Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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We attempted to avoid some of the pitfalls of potential self-selection bias posed by smartphone research, including a potentially younger and wealthier sample than the average population, by advertising our research project on various channels—from local newspapers to national primetime television—and by making our experience sampling application a multiplatform one. That is, while other applications are exclusively developed for the relatively expensive iPhone see e.

This unique off-line function further increases the ecological validity of emotion reports because participants could virtually answer emotion questions anytime and everywhere. The Ethics Committee of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, approved the study in written form. The study method was carried out in accordance with the approved guidelines. All study protocols were approved by the aforementioned Committee. At initial signup, participants provided their written informed consent. To take into account the nested structure of our data most participants answered multiple times , estimations of the frequency of emotions were obtained using multi-level modelling with a compound symmetry covariance matrix.

We computed the percentage of the time that people reported feeling an emotion; that is, the frequency of moments for which participants indicated they experienced at least one of the 18 emotions on the list. Specifically, participants indicated experiencing one or several positive emotions i. Breaking down these results by emotion, we computed the frequency of moments for which participants indicated they experienced each of the 18 distinct emotions on the list.

In terms of mixed emotions, the emotions that most frequently co-occurred with an opposite valence emotion were anxiety and love. For further details about mixed emotions, please refer to S1 Table. In order to provide a detailed account of emotion in everyday life, we further broke down our results by reporting the frequency of emotions across the different days of the week and time of the day. Because relatively few people provided emotion reports from 11PM to 5AM all these measurement times had fewer than 1, reports; see Fig 1 , which might bias the frequency estimates, we report frequency data from 6AM to 10PM only.

As depicted in Fig 2 , people experience fewer negative emotions and more positive emotions on the weekend, and particularly Saturday. The relative frequency of specific emotions did not change much across the different days of the week. Regarding the experience of specific positive emotions across different times of the day, Fig 3 shows that joy, love, amusement, and awe slightly increased throughout the day to peak around 8 or 9PM. Alertness seems to follow a more cyclic pattern with increases in frequency an hour or two after traditional meal times.

Finally, contentment, pride, gratitude, and awe remain relatively stable throughout the day and do not seem to follow a clear temporal pattern. In contrast with positive emotions and as seen in Fig 4 , we found very little fluctuation of the frequency of the specific negative emotions across different times of the day. The line colors between specific emotions represent the extent to which emotions tend to co-occur blue hues or inhibit each other red hues.

The numbers in the grey dots underneath specific emotions represents their frequency of occurrence in the sample. The right panel represents the percentage of times respondents reported experiencing any, positive, negative, or mixed emotions. Gender differences: In order to explore potential gender differences in the frequency of emotional experience in everyday life, we analyzed the data separately for men and women. Table 3 displays the experience of emotions in everyday life for men and women separately.

It seems that in general, men and women are very similar in terms of the frequency with which they report experiencing emotions in daily life However, men report experiencing only positive emotions more frequently In terms of specific positive emotions, men tend to report experiencing joy, satisfaction, alertness, amusement, pride, and awe more often than women. On the other hand, women more frequently report experiencing only negative emotions In terms of specific negative emotions, women tend to report experiencing more anxiety, sadness, disgust, anger, fear, offense, and contempt than men do.

Thus, although the data suggest that women and men might be as likely to experience emotions in everyday life, women tend to report experiencing slightly more negative emotions than men do. But emotions might also differ in how they relate to other distinct emotions within the emotional network. In other words, some emotions may typically stimulate or inhibit the experience of other emotions, whereas other emotions may typically be experienced in isolation, with no impact on the co-occurrence of other emotions. Human emotions can be represented as a network, wherein nodes represent specific emotions and the connections between them encode how likely emotions are to co-occur or inhibit one another.

Graph theory can then be used to characterize and analyze this emotional network [ 31 ]. Specifically, we represented the network as a weighted undirected graph in which the strength of each connection was weighted by the correlation coefficient between the two emotions seen as binary vectors equal to 1 when the emotion is experienced and to 0 otherwise. A strong positive edge in the network indicates two emotions that tend to co-occur, whereas a strong negative edge implies that the connected emotions inhibit one another.

