Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Todavia no hay lecha oficial de lanzamiento en nuestro pals, pe- ro creemos que solo es cuestion de tiempo hasta que Sega Euro- pa entre en la onda. I ail Quake original modernlzadol Hace un par de meses, un mo- desto eatudio do desarrolla lla- mado Titanium Studios con cen- tral en Perth, Australia, reallzo una conversion de Quake Ipara Dreamcast en solo nueve dias.

Lo hicieron simplemenle para pasar- selo bien. Vonga, a desearto con to- das las luorzas n e acuerdo, casi no sabemos nada sobre el argumento, pero nos hemos hecho con algunos datos nuevos sobre este in- mensamente prometedor RPG gracias a un veterano desarrollador para la consola de Sega. Grandia II transcu- rre en la tierra mitica de Surisen, donde una guerra masiva entre las fuerzas del Bien y el Mal ha produci- do una considerable fisura en la su- perficie del planeta que nadie se atreve a cruzar.

Bien, perfecto por el momenta. El juego esta preparado para cum- plir las expectativas de los fans del RPG mas exigentes: exploras una se- rie de emplazamientos bellamente re- creados, te metes en peleas y atravie— sas mazmorras buscando tesoros. Algunos niveles presentan ca- nales navegables con cornpuertas y palancas de forma que puedes dirigir el caudal del agua para descubrir nue- vas areas. Suena muy bien. Aunque se trata de una secuela, los creadores no han presupuesto que eres un adicto al RPG. El sistema de control altamente intuitivo muestra una brojula que aparece cuando tie- nes notlcias de un nuevo lugar que vi- sltar u objeto que encontrar.

To- davia hay mas: mientras descubres nuevos objetos y areas, un icono apa- recera en un extremo de la pantalla explicandote que hacer con elios. Por ejemplo, una flecha signitica que hay un acantilado 0 un arbol al que trepar cerca. Y, por lo que parece, los creadores prometen mon- tones de trampas y acertijos para que la fiesta no decaiga. A ver si nos de- jan meter las narices en ei argumen- to de una vez. Para con- firmar nuestra teoria.

Pero la isla recibe el impacto de un co- meta y la familia debe trasladar- se al continente donde reinan el hambre y bestias peligrosas. El juego empieza con esta si- tuacion y la convierte en una aventura arcade en 3D con cier- tos matices de RPG. Estas son las in- fluencias del RPG. C3 Segiin sus desarrolladores, los estudios Heavy lron, nos vamos a encontrar con varios escenarios escalofriantes por los que pasear— nos. Hasta hay de- talles sonoros, como la voz de Bruce Campbell Ash en la pelicula y, aparentemente, Sam Raimi ha prestado su ayuda en el proceso de creacidn.

Los es- casos supervivientes acuden a Anna, una mujer con poderes especiales, con la espe- ranza de encontrar una cura a la enferme- dad y derrotar a Yagma. Las criptas no son accesibles y ca- da una esconde un atroz secreto.

Nederlands-Spaans, Spaans-Nederlands woordenboek

La IA es bastante buena: monstruos que prime- ro se esconden muertos de miedo, te ata- can al darles la espalda. Los mutantes pueden hacer causa comun o ir por libre, y unirse a Anna para luchar contra otros malos. Pero, gson de fiar los mutantes? Lo sabras en septiembre. Este es el mismo equipo que realizo las conversiones de Quake II para N64 y PlaySta- tion, versiones ambas de una ju- gabilidad fantastica pese al he- cho de que el unico sistema de control disponible era el joypad.

Esta vez, puedes retar a los jugadores de PC con su pro- pio juego via Internet. Mediante una perspective en primera persona, tu objetivo es sobrevivir y asegurarte de que nadie mas lo hace. Sim- ple, pero efectivo. La gama de mapas es mas extensa en la version para DC, ya que mezcla los mejores pla- nos para PC con algunos nuevos especificos para consola que tienen una pinta increible. Visto asi, puede que el juego incluso se lance fuera de los Estados Unidos. Antes de seguir, sera mejor que te pongamos en antecedentes. En la aventura original, un grupo de pilotos formaba el Mando Aliado, cu- ya finalidad era repeler los ataques invasores de la Armada Alienfgena.

Los aliados vencieron. No obstante, y debido a la euforia del momen- to, los terrlcolas no se dieron cuenta de que los amargados extraterres- tres conseguian desplegar un mecanismo Ilamado el Faro de la Arma- da. Aqui es donde entras tu. Ademas de una serie de peligros espaciales Campos de asteroides, nubes de plasma y agu— jeros , y entornos planetarios convincentes.

Muy pronto, la review. Mientras que el juego de Iucha original transcurrla por los guetos de Nueva York, Slash Out te traslada a un reino mitico a lo Dragones y Mazmorras, en el que espadas y rnagia sustituyen a barras de hierro y uzis. La buena noticia es que los desarrolladores del juego origi- nal han sido contratados para supervisar los cambios.

Todo ello para asegurarse de que el complejo sistema de Iucha a base de combos de Spi- 1. Al igual que en Spike Out, la ruta del jugador esta progra- mada de antemano. Asi Io es- peramos. Creemos que, ademas, habra unos cuantos personajes escondidos, entre ellos Wolf y Jeffry de Virtua Fighter. La version para DC contiene un nuevo modo de entrenamiento, un mo- do Versus para cuatro jugadores.

Sega pone color sabemos que a la mayoria de vo- sotros esto no 05 Va a interesar, pero pensamos que es un hecho curioso. Se calcila que esta juego. En Japon ha surgido el rumor de que una secuela para recreativa del legendarlo Space Harrierse lanzara a finales de septiembre. Se espera que la con- tinuacion, titulada Planet Harrier, ofrezca una jugabilided slmllar al claslco original: 0 sea, que puedas matar a enemigos con misiles busca 0 el carton Vuicano, y oom- prar nuevas armas y reiorzadores en la tienda al final de cada nlvel.

Puedes conducir y personalizar una variedad de ve- i Ace a la vista hiculos, desde rapidos todo- terrenos a tanques blindados, que encuentras al explorar edifi- cios. Puedes, asimismo, conver- sar con otra gente, y visitar tien- das de ciudades y pueblos. Eso es todo lo que nuestro corres- ponsal en Japon pudo averiguar. Por eso le despedimos. Pero Takuyo ofrece dos juegos por el precio de uno. Pri- mero, hay una aventura para un jugador en la que visitas varias ciudades y realims misiones.

