The voters also felt that statehood was warranted because they had demonstrated their loyalty—no matter what their ethnic background—to the U. There were many Hawaiian petitions for statehood during the first half of the 20th century. These were denied or ignored. Some in the U. It was not contiguous territory, most obviously, but 2, miles from the coast.
There was considerable sentiment in the U. Nevertheless, at the time of annexation the monarchy itself had only been in existence for a century, and originally consolidated power brutally, with the help of European sailors and firepower. Liloa's palace was guarded and attended by several Kahuna. The entire enclosure was sacred.
Entering without permission carried the death penalty. Umi entered the enclosure with attendants afraid to stop someone wearing the royal insignia and walked straight to Liloa's sleeping quarters, waking him there. When Liloa asked who he was, he said "It is I, 'Umi your son". He then placed the tokens at his father's feet and Liloa proclaimed him to be his son. Liloa assured his first born that he would be king after his death and his brother would serve him. In exile, 'Umi took wives and began building forces and followers.
Chiefs began to believe him to be of the highest chiefly nature from signs they observed. He gave food to people and became known for caring for all. Eventually Umi conquered the entire island. After unifying the island of Hawaii, 'Umi was faithful to those who had supported him, and allowed his three most faithful companions, and the two Kahuna who had aided him, to help him govern. Lieutenant James King stated that "all the chiefs had them" and recounts a tale that James Cook was actually asked by one chief to leave Lt.
King behind, considering such offer a great honor.
Members of Cook's crew related tales of the tradition with great disdain. American adventurer and sailor John Ledyard commented in detail about the tradition. The traditional system of land has four hierarchical levels:. The Hawaiian agricultural system contained two major classes; irrigated and rain-fed dryland systems. Irrigated systems mainly supported taro kalo cultivation. Rain-fed systems were known as the mala.
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The kukui tree Aleurites moluccanus was sometimes used as a shade to protect the mala from the sun. Hawaiians domesticated dogs, chickens and pigs. They also grew personal gardens at home. Water was a very important part of Hawaiian life; it was used for fishing, bathing, drinking, and gardening, and for aquaculture systems in the rivers and at the shore's edge. The Hawaiians believed that the land, the sea, the clouds and all of nature had a certain interconnectedness which is why they used all of the resources around them to reach the desired balance in life.
They also regulated the gathering of plants. These were individual plots of land that were cultivated by commoners who paid labor taxes to the land overseer each week. These taxes went to support the chief. The Kingdom was administered by an ali'i chief. Ahupua'as were run by a headman or chief called a Konohiki. In Keelikolani vs Robinson, kononiki is defined as a Land Agent. In Territory vs Bishop Trust Co. The term could also be a designated area of land owned privately as compared to being owned by the government.
Often ali'i and konohiki are treated synonymously. However, while most konohiki were ali'i nobility, not all ali'i were konohiki. The Hawaiian dictionary defines konohiki as a headman of a land division, but also to describe fishing rights. Kono means to entice or prompt. Hiki refers to something that can be done. The konohiki was a relative of the ali'i and oversaw the property, managing water rights , land distribution , agricultural use and any maintenance. The konohiki also ensured that the right amounts of gifts and tribute were properly made at the right times.
As capitalism was incorporated into the kingdom the konohiki became tax collectors, landlords and fishery wardens. Captain James Cook led three separate voyages to chart unknown areas of the globe for the British Empire. On 2 February , Cook continued on to the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months. He returned to the Hawaii chain to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of Maui and Hawaii Island to trade. He anchored in Kealakekua Bay in January After departing Kealakekua, he returned in February after a ship's mast broke in bad weather.
On 14 February Cook confronted an angry crowd. The Kingdom of Hawaii lasted from until its overthrow in with the fall of the House of Kalakaua. However, his general dating was challenged. His birth would thus fall between and , probably nearer the former than the latter". He had advisors and priests. When word reached the ruler that chiefs were planning to murder the boy, he told Kamehameha:. While I am alive they are afraid, but when I die they will take you and kill you.
I advise you to go back to Kohala.
