This happens twice, by a former covenant in the Old Testament and a 'new' covenant through Jesus Christ.
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The former covenant is the story of the people of Israel: the call of Abraham, bondage in Egypt, God's deliverance from Egypt, the covenant at Sinai, the promised land of Canaan, the destruction of Israel and Judah, and the restoration of the nation after the exile. Then there is the first level: the hundreds of individual narratives that piece together to make up the previous two levels. It is important to understand these individual narratives, and to appreciate how they fit into the bigger biblical story. Hence when Jesus said, 'These are the Scriptures that testify about me', he was speaking about the metanarrative, in which his atonement for our sin was the central focus, and not every individual narrative in the Old Testament.
These passages 'vividly demonstrate God's involvement in the world and illustrate his principles and calling' and are precious for this purpose.
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However, they are less suited for other uses. For example, they are not stories with hidden meanings. We need to assume that they had meaning enough for the original audience, and not create allegories to give them meaning for ourselves. Thus the account of Moses ascending and descending Mount Sinai in Exodus 'is not an allegory of the descent and ascent of the soul to God'. Similarly, we often dissect out moral teachings from these narratives, with no grounding from that passage to give it that meaning.
We must remember that the purpose and reason for the individual narratives is to tell of what God did in the history of Israel. They reflect what really happened, rather than the ideal, and not all are examples for us to follow! The teaching of the harmful consequences of King David's adultery in 2 Samuel 11 is implicitly understood because the audience is expected to know that adultery is wrong, since this is explicitly taught in Exodus The narrative does not deal systematically with adultery, and hence cannot 'be used as the sole basis for such teaching'.
A dangerous pitfall is the tendency to personalise the passage, supposing that parts of it apply only to yourself or your group in a way that does not apply to everyone else. It's easy and only takes a few seconds:. Or sign up in the traditional way.
Join Reverso. Sign up Login Login. Search it's worth giving it a try and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. Apocalyptic literature is often times presented in visions and dreams and typically has cryptic and symbolic meanings contained within it. Most of the literature was formally stylized, having a tendency to divide time and events, as well as, symbolically using numbers.
Discuss at least five types of psalms and their characteristics. Psalms are prayers or hymns to God or about God. Laments represent the largest group of Psalms and they express deep trust in Yahweh. They can individually or corporately help people through struggles, suffering, or disappointment by allowing them to express their feelings to the Lord.
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Thanksgiving Psalms operated in contrast to Laments since they expressed joy to the Lord because something had gone well, God had been faithful or provided, or any number of other reasons they had to praise God. These psalms helped them express their deep gratitude to the Lord.
Hymns of praise are similar to Thanksgiving Psalms in that they center on the praise of God but are not limited to a specific reference of personal misery or joy. Enthronement psalms did exactly what they sound like; they celebrated the enthronement of the king in ancient Israel. Songs of Zion celebrated Jerusalem as the holy city and the place in which the kingship of David exercised authority. Lastly, songs of trust focus on the fact that God can be trusted especially in times of despair and no matter what the circumstances.
List and briefly explain six factors the interpreter should consider in deciding which Old Testament laws apply to modern believers. We must look at the Old Testament law through a lens that allows us to see it as a paradigm, one which provides examples for all types of behavior and we must stop viewing it as complete because it is not comprehensive.
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We must never forget that the Ten Commandments and the two chief laws are repeated by the prophets and thus renewed in the New Testament and we must not expect the Old Testament law to be cited frequently in the New Testament by the prophets. We must also see that the Old Testament law was a generous gift to Israel which brought tremendous blessings when they chose to obey it. The covenant was a binding contract between God and the His children, both of whom had obligations in the covenant.
Note both similarities and differences in the two approaches. Gordon Fee and Wave Nunnally both seek truth, but their paths split when their views regarding the purpose and intent of Acts is revealed. On the other hand, this has been a normal way for Christians to read Acts. It not only tells us the history of the early church, but it also serves as the normative model for the church of all times.
Fee attempts to answer the question of how individual narratives in Acts function as precedents for the later church and if there is a word that not only describes the primitive church, but speaks to the church of all times. In answering this question, he says it is crucial to understand whether biblical narratives describe what happened or what must happen. Nunnally points out that for the past five hundred years that the goal of the Protestant church has been to allow the Bible to speak for itself. It is only through sound exegesis that we can truly understand what is normative or one-time-only.
The question arises: To what degree do we adhere to the practices held by the first-century church and can theology and doctrine be based on narratives and where should the precedent be set? Nunnally believes that these narratives were given for future churches to emulate and strive for. Fee holds true to the notion that narratives primary purpose was to give an account of historical record. I believe the purpose of narratives is not only to teach us, but also in some areas to establish precedents. The one principle that we must adhere to is that scripture interprets scripture so when contradictions appear to exist, emphasis should be given to the multiple and clear passages over the isolated and obscure ones.
Both scholars hold true to the principle that the Bible is absolutely consistent and that it cannot contradict itself in matters of doctrine, ethics, or historical facts and they acknowledge that only scripture has the authority to establish matters of faith and practice. Note both similarities and differences. Address specifically the following two aspects: 1 Spirit baptism as a subsequent experience to salvation and 2 speaking in other tongues as the initial physical evidence of Spirit-baptism.
Interpreting narratives and deciding whether they are intended to teach or be normative will be a never-ending debate among scholars. Within these categories he goes on explaining that there are two levels of statements: primary and secondary. Many of our practices, we do because God commands it, but how we do them and how often is sometimes based upon tradition and precedent.
It is this principle which he uses to establish his view of normativity, instead of just one-time events.
He furthers this argument by establishing since there are multiple accounts in Acts, that the church should establish it as a precedent. To me, this sounds like a disaster just waiting to happen and in many cases, I am sure it has already done so. It is important to note that several non-Pentecostal evangelical scholars as well as some noted Pentecostal scholars affirm that some narratives are intended to teach. He concludes that since there are several examples of believers experiencing a Spirit baptism that this means: Luke is presenting baptism in the Holy Spirit as a normative experience for all believers.
I have a problem with this because it bases precedent solely on historical events and not on the teaching. Even though we know all the narratives took place, it does not make them all normative experiences for the church today, even though most of them should be.