De paso recoges items para mejorar tu ataque, defensa y energia, pe- ro cada uno tiene un efecto se- cundario sobre otra habilidad. Segundo, hay un modo on-li- ne contra tres jugadores mas. Por el camino, ma- tas a unos cuantos monstruos, y descubres llaves para abrir cofres. Puedes poner trampas para des- hacerte de los contrarios, pero iten cuidado de no caer tL'i mismo en e as! Suena a Bomberman en version RPG. A la venla llwlenrbre TV. Entonces se abren las puertas del infiemo. Meinr no hwlovexplicamos. Y eso no es una exageracldn.

Entonces, en Ietras simples, aparece el titulo del juego en el centro. La pantalla vuelve a oscurecerse y, cuando vuelven las luces, te has unldo a Gordon en su camino al trabajo. Durante los prlmeros quince minu- tos, el juego manlpula tus emo- clones porque slgues la rutlna habitual y todo parece do orosa- mente normal. Te famlllarlzas con tu lugar de trabaio, con tus cama- radas. Los apaclbles lugares de trahalo se cubren con montnnes de carne descuartlzada y sangrlenta. Jamas un mundo se ha derrumbado de manera mas con- vlncente y turbadora. Lo que impreslono a - los iuganores as veroao lue la caroacla atmostera ' de la opcion para un solo lugaoor.

No hemos visto nada —ss. Disponrole U. Conuursto el mundo. Tu nomhre no esta? Team Fortress a un nivel. Promeie sem- brar la muerte a una escaia rnteractrva sin precedentes. Sera con casi total seguridno el primer juego de equipo en sentir correr Ia san- gre do Dros por sus venas y a iugaoores de PC ardiendo al mismo tiempo do ganas de iugar. Los liroteol son Ilivulidos, new major evitarlos. Respecto a los malos y a las armas, Gear Box ha hecho nuevas incorporaciones al minimo nece- sario, aunque sin salir del mundo de Half- Life.

Los cambios principaies son sutiles y visuaies. Ei motivo de que funcionase tan bien en PC era la calidad de la opcion para un solo juga- dor. Y jamas te cansas de este juego. Hasta el final, siempre hay una nueva sorpresa a la vueita de la esquina.

Puedes oir como los aliens se deslizan a tu alrededor, el ruido de la maqui— naria, gritos lejano. Si solo ias pesadillas pudiesen ser tan divertidas. I Octubre Dc-M Insectivorous fishes represent good users of these ecosystems and analyzing the aquatic organisms present in fish stomachs, is an alternative way to determine resource abundance and utilization. We estimated frequency of occurrence and.

Effect of rana galamensis—based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats. Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet.

The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out.

In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied Furthermore, gastrin had a significantly higher efficacy than CCK-8s.

Thus, in spite of their close structural resemblance, there are clear differences between the two endogenous peptides in their action on gallbladder and gastric mucosa. It is concluded The postglacial recolonization of Northern Europe by Rana arvalis as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses. The postglacial history of the moor frog Rana arvalis in Northern Europe was investigated with the aid of eight variable microsatellite loci and a bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A division between eastern and western mitochondrial lineages was discovered, supporting two recolonization routes to Fennoscandia since the last glacial maximum.

This result was corroborated by the microsatellite data, which revealed a contact zone between the two lineages in Northern Sweden. These findings add to the increasing evidence that an intraspecific genetic biodiversity founded on the existence of eastern and western clades is a common element in Fennoscandian fauna and flora. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl.

organized stalking | BLOG DENUNCIA

The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra sixth toes, with phalanges bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

Se utilizaron diez individuos, con longitud total promedio de 2. Oxidative stress induced in PCB exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB in corn oil 0. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.

In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa.

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was originally reported in wild frog populations in Panama and Australia, and from captive frogs in the U. This recently described fungus affects the keratinized epidermis of amphibians and has been implicated as a causative factor in the declines of frog populations. We report here the presence of B. Forty-one percent of of larval R.

Twenty-eight larvae were collected from 10 sites where tadpoles had been observed with missing or abnormally keratinized mouthparts, and 24 of these were examined for infection. Sixty-seven percent 16 of 24 of these tadpoles were infected with B. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was cultured from both tadpoles and recent metamorphs from one of these sites. Life-history traits of R. We recommend that biologists examine tadpoles for oral disc abnormalities as a preliminary indication of chytridiomycosis.

Further, we believe that biologists should take precautions to prevent spreading this and other amphibian diseases from one site to another. Population trends, survival, and sampling methodologies for a population of Rana draytonii. Estimating population trends provides valuable information for resource managers, but monitoring programs face trade-offs between the quality and quantity of information gained and the number of sites surveyed. Our primary goals were to: 1 estimate trends for a focal pond at Point Reyes National Seashore, and 2 evaluate whether egg mass counts could reliably estimate an index of abundance relative to more-intensive capture—mark—recapture methods.

WEBSTER'S SPANISH THESAURUS

Capture—mark—recapture CMR surveys of males indicated a stable population from to , despite low annual apparent survival Egg mass counts from to indicated that despite some large fluctuations, the breeding female population was generally stable or increasing, with annual abundance varying between 26 and individuals. Minor modifications to egg mass counts, such as marking egg masses, can allow estimation of egg mass detection probabilities necessary to convert counts to abundance estimates, even when closure of egg mass abundance cannot be assumed within a breeding season.

Combining egg mass surveys to estimate trends at many sites with CMR methods to evaluate factors affecting adult survival at focal populations is likely a profitable path forward to enhance understanding and conservation of R. Habitat use and home range of the endangered gold-spotted pond frog Rana chosenica. Because of their complex life styles, amphibians and reptiles living in wetlands require both aquatic and terrestrial buffer zones in their protected conservation areas.

Due to steep declines in wild populations, the gold-spotted pond frog Rana chosenica is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. However, lack of data about its movements and use of habitat prevents effective conservation planning. To determine the habitat use and home range of this species, we radio-tracked 44 adult frogs for 37 days between 10 July and 4 Nov. The gold-spotted pond frog was very sedentary; its daily average movement was 9.