After multiple battles the king was killed and envoys sent for the last two brothers to meet with Kamehameha. Before the same could happen to the second canoe, Kamehameha intervened. In Captain George Vancouver sailed from the United Kingdom and presented the Union Flag to Kamehameha, who was still in the process of uniting the islands into a single state; the Union Jack flew unofficially as the flag of Hawaii until ,  including during a brief spell of British rule after Kamehameha ceded Hawaii to Vancouver in By , Kamehameha had conquered all but one of the main islands.
For his first royal residence, the new King built the first western-style structure in the Hawaiian Islands , known as the " Brick Palace ". Kamehameha I had many wives but held two in the highest regard. Kamehameha I died in , succeeded by Liholiho. After Kamehameha I's death, Liholiho left Kailua for a week and returned to be crowned king.
Behold these chiefs and the men of your father, and these your guns, and this your land, but you and I shall share the realm together". Liholiho agreed officially, which began a unique system of dual-government consisting of a King and co-ruler similar to a regent. She defied Hawaiian kapu by dining with the young king, separating the sexes during meals, leading to the end of the Hawaiian religion.
He was King for 5 years. The couple's remains were returned to Hawaii by Boki. Boki left Hawaii on a trip to find sandalwood to cover a debt and was lost at sea. She became Kamehameha's consort when she was fourteen. George Vancouver states: "[O]ne of the finest woman we had yet seen on any of the islands". A portrait artist remarked of her: "This Old Dame is the most proud, unbending Lady in the whole island.
As the widow of [Kamehameha], she possesses unbound authority and respect, not any of which she is inclined to lay aside on any occasion whatsoever". Sugar became a major export from Hawaii soon after Cook's arrival. Within thirty years plantations operated on the four main islands. Sugar completely altered Hawaii's economy. American influence in Hawaiian government began with U. This was driven by missionary religion and sugar economics. Pressure from these plantation owners was felt by the King and chiefs as demands for land tenure. After the brief takeover by the British , Kamehameha III responded to the demands with the Great Mahele , distributing the lands to all Hawaiians as advocated by missionaries including Gerrit P.
During the s, the U. In Kamehameha III proposed a policy of reciprocity between the countries, but the proposal died in the U.
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The military was especially interested in Pu'uloa , Pearl Harbor. He showed two U. As monarch, William Charles Lunalilo , was content to let Bishop run most business affairs, but the ceding of lands became unpopular with Hawaiians. Many islanders thought that all the islands, rather than just Pearl Harbor, might be lost and opposed any cession. By November , Lunalilo canceled negotiations and returned to drinking, against his doctor's advice; his health declined swiftly, and he died on February 3, Lunalilo left no heirs.
Grover Cleveland was president at the time, and his secretary of state Thomas F. Bayard sent written instructions to the American minister George W. Merrill that in the event of another revolution in Hawaii, it was a priority to protect American commerce, lives and property. Bayard specified, "the assistance of the officers of our Government vessels, if found necessary, will therefore be promptly afforded to promote the reign of law and respect for orderly government in Hawaii. Merrill's replacement, minister John L. Stevens , read those official instructions, and followed them in his controversial actions of This was in response to increased political tension between the legislature and the king under the constitution.
Wilcox, Charles B. He died there on January The McKinley Act had crippled the Hawaiian sugar industry by removing the duties on sugar imports from other countries into the US, eliminating the previous Hawaiian advantage due to the Reciprocity Treaty of Controversially, opium licensing was proposed.
It would have disenfranchised many non-citizen Europeans and Americans. The Queen toured several islands on horseback, talking to the people about her ideas and receiving overwhelming support, including a lengthy petition in support of a new constitution. However, when the Queen informed her cabinet of her plans, they withheld their support, uncomfortable with what they expected her opponent's likely response to be. Threats to Hawaii's sovereignty emerged throughout the Kingdom's history. However, only with the Bayonet Constitution was its sovereignty ultimately compromised.
The conspirators' stated goals were to depose the queen, overthrow the monarchy, and seek Hawaii's annexation to the U. The overthrow was led by Thurston, who was the grandson of American missionaries  and derived his support primarily from the American and European business class and other supporters of the Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Most of the leaders of the Committee of Safety that deposed the queen were American and European citizens who were Kingdom subjects.
