for fanaticism, she averred, was the sovereignty of law and a wise blending of institutions capable of promoting the interests of disparate social and political groups. The antidote to anarchy lay, she insisted, in moderation and the rule of law. Only they could adequately promote limited power, create a proper balance of powers in the state, and provide for the orderly participation of the people through their representatives in the exercise of legislative power.
The latter had previously been violent and detached, and must now be ambitious and moderate. It must relinquish power under no pretext, and, step by step, it should rally around it the support of the majority of the nation. She defended moderation while also appearing to be an immoderate partisan of the new republican regime. Was this an example of her alleged versatility, or a necessary concession to circumstances? Did her attitude repose upon a set of principles that she never abandoned? Though the main principles defended in these writings overlapped with those of Necker, she parted company with her father when it came to the preferred form of government.
Her allegiance to republican principles did not rely on a putative belief in the superiority of the republican form of government, and should not be regarded primarily as a simple emotional attachment or an opportunistic change of mind courting the favor of the new government. In her view, it was reasonable to endorse the republican regime and try to prudently guide it by grounding it on the principles of justice and humanity. The republic was a fait accompli and any attempt to subvert it was likely to create even more instability and anarchy in a country already exhausted by six years of revolutionary turmoil.
These republican principles and institutions had, at least, the advantage of being perfectible and could eventually bring forth liberty, stability, and peace. The republican constitution enjoyed a great advantage; it would be readily endorsed by all parties if only because the people were weary of the revolutionary turmoil:. Her views on representative government reflected, in fact, the conventional wisdom of her time, privileging an elitist form of republicanism purified of its extreme democratic tendencies and the liberty of the moderns, grounded in respect for individual rights and security of property.
To this effect, they advanced a nuanced critique of equality, emphasizing the importance of property qualifications for granting political rights. The future of property and the association of thirty million individuals were too important to be decided by the speculations or whims of only a few individuals:. Worth noting here is the link between representative government, property, liberty, and the balance of powers, as well as the idea that political democracy, if not properly purified of its allegedly radical tendencies, fails to give due consideration to all these principles and values.
She argued that in modern society, laws must protect private property and the private sphere from any form of illegitimate interference. This center which we need is property; this link is personal interest. When the spirit of faction dominates a legislative body, the principle of representation becomes corrupted and the will of the people no longer has a trustworthy interpreter and defender. A well-designed representative system, she believed, must therefore be an adequate reflection in miniature of public opinion at large, and ought to take into account the interests of both the progressive and conservative elements in society, by trying to reconcile civil equality with political and economic inequality.
Most of these principles, including bicameralism, were enshrined in the final text of the Constitution of voted by the Convention on August She also agreed with eligibility criteria for the legislative body that reintroduced property qualifications and limited suffrage. From the very beginning, she expressed her hope that the country would have the wisdom to learn from the mistakes of the past. Will the executive power have to pay the same price in order to obtain the strength necessary to the maintenance of the government and consequently, of the republic?
France now had a republican regime, and the absolute veto was regarded by some as incompatible with republican principles and popular sovereignty. An absolute veto was the attribute of a monarch and so could not be granted by a republican government. There is a great difference between the two. The knowledge and information that only the executive power possesses are necessary to the elaboration of the laws.
If the executive were not able to make suggestions for the revision of a decree it deems to be dangerous, the laws could not be properly applied. She reminded her readers that, in England, the veto power was never exercised because the monarch had at his disposal other means of exercising influence over the executive power, the most important being the presence of his ministers in the House of Commons. It is only necessary to know up to which point the mystery of this cloud is necessary in order to countervail all individual ambitions. While the directors must be granted absolute inviolability, except in cases of rebellion, their ministers must be held politically responsible, being obliged to resign if they should lose the confidence of the legislative body.
The implications of this view are worth spelling out. Second, she claimed that the co-participation of the executive power in the exercise of the legislative function was essential to the smooth functioning of representative institutions and the application of the laws. To properly discharge this role, they must never be forced to execute a law of which they disapprove and should have statutory means of asking the legislative power to take a second look at the laws that had been adopted.
Arguing against creating an executive power strictly separated from the legislative, she declared that ministers must be allowed to participate in the deliberations of the lower chamber because their administrative experience and knowledge are essential to raising the level of legislative debates. She concluded that an executive power that did not participate in the elaboration of the laws was a merely instrumental and passive power, with little interest in the proper application of the laws. She drew attention also to the composition and role of the Council of the Ancients, pointing out that its members must have life tenure and ought to be considered candidates for the position of directors.