Frogs stayed close to breeding ponds within 6. The average distance of dormancy migration of seven frogs from the edge of their breeding ponds was The average size of an individual's home range was The year-round population home range, which accounts for the home ranges of a population of frogs, was determined for two populations to be 8, Our results showed that to conserve this endangered species, appropriately sized wetlands and extended terrestrial buffer areas surrounding the wetlands at least 1.

Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae. Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development.

Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of mg Zn kg-1 through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians.

Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. Effects of wetland vs. Schotthoefer, Anna M. The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs.

To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local 1 km and regional 10 km spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota USA using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs.

Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands.

Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted. Cathelicidins from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana provides novel template for peptide antibiotic design. Full Text Available Cathelicidins, a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of vertebrate innate immunity, provide a first line of defense against microbial invasions.

Although cathelicidins from mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes have been extensively studied, little is known about cathelicidins from amphibians. Here we report the identification and characterization of two cathelicidins cathelicidin-RC1 and cathelicidin-RC2 from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The cDNA sequences and bp, respectively encoding the two peptides were successfully cloned from the constructed lung cDNA library of R. And the deduced mature peptides are composed of 28 and 33 residues, respectively.

Structural analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 mainly assumes an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation, while cathelicidin-RC2 could not form stable amphipathic structure. Antimicrobial and bacterial killing kinetic analysis indicated that the synthetic cathelicidin-RC1 possesses potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial potency, while cathelicidin-RC2 exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Besides, the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-RC1 is salt-independent and highly stable. Scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 kills microorganisms through the disruption of microbial membrane.

Moreover, cathelicidin-RC1 exhibited low cytotoxic activity against mammalian normal or tumor cell lines, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. The potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity combined with the salt-independence, high stability, low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities make cathelicidin-RC1 an ideal template for the development of novel peptide antibiotics.

Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries.

The results in R. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of mg Zn kg -1 through metamorphosis.

Enzymatic regulation of seasonal glycogen cycling in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Liver glycogen is an important energy store in vertebrates, and in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, this carbohydrate also serves as a major source of the cryoprotectant glucose.

We investigated how variation in the levels of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A PKAc , glycogen phosphorylase GP , and glycogen synthase GS relates to seasonal glycogen cycling in a temperate Ohioan and subarctic Alaskan populations of this species. In spring, Ohioan frogs had reduced potential for glycogen synthesis, as evidenced by low GS activity and high PKAc protein levels.

In addition, glycogen levels in spring were the lowest of four seasonal samples, as energy input was likely directed towards metabolism and somatic growth during this period. Near-maximal glycogen levels were reached by mid-summer, and remained unchanged in fall and winter, suggesting that glycogenesis was curtailed during this period. Ohioan frogs had a high potential for glycogenolysis and glycogenesis in winter, as evidenced by large glycogen reserves, high levels of GP and GS proteins, and high GS activity, which likely allows for rapid mobilization of cryoprotectant during freezing and replenishing of glycogen reserves during thawing.

Alaskan frogs also achieved a near-maximal liver glycogen concentration by summer and displayed high glycogenic and glycogenolytic potential in winter, but, unlike Ohioan frogs, started replenishing their energy reserves early in spring. We conclude that variation in levels of both glycogenolytic and glycogenic enzymes likely happens in response to seasonal changes in energetic strategies and demands, with winter survival being a key component to understanding the regulation of glycogen cycling in this species. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis.

Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose—effect relationship. Cadmium is released into the environment in increasing amounts from different natural and anthropogenic activities contaminating the aquatic habitats. Amphibian tadpoles develop in water and hence are likely to be adversely affected by cadmium present in the aquatic environment.

We have studied the toxic and genotoxic effects of CdCl2 on the tadpoles of Rana limnocharis. CdCl2 in the concentration range between 0. The day LC50 which has more ecological relevance was far less than the h LC Tadpoles exposed to CdCl2 metamorphosed at an early age possibly as a survival strategy to move out of the stressful environment. The body weight of the CdCl2 exposed animals at metamorphosis was lower compared to the control individuals which may affect survival and reproductive fitness in adult life.

Besides, the average body length of the metamorphosed individuals in the CdCl2 exposed group was higher than the control group. CdCl2 was found to be genotoxic in micronucleus test and comet assay.

Exposure to The present findings demonstrate that presence of cadmium in the aquatic environment can significantly alter the life history traits and cause DNA damage in amphibians and hence, could contribute towards their population decline. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing, and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana. Snodgrass, J. We collected bullfrog Rana catesbeiana larvae from a coal combustion waste settling basin to investigate the effects of developmental stage and timing of metamorphosis on concentrations of a series of trace elements in bullfrog tissues.

Bullfrogs at four stages of development from no hind limbs to recently metamorphosed juveniles and bullfrogs that metamorphosed in the fall or overwintered in the contaminated basin and metamorphosed in the spring were analyzed for whole-body concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ag, Sr, and Se.

After the effects of dry mass were removed, tissue concentrations of six elements Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb decreased from the late larval stage through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Zn varied only among stages; concentrations decreased gradually through late larval stage and then increased through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Sr varied among stages, but this variation was dependent on the season.

Our results indicate that metamorphosis and season of metamorphosis affects trace element concentrations in bullfrogs and may have important implications for the health of juveniles and the transfer of pollutants from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment. From to , we studied the demography and seasonal movement of Oregon spotted frogs Rana pretiosa translocated into created ponds in Dilman Meadow in central Oregon.

Movement rates revealed complementary use of sites seasonally, with one small spring being preferred during winter that was rarely used during the rest of the year. Growth rates were significantly higher in ponds that were not used for breeding, and larger size resulted in significantly higher survival. When variation in survival by size was accounted for there was little variation among ponds in survival.

Overwintering survival for both genders was relatively high. Our study supports others in suggesting Oregon spotted frogs are specific in their overwintering habitat requirements, and that predator-free springs may be of particular value. We suggest that any future monitoring include measures of the rate of pond succession. Demographic monitoring should include metrics of both frog reproduction and survival: counts of egg masses at all ponds during spring, and capture-recapture study of survival in mid and late summer when capture rates are highest.

