Salahi was asked about innocuous exchanges from intercepted e-mails and phone calls, as if they had been conducted in code. At other times, the questions originated from material on his hard drive, which the F.
Once, on a technical assignment, Salahi had been photographed near the President of Mauritania; now the lead interrogator accused Salahi of having plotted to kill him. Still, Salahi found his Jordanian interrogators to be highly knowledgeable, and they developed a kind of mutual respect.
It was not every day, the torture—I would say maybe twice a week.
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The guards, who were officially prohibited from interacting with him, began asking questions. Every other week, when Red Cross representatives visited the prison, Salahi and a handful of other C. In Nouakchott, Abdellahi waited for updates from the C. Abdellahi says that, after Salahi disappeared, the family never contacted him. In return, they passed along messages from Salahi, which they had invented, and assured the family that Salahi was well.
In Kandahar, Abu Hafs felt the Americans closing in. The Taliban was rapidly losing ground. By the second week of December, it was clear that Kandahar would fall. Bin Laden had fled to the mountains, and the remaining Al Qaeda leaders understood that, as Arabs and North Africans, they could never blend in with the locals, who spoke Dari, Pashto, Balochi, and other regional languages. During the next several days, Abu Hafs travelled toward the Pakistani province of Balochistan.
He slept in remote villages, and entrusted his life to Afghan sheepherders who were presumably unaware of the twenty-five-million-dollar bounty on his head.
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He wrote a letter to his wife and children, but there was no way to send it, and so he kept it in a pocket in his robes. Abu Hafs, however, regarded the Pakistanis as duplicitous. The C. In deliberations with Al Qaeda leaders, he decided that the safest place was Iran. On December 19th, Abu Hafs boarded a bus in Quetta, carrying a fake passport and a suitcase full of cash. At a Pakistani Army checkpoint, he slipped a wad of bills into his passport, and went through unquestioned.
A few weeks later, Iranian spies told Abu Hafs to call other Al Qaeda officials and inform them that they would be welcome in Iran—although, like him, they would live with their wives and children under a form of house arrest, sometimes in prisons, sometimes in lavish compounds and hotels, always in the company of the Revolutionary Guard.
Within a few months, dozens of Al Qaeda members were living in Tehran, undergoing occasional interrogations, aware that their Iranian hosts could betray them at any moment. The Pentagon had reported that he was dead. On the night of July 19, , the Jordanians transported Mohamedou Salahi, blindfolded and in chains, to the airport in Amman, where a new team took over. Instead, the men stripped him naked, strapped a diaper on him, and swapped out his shackles for a heavier set.
Everyone on the team was dressed entirely in black, their faces obscured by balaclavas. At sunrise, the plane landed at Bagram Airfield, the largest U. For the first time, Salahi was in the custody of uniformed American soldiers. Salahi had been living in a cell practically since the beginning of the invasion, nine months earlier. Military personnel took his biometric information, and logged his health problems—including a damaged sciatic nerve—then led him to a cell. The punishment for talking to another detainee was to be hung by the wrists, feet barely touching the ground.
Salahi saw a mentally ill old man subjected to this method. During interrogations, an intelligence officer, known among the detainees as William the Torturer, forced Salahi into stress positions that exacerbated his sciatic-nerve issues. Another officer tried to build rapport with Salahi by speaking to him in German. The men were dragged out of their cells. Military police officers put blackout goggles over their eyes and mittens on their hands, then hooded them, lined them up, and tied each detainee to the one in front of him and the one behind him.
Then the men were loaded onto an airplane. I had started to lose feeling and it would have made no difference anyway. For some thirty hours, Salahi was strapped to a board. Medical records indicate that he weighed a hundred and nine pounds—around thirty per cent less than his normal weight.
It was such a good feeling. It was January 11, The Bush Administration had decided that the Geneva Conventions did not apply to the war on terror, which meant that the men captured abroad could be deprived of the rights of prisoners of war. The first man off the bus had only one leg. He wore handcuffs, leg shackles, earmuffs, blackout goggles, a surgical mask, and a bright-orange jumpsuit.