We characterized the centrality of the different emotions in the network by their Degree Centrality DC , one of the most common measures of node centrality in a network [ 32 ]. The DC of an emotion is obtained by summing the absolute value of the weights of all the connections that this particular emotion makes with other emotions. Theoretically, the maximum value of the DC of an emotion in the network is 17, which would occur only if all emotions always co-occurred or perfectly inhibited one another.

An emotion with a larger DC tends to co-occur with or inhibit other emotions in a more systematic pattern than an emotion with a lower DC. As depicted in Fig 4 , our analysis revealed that emotions widely differed in how interconnected they were. The top 3 most central emotions was joy , followed by satisfaction , and sadness , while the least central emotion was contempt.

How Many Human Emotions Are There?

In particular, a visual examination of the different interconnections reveals three broad categories of emotions. The first category consists of emotions that are strongly connected to several other emotions, including emotions of opposite valence. For instance, joy and satisfaction and amusement to a lesser extent are strongly connected to many other positive emotions such as pride and gratitude , but also to negative emotions such as sadness , anxiety , disgust , and anger.

Note, however, that both joy and satisfaction tend to co-occur with many positive emotions, while they tend to inhibit the co-occurrence of negative emotions. Increasing joy and satisfaction may therefore be used as a buffer against these negative emotional states.

Lisa Feldman Barrett - How Emotions are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain

Conversely, sadness , anxiety , disgust , and anger are also connector emotions, as they tend to co-occur with other negative emotions such as guilt and fear , while their experience tends to inhibit feelings of joy and satisfaction. For instance, love , gratitude , pride , and awe are strongly connected to many other positive emotions but do not inhibit negative emotions. The same holds for offense , fear , and guilt , which are interconnected but do not inhibit positive emotions. This is the case for alertness , embarrassment , and contempt , which seem to be experienced relatively independently from other emotions.

Finally, we note that the frequency of occurrence of specific emotions and their centrality in the emotional ecosystem are relatively independent. For example, alertness is frequently reported but largely disconnected from other emotions. In order to explore potential gender differences in the centrality of the different emotions in the network, we analyzed the data separately for men and women see Table 3. These findings dovetail with previous research showing that men tend to be lower in emotional awareness [ 33 ] and have a less diverse emotional life [ 34 ].

Positive emotions were reported over 2. This finding is consistent with previous studies that aimed to capture everyday emotional experience [ 13 , 14 , 16 , 35 ]. We also found that people indicated simultaneously experiencing both negative and positive emotions a substantial amount of the time, which extends laboratory studies on mixed emotions [ 36 ]. Finally, an examination of the interconnections within the emotional network provided the first evidence that distinct emotions can be characterized in three broad types depending on whether they interact with emotions of the same and opposite valence connector emotions , of the same valence only provincial emotions , or do not interact with other emotions distal emotions.

We believe these findings break new grounds in two important ways. First, future research may draw from our frequency findings to determine which particular emotions deserve more research attention. Specifically, whereas some infrequently experienced emotions have received much research attention e. Second, future research may use our centrality findings to determine which particular emotions could be used as leverage in psychological interventions. Specifically, our network analyses suggest that some positive emotions e. A growing number of interventions promote the cultivation of specific emotional states like hope [ 37 ] and gratitude [ 7 ].

Provided replication in other countries and cultures, our study suggests that designing interventions around the cultivation of buffer emotions might be an even more effective strategy. Furthermore, our novel network approach to emotions may set the stage for mapping out the emotions network for different pathologies. One can imagine, for example, that the connector emotions in the emotional network of people suffering from unipolar depression might substantially differ from the connector emotions in the emotional network of people suffering from bipolar depression or generalized anxiety.

Identifying the key emotional states that are more likely to alleviate psychological suffering for different individuals or groups of individuals may provide critical insights into how increase their well-being. Although our findings break new grounds in several ways, the present research also suffers from several limitations, which should be addressed in future studies. First, although our smartphone application was designed to capture the widest possible range of episodes of daily life, participants had the opportunity to skip questionnaires.