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Specifically, adding intensive capture and marking effort after larval transformation in fall would enable a full understanding of the annual life cycle. Complete study of the annual life cycle is needed to isolate the life stages and mechanisms through which Oregon spotted frogs are affected by stressors such as nonnative predators. Dilman Meadow, which lacks many hypothesized stressors, is an important reference for. Full Text Available Aiming to describe the esophage functional morpho — histology of bull frog Rana catebeiana Shaw, , twenty bull frog, mean body weight of The esophageal mucosa architecture is defined by thick longitudinal folds, showing an esophageal ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with mucous cells and pluricellular glands; the esophageal muscular coat is composed by inner circular muscular lamina, and by outer longitudinal muscular lamina.

Full Text Available Gorgoderina tarascae n. Gorgoderina tarascae differs from the other species of the genus by possessing the following combination of characters: follicular vitelline glands, arranged in two clusters of follicles dorsal to the ovary, compact and smooth reproductive organs situated far from each other and from the acetabulum, suckers close to each other, and a slender, spindle shaped body with a flexed position due to the situation of the acetabulum.

Gorgoderina tarascae n. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog Rana sylvatica , bullfrog Rana catesbeiana , and American toad Bufo americanus tadpoles. I described the tactile-stimulated startle response TSR of wood frog Rana sylvatica , bullfrog Rana catesbeiana , and American toad Bufo americanus tadpoles.

One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns.

Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance. Edad y crecimiento del pez Haemulon steindachneri Perciformis: Haemulidae en el suroeste de la isla de Margarita, Venezuela.

Studies on fish age and growth are essential to establish models on population dynamics. We determined age and growth of the grunt. Climate change global warming is predicted to increase these Directionality of auditory nerve fiber responses to pure tone stimuli in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. Spike timing. We studied the directionality of spike timing in the responses of single auditory nerve fibers of the grass frog, Rana temporaria, to tone burst stimulation.

Both the latency of the first spike after stimulus onset and the preferred firing phase during the stimulus were studied. In addition, the Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, in a high-elevation Sierra Nevada basin. Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs Rana muscosa in Dusy Basin m , Kings Canyon National Park, California, were characterized using passive integrated transponder PIT surveys and visual encounter surveys.

We individually PIT-tagged frogs during the summers of and and monitored these individuals during seven Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp Apicomplexa oocysts in Rana dalmatina Anura: Ranidae , and the fate of infection after metamorphosis. In the late s, Rana muscosa mountain yellow-legged frog was common in the Tableland area of Sequoia National Park, California where it was possible to find hundreds of tadpoles and adults around many of the ponds and lakes. Surveys in demonstrated that R.

At that same time, R. To evaluate the potential causes for the extirpation, we repatriated R. We subsequently surveyed each release site and the surrounding area 2 - 3 times per week in , and intermittently in , to monitor the survival of all life history stages, and to detect dispersal of adults and subadults. We also monitored predation, water quality, weather, and water temperature. Our techniques for capturing, holding, transporting, and releasing R. Adult frogs were anaesthetized, weighed, measured, tagged, and held in plastic boxes with wet paper towels.

Tadpoles were collected and held in fiberglass screen cages set in the water at the edge of a pond. This resulted in relatively natural conditions with less crowding and good water circulation. Frogs, tadpoles, and eggs were placed in Ziploc bags for transport to the Tableland by helicopter. Short-term survival of tadpoles, subadults, and adults was high at all four release sites, tadpoles reached metamorphosis, and adult frogs were still present.

However, we detected no evidence of reproduction at three sites e. At the fourth site, there was limited reproduction, but it was. Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Frozen frogs exhibit no vital signs and their organs must endure multiple stresses, particularly long term anoxia and ischemia.

Maintenance of cellular energy supply is critical to viability in the frozen state and in skeletal muscle, AMP deaminase AMPD plays a key role in stabilizing cellular energetics. The present study investigated AMPD control in wood frog muscle. Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature.

AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. ATP and Mg. ADP and inhibited by Mg. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound phosphorylated enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes.

Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products.

To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog Rana dybowskii based on femur bone density.

We measured femur bone density D f as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. Among males, These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Yushkova, E. The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development metamorphosis and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology.

This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage.

At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals.

Total for cytogenetic analysis was used individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA alkaline pH version of the Comet assay was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA neutral pH version of the Comet assay significant differences not was found.

The high variability. Evaluation of the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cultured Rana catesbeiana tailfin tissue. Full Text Available Nanoparticles NPs, materials that have one dimension less than nm, are used in manufacturing, health and food products, and consumer products including cosmetics, clothing and household appliances. Their utility to industry is derived from their high surface-area-to-volume ratios and physico-chemical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts, but the near-certainty that NPs will be released into the environment raises the possibility that they could present health risks to humans and wildlife.

Many of the processes of anuran metamorphosis are analogous to human post-embryonic development and disruption of TH action can have drastic effects. These shared features make the metamorphosis of anurans an excellent model for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals EDCs. We used the cultured tailfin C-fin assay to examine the exposure effects of 0. The actual Ti levels were Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction QPCR was used to measure the relative amounts of mRNA transcripts encoding TH-responsive thyroid hormone receptors thra and thrb and Rana larval keratin type I rlk1, as well as the cellular stress-responsive heat shock protein 30 kDa hsp30, superoxide dismutase sod, and catalase cat.

The levels of the TH-responsive transcripts were largely unaffected by any form of TiO2. Some significant effects on stress-related transcripts were observed upon exposure to micron-sized TiO2, P25 and M while no effect was observed with M exposure. Therefore the risk of adversely affecting amphibian tissue by disrupting TH-signalling or inducing cellular stress is low for these compounds relative to other previously.

Full Text Available As has been highlighted on many occasions, the medieval nobility studies require a knowledge built on more accurate and secure their networks lineages and parents. The careful genealogical research done to offer a fairly accurate picture of its formation and consolidation process, articulated from the heritage nucleated around the fortress of Ferreira. Under this effort are revealed signs of lineage identity and life trajectories of each of the characters who represented him, standing at last the milestones of their parental relationships and the different branches under their offspring led.