As two M. Later that day, Neely and his partner brought an elderly detainee to the holding area and forced him to his knees. When they removed his shackles, the man, who was shaking with fear, suddenly jerked to the left. Neely jumped on top of him, and forced his face into the concrete floor.
He was left for hours in the Caribbean sun. Neely later found out that the elderly detainee had jerked because, when he was forced to his knees, he thought he was about to be shot in the back of the head. Officially, the job of the Internal Reaction Force was to restrain unruly detainees, to prevent them from injuring themselves or the guards. IRF ing typically involved a team of six or more men dressed in riot gear: the first man would pepper-spray the detainee, then charge into the cell and, using a heavy shield and his body weight, tackle the detainee; the rest would jump on top, shackling or binding the detainee until he was no longer moving.
Although many of the detainees arrived malnourished, with their bodies marked by bullet wounds and broken bones, some IRF teams punched them and slammed their heads into the ground until they were bloody and unconscious. In Islam, the Quran is considered the transcribed word of God; some Muslims keep the book wrapped in cloth, never letting it touch unclean surfaces. To dispel notions that the United States was at war with Islam, detainees were allowed to have private meetings with a Muslim military chaplain, and were given copies of the Quran.
One day, after an interrogator kicked a Quran across the floor, detainees organized a mass suicide attempt. The guards would rush in to save him and the chaos would start again. The protest lasted for several days as twenty-three prisoners tried to hang themselves. Military-police officers so frequently abused the Quran during cell searches that detainees demanded that the books be kept in the library, where they would be safe.
Yee, who had converted to Islam in the early nineties, sent a request up the chain of command, but was rebuffed.
During interrogations, detainees were forced to perform mock satanic rituals, or were draped in the Israeli flag. I was thinking, Those were the worst people the world had to offer? Investigators had the same question. Shortly before the first detainees arrived, Robert McFadden, an N. Who are these guys? In Afghanistan, the U. Not wanting to lose their bounties, the captors sprayed the tops of the boxes with machine guns to open ventilation holes. Salahi was no dirt farmer. But the C. But, when the new commander asked Stuart Herrington, a retired colonel and Army intelligence officer, to assess operations at the facility, Herrington found that most interrogators lacked the training and the experience required to be effective.
Only one of the twenty-six interrogators was capable of working without an interpreter. Herrington later reported that the interrogators were unsure of the real names of more than half the detainees. They went through checklists of questions that had been developed by their superiors, and seemed impervious to nuance, or to the notion that some detainees may have been sent there in error. They were no longer brothers-in-law, as Salahi and his wife had divorced.
Notably absent is any mention of the Millennium Plot, or any allegation that Salahi had committed a crime. After Salahi was processed, he spent thirty days in a cold isolation cell, a practice that the U. The gulf between the U. In , Martin Seligman, a twenty-four-year-old Ph. Thirty-five years later, the United States government drew inspiration from this experiment in its approach to interrogating terror suspects. The plan, conceived by James Mitchell, a psychologist working on contract for the C. Since then, the U. Mitchell argued that, by reverse-engineering this program, interrogators could overwhelm whatever resistance training a detainee might have absorbed from the Manchester manual.
What followed was a period of experimentation—overseen by psychologists, lawyers, and medical personnel—at C. He signed it. Now bin al-Shibh, who was being tortured in C. Salahi was horrified. For the rest of the interrogation session, he was forced to look at photos of corpses from the aftermath of the attacks. The F. The cell—better, the box—was cooled down to the point that I was shaking most of the time. I was forbidden from seeing the light of the day; every once in a while they gave me a rec-time at night to keep me from seeing or interacting with any detainees.
I was living literally in terror. Twenty-hour interrogations. No prayers, no information about the direction of Mecca. No showers for weeks. Force-feeding during the daylight hours of Ramadan, when Muslims are supposed to fast. Medical personnel had noted that Salahi had sciatic-nerve issues; now interrogators kept him in stress positions that exacerbated them. No chairs, no lying down, no more access to his prescription pain medication. But Salahi was shackled to the floor, so he could do so only hunched over. He stayed that way for hours. Female interrogators groped him.