In addition, responses to the app prompts were not evenly distributed throughout the day: essentially, the workday was oversampled. Also, it is theoretically possible that the specific emotion respondents experienced affected their likelihood of responding to the prompt. A second limitation lies in the dichotomous format of our emotion items. We chose to present our 18 emotions as a non-exclusive choice list.

This allowed us to collect a very large amount of data, since participants would have been unlikely to respond as often if they had to rate each of the 18 emotions on continuous scales several times a day. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that dichotomous items required respondents to make idiosyncratic judgments about when to report an emotion as being present, which might have increased demand characteristics and the frequency of emotion reporting. Finally, although our choice of emotions respondents were presented with was based on careful consideration of the literature, the selected emotions may still be argued to differ in the extent to which they contain emotional vs.

Future research may investigate to what extent emotion frequency and centrality are related to the relative importance of emotional vs. Although our aim in the current research was not to focus on the structure of affect, our data indeed suggest that people generally experience pleasant emotions in the presence of pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions in the presence of unpleasant emotions.

In that sense, our findings align with one of the most well-known models on the structure of affect—the circumplex model [ 18 — 21 ]. However, per the circumplex model, one would expect that all or at least most positive emotions would correlate negatively with negative emotions, and vice versa. In our data, a large number of emotions do not correlate with opposite-valence emotions e.

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If positive and negative emotions were on the same valence dimension, we would observe negative correlations between all negative emotions and all positive emotions. For an experience sampling study on everyday emotions to be able to really address the circumplex model, measures of both valence and arousal should be included. Future research may take a more systematic approach to this issue and include valence as well as arousal measures.

When two emotions are negatively correlated, this either means that 1 one emotion inhibits the other, or 2 another variable inhibits one and stimulates the other emotion. In both cases, inhibition occurs, but information about the direction is lacking. Future research could try to disentangle whether our findings can be explained because men have less emotion granularity i.

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  • The 6 Types of Basic Emotions?

Although research on emotions is abundant, knowledge about emotions in everyday life has been particularly scarce. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools, these findings provide evidence that emotions are ubiquitous in everyday life and can exist both in concert and distinctly, which has important implications for emotional interventions and theory.

MT was supported by the Helaers Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Dec Alessio Avenanti, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Received Apr 20; Accepted Dec 3. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

How Many Human Emotions Are There?

Abstract Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. Introduction Hundreds of papers in psychology, medicine, marketing, management, and many other fields begin by asserting that emotions are ubiquitous to human life. Table 1 Sample characteristics. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Completed questionnaires. Results Frequency of Emotions Emotions in general To take into account the nested structure of our data most participants answered multiple times , estimations of the frequency of emotions were obtained using multi-level modelling with a compound symmetry covariance matrix.

Table 2 Frequency and centrality of everyday emotional experience. Fig 2. Experience of positive and negative emotions by day of the week. Fig 3. Fig 4. Frequency and centrality of emotions in everyday life. Table 3 Emotion frequency by gender. Gender differences In order to explore potential gender differences in the centrality of the different emotions in the network, we analyzed the data separately for men and women see Table 3. Fig 5. MEN: Frequency and centrality of emotions in everyday life. Fig 6. Limitations and future research Although our findings break new grounds in several ways, the present research also suffers from several limitations, which should be addressed in future studies.

Supporting Information S1 Table Co-occurrence of emotions. DOCX Click here for additional data file. References 1. Berkowitz L. On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression: A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. Am Psychol. Frijda NH. The emotions. This type of emotion can be positive, negative, or neutral.

An unpleasant surprise, for example, might involve someone jumping out from behind a tree and scaring you as you walk to your car at night. An example of a pleasant surprise would be arriving home to find that your closest friends have gathered to celebrate your birthday.