In addition, his aerial views can be compared with Impressionism. His works trigger the admiration both from a technical and a human point of view. By the interviews, the public is aware of the humanity of this genius as well as the meaning and the final intention of his work. To answer this question, I develop a series of alternative arguments for how investors would respond changes in PRD support during the campaign. The results show that changes in the levels of support for the candidate did not affect market returns but they did affect market volatility.

Habituation and sensitization of aggression in bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana : testing the dual-process theory of habituation. The aggressive response of male bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation.

Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates. Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments.

Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory. Short-term occupancy and abundance dynamics of the Oregon spotted frog Rana pretiosa across its core range.

The Oregon spotted frog Rana pretiosa occupies only a fraction of its original range and is listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Oregon spotted frogs are declining in abundance and probability of site occupancy. We did not find an association between the probability that Oregon spotted frogs disappear from a site local extinction and any of the variables hypothesized to affect Oregon spotted frog occupancy.

This 4-year study provides baseline data, but the 4-year period was too short to draw firm conclusions. Further study is essential to understand how habitat changes and management practices relate to the status and trends of this species. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta. Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta.

They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

Effect of X-ray irradiation on morphophysiological reactions of epidermal melanophor cells in the larvae of Rana temporaria L. Dynamics of physiological reactions of epidermal melanophors of larvae Rana temporaria L.. Ouring the first day after irradiation no day changes of melanophor index characteristic of intact tadpoles were discovered in whitebackground animals; melanophors preserve the aggregation state.

Comparison of black background irradiated and control larvae didn't show confident differences in changes of their melanophor indices. Irradiation affects differently epidermal melanophors in the state of pigment dispersion and aggregation. It is suggested that pigment dispersion and aggregation in melanophor is realized at the expense of different cellular structures. It is shown that by the end of the experiment st day the amount of epidermal melanophor per surface unit is two times larger in black-ground larvae. General biological signaficance of revealed facts from the point of view of ontogenesis evolution is discussed.

Stomach contents of 87 males, 58 females, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2, prey items were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects The most frequently consumed prey items were Coleoptera There was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. It appears that the species is feeding less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also evident that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on the elevation. Effect of sublethal doses of radiation and cystamine on the dynamics of Rana temporaria L.

Por que lo posterior…. Time Stood Stile es maravillosa, su sonido su melancolia y su parte vocal, que pena que nunca salio en un disco oficial de madonna. Single final de Confessions, ay como me acuerdo cuando lo estrenaron, un dia bien nublado, frio y en octubre, ahi estaba yo, en chinga buscando en la red donde ver el video de Jump. Hanky panky es adorable, gracias por incluirla. Aprende de un buen hater como Cateto y no te metas en noticias de alguien que odias. Nada que ver. BY: Ciccolina.

Hanky panky pues un divertimento que mola siempre en directo! No me parece mal el puesto No odio. Opino y punto q es distinto. No meto con ella ni con los fans. Soy un simple seguidor. No llego a los Super anciano, jajaj. No es eso. Lo normal es lo q digo q es distinto. Hanky Panky.

Nunca entendere por que IM Breathless no cuenta como album, a mi ese album me encanta, es el primer disco que compre de ella y es bueno de prncipio a fin, Something to remember es un temazo y hanky Punky es lo mas divertida que hay y Madonna estreno su nuevo tono de voz mas grave, muy buena cancion que bueno que la recuerdan en este conteo, lastima que nunca se hizo un video para ella. Rescue Me!!! Personalmente la considero entre su top 20, es que esta mujer tiene tantos temazos que es impresionante el legado que ha dejado esta mujer en discografia.

Que vasta es Madonna.. God Save The Queen. Grande Ella. Pero justo cuando este top se iba poniendo interesante van y ponen a Hanky Panky muy arriba y a Secret tan abajo. Solo por no ser rompedor???? Secret en 49? Ella sabe que pronto se lo va a contar y hasta entonces asume con ternura ese amor imposible. Lo divertido siempre parece peor, pero no lo es necesariamente. Secret es temazo forever and always! Secret hizo que el mundo volviera a mirarla y creer en su musica,llego a los primeros lugares del Billboard y le dio paso a su mayor hit en EEUU.

Es su obra maestra. I Deserve It se merece estar en el top. I Deserve It es preciosa. Gone es de lo mejor q ha hecho. Bedtime Stories fue mi segundo cassette que compre de Madonna y ahi lo tengo y Secret mi primer CD single que adquiri en marzo del Ay, que recuerdos! Todas las canciones que has mencionado salvando devil pray me parecen putas obras de arte. El tweet de abajo es broma, soy un mamarracho con todos al principio, soy como los gallegos.

Al principio te miran con mala hostia pero luego te invitan a comer. Buena pregunta. Sobre la de hoy lunes: Me encanta Bad Girl. Es tan decadente y elegante al mismo tiempo. Siempre he opinado que sus mejores canciones son las que no terminaron siendo sencillos: Waiting, Secret Garden, Where Life Begins!!!

Por fin Erotica!!!! Sin lograr quitar el dolor, temazo. Pero tiene sus cosas en contra. Para empezar solo hizo 3 discos de estudio y dos de ellos posiblemente sean los menos celebrados de su carrera. De verdad es tan mala? Y en los 90 lo demuestra. Si en verdad reivindicado no era la palabra correcta en mi comentario. Ahora que reivindicado Erotica mucho, era necesario; estaba demasiado demonizado. Rain, ya quisieran muchos un primer single como este cuarto o quinto. No esperaba verla tan pronto. Rain y Take a bow son sus grandes baladas noventeras pero en las dos hay algo que no me termina de cuajar.

No lo puedo explicar. Aunque no era consciente, puedo llegar a entender que Rain no estuviera incluida en Celebration, pero lo que es imperdonable es que Deeper and Deeper se quedara fuera!!! Luego toma temazos como Bad Girl y Rain y me los deja en posiciones tan modestas que ya me temo que cosas de MDNA o Hard Candy que no han salido hasta ahora vayan a estar por encima de las joyas. Esta lista ha dejado de tener cualquier tipo de credibilidad para nadie. La idea y el sonido del disco son brutales, pero las canciones no son TAN redondas.