Wilson was tipped off by detectives of the planned coup. Wilson requested warrants to arrest the 13 Council members and put the Kingdom under martial law. Because the members had strong political ties with U. Government Minister John L. Stevens , the requests were repeatedly denied by Attorney General Arthur P. Peterson and the Queen's cabinet, fearing if approved, the arrests would escalate the situation.
After a failed negotiation with Thurston ,  Wilson began to collect his men for the confrontation. The overthrow began on January 17, A policeman was shot and wounded while trying to stop a wagon carrying weapons to the Honolulu Rifles , the paramilitary wing of the Committee of Safety. The Committee feared the shooting would bring government forces to rout the conspirators and stop the coup before it could begin. The Committee of Safety initiated the overthrow by organizing the Honolulu Rifles made of about 1, armed local non-native men.
As these events were unfolding, the Committee of Safety expressed concern for the safety and property of American residents in Honolulu. The coup efforts were supported by U. Advised about supposed threats to non-combatant American lives and property  by the Committee of Safety, Stevens summoned a company of uniformed U. Legation, Consulate and Arion Hall on the afternoon of January 16, The sailors and Marines did not enter the Palace grounds or take over any buildings, and never fired a shot, but their presence intimidated royalist defenders.
Charter boats sail and motor between some islands, especially the Maui - Molokai - Lanai area. But, crossing the channels between islands can be extremely rough going. Because of this, a few charter companies specialize in having boats delivered inter island and can meet you at your destination. Norwegian Cruise Lines operates both U. The ship is called Pride of America. On Oahu there is an excellent public transportation system on " TheBus " for bus travel between Honolulu, Waikiki, Kaneohe, and the surrounding suburban and rural areas of Oahu.
Public transportation is limited on the neighboring islands, it is recommended to rent a car to get around. If necessary, there are still bus services available within and between populated areas on the other islands. They are:. Oahu has military bases from four major branches of the military, including Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, and Schofield Barracks, and the routes of the Hawaii interstates pass by or terminate at one or more of these bases. In short, they're as much designed for transporting troops as commuters.
This is not unique to Hawaii; several mainland Interstate highways also never leave the boundaries of a single state. Alaska and Puerto Rico also have highways funded as Interstates, although they're not signed as such. If you want to take your car to Hawaii, it will either need to be amphibious or freighted by ship with very high cost, making this infeasible unless you plan a long-term stay in Hawaii.
However, Hawaii is the only state that honors all other U. Incidentally, Hawaii is also the only state that does not require intended residents to exchange their out-of-state driver's licenses. The exception is Waikiki where you will not need a car on a permanent basis so just rent a car the day before you want one. Be aware some hotels may charge you for car parking; check with your hotel for parking fee before you book your car. Gasoline, while nowhere near the prices charged in Europe, is more expensive in Hawaii than in many areas of the Mainland.
There was a time when gas prices in Hawaii were much more expensive than other states. Nowadays, however, average prices are comparable to San Francisco and Los Angeles, and are sometimes below those cities. For example, you would never hear someone refer to Kalanianiole Highway as "route 72" or "highway If you ask for directions, they will likely not be given in terms of compass direction.
Instead you will probably receive relative directions based on landmark. So a query for a grocery store might be met with "go two blocks makai , turn right on King and it's half a mile up on the mauka side of the street. Scooters are also an excellent alternative to getting around the islands. You can ride them anywhere except on limited-access highways of which there aren't many in Hawaii, and there's always a surface street that's probably more scenic.
Scooters only require a valid license for driving a car, not a motorcycle license. The driver must be over 15 legally out-of-state license aren't acceptable unless the driver is 18, but this is rarely enforced. It's illegal for two or more persons to ride a moped, although this may not be enforced in more remote areas such as Big Island. Helmets are not mandatory, but if you want one which is always a good idea you should be able to rent one with your scooter, possibly for free.
When you get your scooter, inspect it first, as some are in bad repair: make sure the headlights and turn signals are working, and insist on taking it for a quick spin around the block to check that the acceleration, transmission, brakes, and steering are okay. If anything is amiss, insist on a replacement scooter, or walk away from the deal and find another rental company.
