The original authors of the ISA Engagement Scale propose a unified theoretical framework as the basis of the psychological mechanism of engagement, with roots in the classical theory of Kahn and whose development is based on three conditions: work-role focus, activation, and positive affect. Soane, Truss, Alfes, Shantz, and Gatenby describe three dimensions of the construct intellectual, social, and emotional engagement , which meet the aforementioned three conditions to get the state "engaged" although with a greater focus on social aspects of engagement than is acknowledged in either the Gallup Q 12 or UWES measures of employee engagement.
Technical details of the ISA scale can be found in the article by Soane et al. The aim of this article is just to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the ISA Engagement Scale in a sample of employees from the public administration and services and to provide the final version of the scale validated by the original design of Soane et al.
To perform the validation, we used a sample of employees from the administration and services sector in a Spanish public university who were assigned to various types of administrative services maintenance and construction, information and maintenance of official records, support to management, employment service, research administration, administrative support to departments, library, prevention of occupational hazards or economic management, among other areas and services.
Since 51 participants did not fully answer the questionnaire or gave the same response for example, 1 to all the questions, these subjects were removed from the analysis, so that the final sample consisted of subjects Of these subjects, men make up Regarding age, the most representative age range of participants was between 46 and 55 years of age The most representative academic level was university degree Most employees had morning shift With reference to their legal status, the sample is divided into civil servants Spanish version of Soane et al.
This scale is based on the development and application of Soane et al. Each of the above facets represents a dimension of the engagement variable, with three items each. Response options were presented in a Likert scale with 7 categories, ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree , following the original design of the scale and those with higher scores indicating a higher level of engagement. The psychometric characteristics of the original scale and its factor structure were reviewed in two studies: in the first study the sample consisted of employees of a manufacturing industry and in the second, a total of employees of a retail distribution company.
The results of internal consistency of the original scale, measured through Cronbach's alpha index, were the following:. Table 1.
All items use a Likert scale with response categories from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. There are several versions of this scale, which has been validated and translated from Dutch into several languages, including Spanish, English, French, Russian, and Finnish, among others. In our sample, the reduced version, UWES-9, was applied, translated into Spanish by Schaufeli and Bakker , with a total of 9 items, each item requiring a 7 point Likert response scale, ranging from 0 never to 6 every day.
These items measure the dimensions of vigor, dedication, and absorption, and form the engagement construct. Schaufeli and Bakker studied a sample from 9 different countries and found that both unifactorial structure and a three-factor structure remain unchanged. In its Spanish version, the results of internal consistency of the instrument, measured by Cronbach's alpha index, were the following:.
These values, although above the. It should be noted that, as Schmitt shows in an exemplary way, the assumption of considering as acceptable a certain level of this index e. Table 2. This instrument aims to measure the dimensions of in-role performance e. The dimensions are measured with a total of 6 items maintaining a Likert scale of 7 response categories, ranging from 0 strongly disagree to 6 strongly agree.
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The results of internal consistency obtained in our sample were:. This questionnaire consists of 9 items, which measure the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, reduced personal accomplishment, and depersonalization which form the burnout construct. The response format questionnaire is a Likert scale of 5 categories, ranging from 1, strongly disagree , to 5, strongly agree. An example of this type of items could be "I feel that I have become more insensitive and hard with my colleagues". The internal consistency results obtained in our sample were the following:.
The first step prior to data collection was to contact the heads of the administration and services in this public university, inviting them to participate in the project. Following the approval and discussion of objectives and in order to facilitate the management of the scale to all staff of the different services, the scale was applied in an online service based on the open source software Lime Survey, providing the required instructions beforehand in order to complete the scale.
Participation was voluntary, and confidentiality and anonymity in the treatment of the information was guaranteed with the use of codes. In this way, the original instrument was first translated into Spanish by a translator expert on this scientific terminology. The translation was discussed by the members of the research team taking part in the project. They conducted a pretest taken by 10 participants to check that there was no difficulty in the exposition of the items and, after making some corrections to this first translation, a reverse translation was performed by another translator and finally this last translation was compared to the original version of the ISA scale.