Y eso creo que habla justamente muy bien de Madonna. Tampoco te vuelvas loco, es una lista subjetiva como todas las listas y todas las opiniones y gustos, todos tenemos nuestras preferencias, y no siempre coinciden, relax man. Como me toquen Erotica muerdo!!! Rain es una grandiosa cancion, lastima que no la haya vuelto a cantar en vivo, y el video es tan artisticamente hermoso que merece ser llamado obra de arte. I feel you, Sebas. El caso es que siempre vamos a estar en desacuerdo los unos con las otras, unos tenemos temas preferidos, otras… otros. Eso es!!

Pues si, el primer single para mi fue un horror. Love Spent y Gang Bang deberian de haber sido singles si o si. A Burning Up, no la hubiese incluido en la lista. Deseandito estaba que saliera Burning Up. Una de las preferidas para muchos fans. Que segun dice chartmasters. Es verdad, Courtney estuvo por Larry Flint!! Temazo You Must Love Me.

Muy a reivindicar la Madonna de los 90! Courtney era por papel secundario no??? No no. En los Oscars tampoco se acordaron de ella. Ja Ja Ja…. Recuerdo el vestido horrible de la Binoche y ella flipando en colores por ganar el oscar. Lo unico que le reconozco a You must love me y a Evita, es haber entrenado vocalmente a Madonna y asi darnos el maravilloso ROL tiempo despues. Para mi, jamas ha vuelto a cantar como en ese disco. Que por fin pudo interpretar bien?? Vete a la playa anda!!! Recuerdo su interpretacion en los Oscars, en la audiencia estaba, entre otros, Barbra Streisand … los nervios que debe hsber pasado considerando que lo estaba en Sooner or Later, mano temblando.

Para mi es una cancion imposible, muy dificil de cantar, muy emotiva. Como -casi siempre- supo sobrellevarla … eso si, solo ella y ninguna mas. Fiesta para todos!!!!!

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He dicho. Oh Father! El video fue dirigido por un poco conocido aun David Fincher, otra obra maestra … en total colaboro en 4, siendo el ultimo Bad Girl homenaje a Finding mister Goodbar. Dicen por los pasillos que Madonna lo contrataba para enamorarlo pero nunca pudo! La version de la lana del rey de You Must Love Me es….. Oh Father me sigue poniendo los pelos de punta. The Power of Goodbye, tarde o temprano iba a salir. Y el gran Armstrong es otra historia. Mejor no comentar los puestos….

Mi balada favorita de Madonna. Si no? Ella ya habia homenajeado a Joan en la escena de las rejas de Like a Prayer por ejemplo. Que seguidilla de baladas hemos tenido!! Single o tema flojo, demasiado arriba. Igual q American Pie. No me aportan nada. Un single muy entrete, muy ondero con el ambiente de la pelicula.

Amo Beautiful Stranger, que buena es joder!!! Es una puta maravilla!!! Siempre ha sido mi top 10 de Madonna. O colocas tres canciones en cada puesto? Yo creo q hay 10 mejores temas q Beautiful Stranger no? Pues exactamente la misma! Ah, y Maxilmiliano, gracias por el curro de la lista. Beautiful Stranger siempre ha estado en mi top Es que para mi los 80 son los que tienen que estar arriba en el top 10, es la esencia de la mejor Madonna. Pero si Biutiful Estranger fue el hit de comadres! Like a Virgin y American Life siguen sin debutar.

Comprendo que estuviera nerviosa al cantar Take a Bow. Y si encima nos hace recordar 2 temazos como Sexyback y Radar…. Madonna no es actriz de musicales, no tiene carrera en ellos. A ver yo no digo que no fuera a couching vocal evidentemente que fue, lo ha dicho ella misma mil veces… pero que ya sabia cantar antes… no aprendio en evita… en Evita aprendio a llegar al maximo de su rango vocal de Mezzo Soprano para llegar a las notas a las que debia llegar y sobretodo A RESPIRAR…. Por cierto somos casi de la misma quinta. Se lo creer. Todo es copia y pega de muchos grupos y solistas.

Bedtime Stories siempre me parecio un gran disco, mejor que Erotica, aunque se que no mucha gente opina igual. Entre y grababa en cassette todas las canciones que sonaban de ella en la radio! Ah pero que cantar es otra cosa? Take a Bow siempre ha sido de mis canciones y videos favoritos… no solo de Madonna, sino de siempre!! En general no le pillo el punto a la lista. Take a Bow es linda, pega con lo que se hacia en esa epoca y ella le imprimio su personalidad, no se por que tanto repudio, quiza lo que la caga es estar justo despues de algo como Bedtime story en el tracklist de ese disco … y el video, a pesar de odiar la fiesta taurina, nuevamente se lucio como todo lo que hizo en los 90s visualmente y ella mas preciosa no podia estar.

Secret me parece mejor single, y ya ni te cuento Human nature o Bedtime story. Bedtime es mucho Bedtime, calidad y variedad pop a tope. A Erotica no le sobran canciones, le sobran minutos, muchos temas se estiran hasta lo extenuante. Love tried pienso que es quiza la mejor balada de ese disco y Sanctuary grandiosa e injustamente ignorada.

El minutaje sobrepasa cierto. Cuando escucho el disco a Waiting y Did you.. No hace falta compararlo todo con ROL!!!! Y Madonna es quien es porque ella ha ido por un lado y el mundo por otro, por eso la denostaron tanto y le dieron tantos palos…. Provocar no. Son opiniones. Lo mismo q mis grupos favoritos. Ni con maldad lo hago. Voy a buenas. No es lo mismo leer q hablar cara a cara. Es lo q tiene las RRSS. Veo a vosotros ciegos en Madonna, plan conformistas, q todo os encanta de ella. No hay nada q no os guste o guste menos?


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Menos mal q a Erotica le pongo notable q si le pongo menos nota la q me cae. Si algo tiene Madonna es cantidad de buenas baladas y TAW no es la mejor y tiene otras de mejores y no tan edulcoradas, desde Substitute for love o Gone a Live to tell o Crazy for you. Lo digo porque los conozco. Eres muy joven. En fin. Y dale la juventud. Esa voz…me parte el cuerpo. Hermosa mi sirena…. Bueno, yo heche de menos unos buenos remixes bailables como los de Secret para Take A Bow, cuando compre el single en como me si me gustaron los remixes de Indasoul y silky soul mix, peroo….. Hermosa mi sirena de aguas negras gaga!