Variety is the Spice of Emotional Life

Surprise is another type of emotion that can trigger the fight or flight response. When startled, people may experience a burst of adrenaline that helps prepare the body to either fight or flee. Surprise can have important effects on human behavior. For example, research has shown that people tend to disproportionately notice surprising events. This is why surprising and unusual events in the news tend to stand out in memory more than others. Research has also found that people tend to be more swayed by surprising arguments and learn more from surprising information.

The six basic emotions described by Eckman are just a portion of the many different types of emotions that people are capable of experiencing. Eckman's theory suggests that these core emotions are universal throughout cultures all over the world. However, other theories and new research continue to explore the many different types of emotions and how they are classified. Eckman later added a number of other emotions to his list but suggested that unlike his original six emotions, not all of these could necessarily be encoded through facial expressions.

Some of the emotions he later identified included:. As with many concepts in psychology, not all theorists agree on how to classify emotions or what the basic emotions actually are. While Eckman's theory is one of the best known, other theorists have proposed their own ideas about what emotions make up the core of the human experience.

For example, some researchers have suggested that there are only two or three basic emotions. Others have suggested that emotions exist in something of a hierarchy. Primary emotions such as love, joy, surprise, anger, and sadness can then be further broken down into secondary emotions. Love , for example, consists of secondary emotions such as affection and longing.

These secondary emotions might then be broken down still further into what are known as tertiary emotions. The secondary emotion of affection includes tertiary emotions such as liking, caring, compassion, and tenderness. A more recent study suggests that there are at least 27 distinct emotions, all of which are highly interconnected. After analyzing the responses of more than men to more than 2, video clips, researchers created an interactive map to demonstrate how these emotions are related to one another.

In other words, emotions are not states that occur in isolation. Instead, the study suggests that there are gradients of emotion and that these different feelings are deeply inter-related. By building a better understanding of these states, he hopes that researchers can develop improved treatments for psychiatric conditions. Emotions play a critical role in how we live our lives, from influencing how we engage with others in our day to day lives to affecting the decisions we make.

By understanding some of the different types of emotions, you can gain a deeper understanding of how these emotions are expressed and the impact they have on your behavior. It is important to remember, however, that no emotion is an island. Instead, the many emotions you experience are nuanced and complex, working together to create the rich and varied fabric of your emotional life. Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? Sign up to get these answers, and more, delivered straight to your inbox.

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Gruber J, Moskowitz JT. Happiness and longevity in the United States. Soc Sci Med. Depression gets old fast: do stress and depression accelerate cell aging? Depress Anxiety. Harv Rev Psychiatry. Adolphs R. The biology of fear. Curr Biol. Disgust as a disease-avoidance mechanism. Psychol Bull. Anger and health risk behaviors.

J Med Life. Gottlieb MM. More in Psychology. This type of emotion is sometimes expressed through:. Facial expressions such as smiling Body language such as a relaxed stance An upbeat, pleasant tone of voice. Sadness can be expressed in a number of ways including:. Dampened mood Quietness Lethargy Withdrawal from others Crying. Expressions of this type of emotion can include:. Facial expressions such as widening the eyes and pulling back the chin Attempts to hide or flea from the threat Physiological reactions such as rapid breathing and heartbeat.

Turning away from the object of disgust Physical reactions such as vomiting or retching Facial expressions such as wrinkling the nose and curling the upper lip. Anger is often displayed through:. Facial expressions such as frowning or glaring Body language such as taking a strong stance or turning away from someone Tone of voice such as speaking gruffly or yelling Physiological responses such as sweating or turning red Aggressive behaviors such as hitting, kicking, or throwing objects.

Surprise is often characterized by:. Facial expressions such as raising the brows, widening the eyes, and opening the mouth Physical responses such as jumping back Verbal reactions such as yelling, screaming, or gasping. Other Theories of Emotion. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Email Address Sign Up There was an error. What are your concerns?

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Article Sources. Self-report captures 27 distinct categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. Surprise: A belief or an emotion? Chandrasekhar Pammi and Narayanan Srinivasan Eds. Is sadness only one emotion? Psychological and physiological responses to sadnesss induced by two different situations: "Loss of someone" and "failure to achieve a goal.

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