Motorcycle rentals are easy to find. On most islands, you can also rent out Harley-Davidson motorcycles. Depending on where you travel a bicycle can be a great form of transportation if you keep a few things in mind. Some roads are very narrow and winding which may create a hazard when sharing the road with cars. There are also some steep hills as Hawaii is a series of mountains erupting from the sea; without a topo map an apparent shortcut may require a challenging hill while a long loop may be flat and avoid large terrain getting you there quicker.
If you stay near the beach there is the salty sea air and rain which will eventually rust a bicycle which is kept outside, keep on top of chain and part maintenance and cleaning to prevent damage. The law and common sense require a white front and red rear light when operating a bicycle during twilight and night. Many airlines charge an oversized luggage fee for most full size bikes even when boxed; some tour-capable folding bikes can be fit inside a standard suitcase, but most public transportation does not allow bicycles at all.
The Hawaiian islands offer a vast number of activities. Hiking and eco tours are popular on most islands, with opportunities for horseback riding, ATV, air tours, and other methods of exploring the landscape. Museums and historical sites such as Pearl Harbor are also to be found throughout the islands. Cultural activities such as the Polynesian Cultural Center on Oahu also make for interesting day-long activities. Oahu is famous for Pearl Harbor tours, but also popular are shark dives in cages, Waikiki snorkel tours as well as around Oahu Tours where you will see all the major highlights of Oahu including Diamond Head, the North Shore and Dole Plantation where you can sample menu items made from fresh picked pineapples.
Maui is the location for humpback whale watching from December 15 to April 15 each year as the massive humpbacks migrate to Hawaii's warm waters to bear their calves. Also famous from Maui is the Molokini Crater which is a partially submerged volcano crater that you can snorkel at. Kauai is untamed and beautiful. It has been featured in many major motion pictures over the past two decades Jurassic Park, Tropic Thunder, The Descendants, Avatar, and many more.
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See this island by land or by air to take in the true beauty of this island. Oh and just be ready to see the roaming Roosters that inhabit the island. You can take a land tour or fly over the incredible huge volcano on a helicopter tour of the Big Island. Doors-off flights allow you to feel the heat from the volcano, an amazingly unique experience. Also on the Big Island you have the rare opportunity to swim with wild dolphins , not captive ones.
Hawaii is best known for its beaches and water activities. Surfing is practically a religion in Hawaii, and scuba diving and snorkeling opportunities exist nearly everywhere. In addition, jet skiing, parasailing and kayaking are available in tourist areas. Since many of the islands' tours and excursions are interacting with nature in some way, it's important to look into each and make sure they are respecting the islands. There are many endangered animals and plants, because of this there are many laws protecting them.
A good example would be tour boats that have been fined for chasing dolphins or whales in order to please the tourists, while it's actually illegal and highly disrespectful. As in the rest of the United States, U. There are plenty of banks, ATMs, and money change offices in all cities. However, none of the major American and foreign banks have branches in Hawaii, so the banking sector is served exclusively by small local banks. Because Hawaii is an island state and transporting goods to Hawaii is more difficult, the prices for most goods are more expensive. The ever-present aloha shirt comes in a wide variety of designs.
On one end, there are the brightly colored, tourist-oriented, polyester aloha shirts that many tourist-oriented stores throughout the Islands carry. On the other end of the spectrum are reverse print aloha shirts, which have become standard business attire among businessmen in Hawaii, in the same way that the business suit is on the mainland. These aloha shirts are usually cotton-polyester blend with the design printed on the inside of the shirt, resulting in muted colors that are considered businesslike in Hawaii. This kind of aloha shirt can be found in department stores.
A special note on shoes: The lightweight sandal commonly referred to on the Mainland as a "flip-flop" or "thong" is known as a "slipper" or "slippa" in Hawaii. Using the mainland term will get you a quizzical look from locals. Call them by their island name and they will instantly know what you are talking about. The islands feature some of the most refreshing fragrances, which are featured in Hawaiian shampoos, body lotions, soaps, oils, incense and floating candles.
Tourists who want to get a taste of Hawaiian culture can sign up for classes in hula, surfing and lei-making at most tourist destinations. There are also a number of cultural and historical centers on Oahu well worth your time, such as the Bishop Museum and Iolani Palace. If you have the money, the time and the inclination, the Polynesian Cultural Center provides a window into Polynesian culture. For those on a budget, there are many activities you can do on any island that are free.