Siempre a la vanguardia en cuanto a moda y musica se refiere, astronauta, locutora, directora, chalana, chafireta, macuarra y alburera, gaga es todo. Nada, seguimos sin nada de American Life…. Si este es un top de mejores canciones de Madonna pues entonces deberian ser mejores canciones de Madonna.

A ver lo es como lo es Gimme All Your Love… en directo pero no es uno de los mejores 60 temas de Madonna ni de cona. No es para tanto. Si celebration es un de las 60 mejores canciones de madonna yo escribo Witney Como me sale del Toto. Por algo Madonna es una artista tan interesante, porque ha probado de todo, y en ese todo los fans se encantan por cosas distintas respecto a otros fans. Te puedo prometer que los videos no tuvieron nada que ver!

Un abrazo. Lo que creo es que hay que tener un criterio para hacer el top. El resto de tus argumentos son impecables y los suscribo totalmente. Celebration esta en el puesto 12 de las canciones mas reproducidas de Madonna en Youtube y en el puesto 13 de las mas reproducidas en Spotify. Sobre todo si es para defender I Want You. Como dice el texto fina-fina no es. Yo me pongo como moto cuando escucho el remix de Revolver que hizo Guetta. Entiendo totalemente tu punto. Me gusta tu punto de vista, todos no pensamos igual y de hecho es gracioso porque dices que AL Y Erotica son tus discos favoritos de ella y a mi me pasa todo lo contrario son los que menos me gustan pues mis tesoros de Madonna son Ray Of Light y True Blue.

No me importan las posiciones. Ja ja ja. Asi va bien la lista, porque ya hay muuuuchas listas de canciones de Madonna y siempre estan las mismas de siempre: Lakipre, Laikavirgin, Vog y me dejan fuera mis temas noventeros y del 00 favoritos fuera. Nothing Really Matters es una de mis top 5 personales. Nothing really matters es un temazo. Ella lo quiso hacer para convencer y poder estar en Memorias de una Geisha tal como se apunta en el texto.

Jjajajja Live… work… poooooseeee!!! Temazo absoluto. Nothing Really…temazo q no ha podido aguantar intentando escalar, va siendo hora q hay q aceptar en los temas q van a apareciendo a partir de ahora y yo el primero vaya. Que no es un top 60 de muchos hits o temas muy conocidos. Madonna, con sus estilos cambiantes, con su carrera larga y dilatada, es lo q hay. Nothing Really Matters es un quinto single. Con Nothing really matters se comprueba que la mescolanza de generos es posible siempre que escojas a la gente adecuada para hacerlo, resultando una cancion bizarra que resultaba aun mas bizarra con ese pedazo de video que saco, el baile, la estetica, el sutil pero inovador efecto especial en los pasillos … que grande fue la era ROL.

El video fue dirigido por Johan Renck, muy de moda en la epoca el mismo efecto se puede ver en videos del cuarteto All Saints por ejemplo. Love Spent si que es una sorpresa. Para mi el alma de Madonna estaba en W.

Eso si, cuando lo hace como en Love Spent brilla lo suficiente para entrar en este top. Girl Gone Wild? Paciencia con American Life. Love Spent es una de mis favoritas, una maravilla tanto la version del album como la acustica… de esas canciones que no entiendes como no saco de single… es que es para darse cabezazos… ademas de uno de los numeros del MDNA tour que demuestran lo artistaza que es….

Curioso porque hasta pocas semanas antes del lanzamiento, Love Spent formaba parte de los bonus tracks y B-Day Song del tracklist principal. Love Spend tiene una version acustica que lamentablemente qudo fuera, que es magica que tiene unos sonidos preciosos, me encanta, mas que esta version. Para mi los no singles favoritos son Love Spend version acusitica, Love Try to welcome me y Paradise.

MDNA es un disco bastante reivindicable y por cierto a mi Some Girls me parece de las mejores del disco. Pero yo amo Some Girls, con su voz procesada, el tamborazo, llorando en la limusina, dejandoselo duro como acero,los tacones de estrella porno, las tetas falsas, tarjeta o cash nos va a doler y bla bla bla y quien es esa joan newsman.

Ayy Human nature!!! Ya ya.. Human Nature es una declaracion de intenciones, desafiante y divertida… mucho antes de todas estas que ahora se llaman a si mismas Punk Rock y no son mas que mierdas con mas ego que talento. Human Nature es genial, es como un resumen de toda la musica noventera y ha envejecido razonablemente bien. Love Try To Wllcome me es una tremenda cancion, la letra poetica es preciosa, Sactuary y Forbiden Love, en general es lo menos generico que hay, me encanta este disco!

En cuanto a la cancion, pues si, fue algo ignorada pero es de las que mejor ha envejecido de ese disco. Las trenzas de Orlando Pita son otro acierto se lo ve de nuevo en Hollywood, manos que la peinan. El video creo que es el mejor de la era Rebel Heart aunque, hay que decir, que todas las hermanas apareciendo en pantalla y no en el set del video fue un poco cutrecilo.

Entiendo que se reivindique B. Vale, definitivamente no. Ida de olla. Rebel heart house, trap, PC music, tropical mujer independiente, poderosa, de cincuenta y tantos, renaciendo. American Life y Like a Virgin siguen sin debutar. Por el segundo no me preocupo, pero por el primero…. Y es divertida. A mi si me gusta Bicha Madonna aunque cuando la escuche al principio la verdad no le veia ni pies ni cabeza y la confundia con Unapologetic bitch, yo creo que por lo perra, en el video falto una genial, fantastica, iconoclasta y verdulera sirena de guas negras gaga saltando de su lata de sardinas haciendo voguing y postrandose a los pies de su patrona Madonna.

Que salgan las que los estaban petando por esas fechas en youtube como Miley, Katy, Nicky… no tiene nada que ver claro…. Por fin American Life! Gran disco y grandes canciones. Y Nothing Fails de lo mejor que ha hecho. La estaba esperando!! Mi fave de este album es Love profusion! Pues muy inconica presentacion en la MTV y muy chulo video pero es que la cancion es pobre pobre, musical y liricamente.