As we have seen, the constitutional text adopted in August , which sought to charter a new course in French post-revolutionary history, was destined to have a short life. The conventional interpretation of its failure points to the peculiar conditions of political life under the Directory, which made the implementation of a moderate republican constitution virtually impossible.
There is some truth to this analysis, as the ever-present specter of reaction and Jacobinism rendered the task of moderates extremely difficult. Posted on 19th juin by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 17th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Nous sommes quittes!!! Posted on 6th juin by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 2nd juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Vrai ou faux? Inventer ou Improviser? Posted on 28th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Pour Freud, le sexe, la police, et moi!!! Posted on 21st mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Respectant quoi??? Peut importe.
Nicolas Sarkozy, lecteur de Gramsci
Posted on 4th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 12th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Et quoi encore? Toujours ou de temps en temps? Posted on 19th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 25th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Il y en a marre. Posted on 27th mars by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 8th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 15th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Mais, au Phares, on fait feu de tout bois. Posted on 18th avril by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 23rd avril by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 8th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Posted on 13th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Je ne fais que passer. Ca se mord la queue, ce truc! Posted on 19th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le 11 Mai, plus de Posted on 23rd mai by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 3rd juin by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Que de bouleversements dans la semaine que vient de prendre fin. Posted on 10th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Ca va mal. Sinon, lesquelles? Des plus ou moins dignes de circuler? On en trouverait des plus ou moins viables? Comment en juger? Posted on 12th juin by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 24th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Etrange question. Est-ce fragile? Posted on 1st juillet by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 8th juillet by Carlos in Uncategorized. Tout va Mal. De celui qui frappe les Hommes? Posted on 10th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 17th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 24th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 31st juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 17th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Des ennuis, il y en a des tas! Posted on 23rd septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Etre Esclave! Mais, au diable la varice. Posted on 30th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Aux Sources de l'Histoire
Pas une autre. Posted on 8th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Pour ou contre. En clair, Antiamour! Le comment du monde?
Posted on 14th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 21st octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le monde ou nous? En vain. Les jeux sont faits. Posted on 27th octobre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 6th novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Que dit la conscience? Posted on 11th novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Est-ce suffisant? Posted on 18th novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Et alors? La chose serait-elle le mot? Posted on 26th novembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le monde! Et la Connaissance, alors? Voyons, donc, ce qui se passe devant notre porte. Suspend ton vol!
Fin du Monde, sa mort. Peintre grec du IV s. Tout, sans exception, serait oiseux, illusoire, inutile, fat! Posted on 1st janvier by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 15th janvier by Carlos in Uncategorized. Puis, la Nature! Posted on 21st janvier by Carlos in Uncategorized. Ce qui est beau, par exemple! Mais encore? Posted on 27th janvier by Carlos in Comptes-Rendus. Insolite question. Qui seraient les froussards?
De quel bois suis-je fait? Alors, une lubie? Une tocade? Mais, en avant, toujours en avant! En effet! Un avenir radieux! Des lendemains qui chantent! Et pour cause. Posted on 11th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 18th mars by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Court-il le risque de tomber en ruines? Posted on 23rd mars by Carlos in Uncategorized. Peu importe. Posted on 1st avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le chat qui se mord la queue, quoi!!! Ca arrive! Posted on 3rd avril by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 14th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 17th avril by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 28th avril by Carlos in Uncategorized. Il explique beaucoup mieux! Posted on 5th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized.
Posted on 7th mai by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 19th mai by Carlos in Comptes-Rendus. Que de questions! Posted on 25th mai by Carlos in Uncategorized. Hippocrate de Cos av. Eh bien!
Niveau de vie? Posted on 9th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Quelle est sa nature, ainsi que celle des trous noirs et compagnie? Posted on 11th juin by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 22nd juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 29th juin by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 6th juillet by Carlos in Uncategorized. Posted on 12th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized.
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Posted on 16th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 25th juillet by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 4th septembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Posted on 11th septembre by Gunter in Uncategorized. Notez la vendue le 6juillet de Miguel Benassayag pour parler de la haine. Posted on 22nd septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Le pessimiste craint que ce ne soit pas le cas. Posted on 29th septembre by Carlos in Uncategorized. Les Italiens font eux la distinction entre liberismo et liberalismo. On peut faire une analogie historique et comparer la situation actuelle avec la situation que Karl Polanyi analyse dans son livre La Grande Transformatio n.
LVSL — Il y a souvent des interrogations autour de ce que vous entendez par peuple. Le peuple se construit dans la lutte. Le leader peut devenir le symbole de ces affects communs. Prenons le cas de Jeremy Corbyn. Que dit le populisme de gauche sur la raison en politique?