All state parks are free to visit and even some National Parks. When the National Parks are not free, most find them very affordable. Hiking, beaches, snorkeling and other like activities are always free when on public land and there are no private beaches.
On the Big Island there are many free ranger programs at Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical park and other locations. At the Visitor Information Station on Mauna Kea, you can stay any night of the year between 6PM and 10PM and enjoy a free astronomy tour including large and small telescopes for you to look through. Some hiking and other activities are in National Parks, like Volcanoes so they are at cost, of course. Given the current economic situation, the unemployment rate in Hawaii is at its highest point in many years, but is still below the average unemployment rate for the country as a whole.
Hawaii is not an easy place to legally find casual work for non-US work permit holders. To apply for a local government job, by law you must be a Hawaii resident. This is changing though, and police officer applicants do not have to be residents. Contemporary food in Hawaii, like the language and popular culture, is a medley of traditional Hawaiian, Portuguese, American, and Asia-Pacific flavors.
Pacific "fusion" cuisine was largely invented in Hawaii. Seafood is, of course, fresh and tasty. Local beef comes from ranches on Maui and coffee is grown on the Big Island. One of the most common ways that local food is served is in the form of plate lunch , usually meat or fish with two scoops of rice and macaroni salad. It's always a good deal at any lunch wagon, mall, or outside food court. These lunch wagons offer plate lunches, are popular with the locals and provide great meals on plastic plates at very reasonable prices.
There is no reason to fear them; they are very common and popular.
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Food carts provide other kinds of cuisine besides the standard plate lunch. You may be surprised to find that even the McDonald's menu is different. Saimin , a Hawaiian noodle soup inspired by ramen, is a permanent menu item, and was the first regional food to be served in a McDonald's. Another favorite is the breakfast platter at Hawaiian McD's, which features Portuguese sausage, Spam, eggs, and steamed rice, sometimes with fresh pineapple. Contrary to its poor reputation on the mainland, Spam has traditionally been very popular in Hawaii and is even used in various adapted ethnic dishes.
Also, while on the Mainland orangeade is a non-carbonated fruit-flavored alternative to Coke or Sprite, in Hawaii, red fruit punch fills that role. Tourists can find luaus at various locations in the Islands, including many of the major resort hotels. If you are roaming the island away from tourist areas, you may find restaurants are scarce. Many of the numerous golf courses have dining rooms open to the public that offer great meals.
They seem to welcome the non-golfer. For specific places at which to eat, see the individual island or city articles. Be sure to check the coupon books that are available at display stands for meal specials. Popular local snacks are also heavily influenced by the large mix of cultures present in Hawaii, primarily the Chinese and Japanese. Since many of these snacks are unique to Hawaii and cannot be found anywhere else, consider purchasing a few bags from any grocery store to bring on your travels.
A large portion of local snacks fall under the category known as "Crack Seed" which refers to a variety of pickled, candied, and dehydrated fruit snacks of Chinese origin. If you would rather catch your own, fishing in the ocean or gathering in tidepools is free and requires no permit. Fresh-water fishing, however, does require a license. Beer : there are a number of excellent local brewpubs in Hawaii. The largest of the group is Kona Brewing, which has won several national awards and runs two brew pub restaurants in the islands one in Kailua Kona, the other in Hawaii Kai on Oahu.
Theft is a big problem in cities as well as beaches and parks. If you are camping on a beach, keep bags locked in a car but don't assume that they are safe in the trunk, especially if you are driving a rental and keep valuables in a hidden money belt. Although Hawaii is generally considered relatively safe, it does have some violent crime.
Consequently, women should not walk alone in unlit areas. Although Honolulu has one of the lowest violent crime rates of metro areas in the U. Stay smart and act as if you were in your own home city: lock doors, lock cars, and don't leave valuables lying around. Some campgrounds now require a permit this has the effect of moving homeless people away from tourist areas. Be sure to apply for a reserved area and have your permit even in free camping areas especially around Honolulu. Any of the beaches are vulnerable to pickpockets and thieves who break into cars.