Parece los retazos de Beautiful stranger y Amazing, como si Mirwais quisiera repetir lo que hizo Orbit en esas canciones. El video es muy sencillo pero ultra efectivo. Sus remixes, en especial el de Stuart Price, son geniales. Hollywood forma parte de la Madonna moderna, de la Madonna de esta era y simplemente me encanta! LP es una maravilla q como Gone, espero q este aki. Coincido totalmente con la redaccion, el final es impecable. Como en el Itunes no exite en mi lista he puesto la publicada.

En cuanto a mi tabla, ya estamos en el ecuador de la lista. Pero esto que es? Una demo? Muy mal. La sola letra de Rebel Heart merece estar en el top. Me gusta Rebel Heart pero no creo que sea la cancion que mejor la defina o cuente su historia, personalmente me gustan ambas versiones y no creo que la version del Album sea tan mala…eso si lo comoda que se la veia en la gira cantandola es realmente destacable… de hecho su actitud toda la gira fue asi como si se hubiera sacado un peso de encima… como si no necesitara reinventar la rueda porque se ha dado cuenta de que la rueda es ella….

Me alegra ver a Jump en la lista, himno generacional. You must love me, una preciosidad. Gracias por el consejo. Me estoy guardando las ganas de opinar desde hace 31 dias, y no he podido mas!!! Que cultura musical teneis en JNP???? Decid que es una lista aleatoria o como os sale a vosotros de ahi mismo!!! A mi la cancion me gusta mucho, pero no le veo tanta diferencia como para montar un concilio vaticano….. Por lo demas, no estoy de acuerdo con la lista en general, estais metiendo muchas canciones que van a dejar fuera a otras por cuestion de espacio infinitamente mejores!

Eso si, gracias por la currada y toda la info. Cierto, fue un desastre. RH se lo merece. La recortada fue un invento a posteriori y una mala jugada de marketing. Igual es que se encargan Lola y Rocco. Iba a sacar dos versiones: Rebel y Heart.. Vale, que ahora meten esto y teniendo grandes demos desde la era Erotica a la era Music … listan el horror de Rebel heart.

Que criterio …. Y espero que Drowned World este muy muy arriba, lo mismo que I want you…. Madonna tiene un gran repertorio de canciones. Personalmente en el top esperaba Love Spent y me doy por servido. Mal masterizado y todo, pero es un lujo escuchar la maqueta de RH cuando vas trotando por la ciudad. Una demo en el ranking oficial??? Music 2. Vogue 3.

Like a Prayer 4. La isla Bonita 6. Express Yourself 7. Hung Up 8. Like a Virgin 9. Eritoca Ray of Light. Nunca voy a entender cual es de las dos la version oficial!! Pues mira, que te puedo de ir yo, de 3 veces que he comentado cuestionando la lista me han borrado dos comentarios…. Rebel Jart fue una era rara comadres, donde el tema que le da nombre al disco no fue single, donde la edicion estandar es MAS cara que la version deluxe y super deluxe, la filtracion, su fregadazao en los brit awards y la falta de singles fisicos.

Ya pasamos el ecuador y empieza lo bueno , el top En poco menos de un mes sabremos como queda la cosa. Genial Get Together, una de mis favoritas de ese gran disco. Lo regulero fue el videoclip, pero hasta tuvo su gracia. Confessions es junto con Ray of Light lo mejor de lo mejor. Son sublimes, atemporales, hipnoticos, con giras espectaculares, con el tracklist perfecto en el orden perfecto.

Get Together fantastica! Do you believe in love at first sight? Pues eso es de talifanes. La libertad de expresion es un derecho. El despertador de Get Together te anima y te mete ritmo desde el segundo cero. La mejor del Confessions sin lugar a dudas. Get Together es un temazo y se ha colocado donde merece. Esta es la primera que entra? Pues espero que si, deberian de salir almenos 3 mas de este gran disco. A mi la videoclip europeo, que se que no es gran cosa, me gusta mucho. Este mash-up iba a ser real en el Rebel Heart Tour?!?!?

Madonna es impresionante, verla en esa presentacion , ver como es capaz de hacer de todo, esta cancion su sonido, como no voy a amar a Madonna! Get together es uno de mis temazos favoritos de Madonna, un rompepistas buenrollista envolvente y sexy! Es hermoso escucharla con auriculares y dejar que el sonido te envuelva, empezar a reconocer sus capas y que deje vibraciones en tu cuerpo. El video es una de las mayores decepciones que ha producido. Baby we can do it we can do it alright! Solo por leer esto…. Ni me encanta ni me desagrada 4M, pero de Hard Candy me quedo con The devil wouldnt recognize you.

Me gusta mucho ver lo natural y contenta que se le ve cada vez que va, sin lo de los dientes y sin guantes! Personalmente es uno de los singles que menos me han gustado de ella, el video si me gusta y live sobretodo. Entiendo que haya sido el primer single del disco cuando ella, al parecer, queria Candy Shop, como disco. Prefiero Beat goes on, vaya temazo! Aguante Miles Away!! Ha envejecido tan bien para mi la sigo quemando a dia de hoy. Candy Shop mola pero estoy un poco bastante hasta la polla de que siempre la cante en tours.. Que tiene mejores canciones. Tienes que meterte con Mariah para defener a Madonna?

Minutes estaba seguro que estaria dentro de los 20, ademas es ultimo gran hit en EEUU, igual es un temazo!! Vais a tener que sacrificar muchos temazos. Creo que la idea me la produjo su lectura de la biblia en el video de Ariana. Es que le tomaron el pelo como a una china, le hicieron una mierda de disco, yo los hubiera denunciado. Hard Candy es un disco lleno de temas disfrutables, no necesariamente 4 minutes o give it to me. Creo que no la tengo cerca de mi cabeza porque no suena a Madonna, y eso es molesto.

Ese es su gran problema, porque en realidad es un buen tema. Que las ventas me la sudan. Tu sigue con tus numeritos, jotita. Judas para mi si fue un hit joder es otro temazo. Todo BTW es discazo. Luego de eso se fue a la mierda. Espero que tengan su lugar….