After final approval, we proceeded to its handling according to the procedure referred to in the preceding paragraph. Subsequently, this base was exported to R, version 1. The following packages were installed: "Lavaan" 0. The factorial structure of the Spanish version of the scale will be determined and validated by using R Rosseel, The reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha Cronbach, , both for each dimension of the construct and for the scale as a whole, and the item-total correlations were additionally presented after being corrected.
Finally, a study of convergent and discriminant validity of the instrument was conducted using a correlational analysis between the dimensions of the ISA scale and the performance questionnaire, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the UWES instrument, and a total of seven linear regression analyses. As Stanley S. Stevens said in his Handbook of Experimental Psychology , whose first edition dates back to , "When description gives way to measurement, calculation replaces debate" Stevens, None of the items met normality criteria.
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Asymmetry values were between With reference to the item responses, means of each item were between 5. Subsequently, the model was adjusted by the Maximun Likelihood Robust method MLR , keeping the original design of the ISA scale on a three-factor model composed of the engagement construct and its three dimensions as latent variables intellectual engagement, social engagement, and affective engagement. Scores below. Additionally, scores on the original ISA scales are compared to those of the Spanish validation of the scale see Table 3.
Table 3. The adjusted model can be seen in Figure 3. All items load to their respective dimensions are between.
Standardized values in R were taken both for latent variables and for observed variables, which is called "completely standardized solution" Rosseel, b. Figure 3. The results of Cronbach's alpha index for each dimension and those of the scale as a whole were the following:. The corrected item-total correlations are between.
Table 4. Corrected Item-total Correlations. Corrected item-total correlations of the Spanish validation. In Table 5 you can see the correlations obtained between the Spanish validation of the ISA scale and the performance questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the UWES instrument, with the aim of testing the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. At the same time, a total of seven regression analyses were carried out using the dimensions of the ISA scale as predictor variables and the Maslach dimension scales, the performance questionnaire, and the UWES instrument were used as dependent variables.
Table 5. Results of the Analysis of Correlation and Regression. Bilateral correlations. Regressions are lower in the dimensions of intellectual and social engagement of the ISA scale, the relationships found between the vigor and absorption dimensions of the UWES instrument with the social engagement dimension not being significant. Tested the fit of sample data collected under the revised adjustment indices, reliability indices and the results of validity analysis, the proposed factorial structure is validated keeping the original design of Soane et al. After more than 25 years since the publication in of Kahn's article entitled "Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work" we have not yet had in the literature a fully accepted and uniform definition for the concept of engagement.
The rapid proliferation of articles and research on the subject in academic, professional, and even informative publications, the different approaches from which can be addressed its study and analysis remember the four mentioned in Shuck's article Shuck, , entitled Four emerging perspectives of employee engagement: An integrative literature review , and a long etcetera of factors has somehow caused the lack of a common basis on its study. Despite the fact that for years there have been data in the academic literature about engagement that demonstrate its influence on other variables such as individual performance e.
The importance of engagement, as shown by Rich et al. The limitations of the validation proposed are focused on a sample which is not representative of the entire population, as it is centered in the public sector and nearly all of the participants, It is required to make generalizations to perform further validation of the scale in other productive sectors, such as the primary extraction of natural resources and the secondary industrial processing activities , as well as in other occupational samples.
In summary, compared to other instruments, given the inclusion of a social component, the ISA Engagement Scale could be a measure more useful for organizations that are concerned about the social aspects of engagement. The authors of this article declare no conflict of interest. Alfes, K. Creating an engaged workforce. Blunch, N. Brown, N. The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: The critical positivity ratio.
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American Psychologist, 68, Chou, C. Scaled test statistics and robust standard errors for non-normal data in covariance structure analysis: a Monte Carlo study. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 44, Cronbach, L. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 22, Goodman, S.
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, Fox, J. Structural Equation Modeling with the sem package in R. Structural Equation Modeling, 13, Gallup Inc. Gallup Q 12 Employee Engagement survey. Overall Report. Hallberg, U. Can work engagement be discriminated from job involvement and organizational commitment? European Psychologist, 11, Harter, J. Feedback from clients and colleagues on Willingness to Work Again 4 positive reviews 1 unidentified.
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