They stripped, and rubbed their bodies all over his, and threatened to rape him.
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Oh, Allah, have mercy on me! There is no Allah. He let you down! The interrogators head-butted him, and made degrading remarks about his religion and his family. They kept him in alternately hot and cold cells, blasted him with strobe lights and heavy-metal music, and poured ice water on him. According to interrogation memos, they decorated the walls with photos of genitalia, and set up a baby crib, because he was sensitive about the fact that he had no children. Once they do, he will disappear and never be heard from again. His very existence will become erased.
His electronic files will be deleted from the computer, his paper files will be packed up. No one will know what happened to him, and eventually, no one will care. He did not respond to requests for comment. Zuley read Salahi a letter, later shown to be forged, stating that his mother was in U. On August 13th, Donald Rumsfeld authorized the interrogation plan for Salahi.
They punched Salahi in the face and the ribs, then covered his eyes with blackout goggles, his ears with earmuffs, and his head with a bag. They tightened the chains on his ankles and wrists, then threw him into the back of a truck, drove to the water, and loaded him into a speedboat. He was driven around for three hours, to make him think that he was being transported to a different facility. He was forced to swallow salt water, and, every few minutes, the men packed ice cubes between his clothes and his skin.
When the ice melted, they punched him, then repacked the ice to freeze him again. By the end of the boat ride, Salahi was bleeding from his ankles, mouth, and wrists. Seven or eight of his ribs were broken. Back on land, Salahi was carried to Echo Special, the trailer, which would be his home for several years. For the next month, he was kept in total darkness; his only way of knowing day from night was to look into the toilet and see if there was brightness at the end of the drain. Seems a little creepy. One of the hardest things to do is to tell an untruthful story and maintain it, and that is exactly where I was stuck.
On September 8th, Salahi asked to speak to Zuley. Zuley walked in, and Salahi started lying. Salahi figured that this was how bin al-Shibh had ended up naming him as a high-level Al Qaeda recruiter. Moreover, he is handicapped. James Mitchell, the C. In time, he was given back his pain medication. Then he was prescribed antidepressants.
In mid-November, Salahi voluntarily sat for a polygraph test. In all this time, his family had had no official confirmation of his whereabouts. Mohamed Elmoustapha Ould Badre Eddine, a left-wing member of the Mauritanian Parliament, conducted inquiries of his own, but made no progress. Badre Eddine had spent some four decades organizing grassroots campaigns against the practice of slavery and other human-rights violations, and for this he had spent years in remote detention sites, under a succession of authoritarian regimes.
In , Mauritania had a military coup—the typical way in which power has changed hands since independence. And now he belongs to the Americans. Under the new regime, Abdellahi, the spy chief, was demoted, and given the task of investigating corruption and malfeasance within the security services; the standard path for accountability required Abdellahi to investigate himself. Steve Wood walked into Echo Special in the spring of unaware of everything that had happened before. Outside of the political discussions, he and Salahi passed the hours playing rummy, Risk, and chess.
So, completely different goals in life. It was the first time Wood had encountered the Quran. He wanted to ask Salahi more about its contents, but he suspected that there were microphones and cameras in the cell. He began to worry that awareness among his co-workers of his increasingly complex feelings toward Salahi might elicit accusations that he was unpatriotic, or an insider threat.
When Yee went on leave, he flew to Jacksonville, Florida, where he was interrogated and arrested, then blindfolded, earmuffed, and driven to a Navy brig in South Carolina. For seventy-six days, he lived in solitary confinement, in a cold cell with surveillance cameras and the lights always on. I wanted to like this, but it was pretty uneven. Some stretches were quite interesting, some were deathly dull.
The author seemed to have an undertone of scorn for the military and the idea that "they" were forcing our food choices on us, but she presented so many excellent advances in food storage, preparation, shipping -- I don't see where the problem is. Feb 21, Karl Schaeffer rated it really liked it. I've been interested in this book since I heard and interview with the author back when the book was first published.
I thought this book would fit in with Poulan's writing. The author is a food writer in Boston, a real farm-to-table type, not at all interested in processed food. Her investigations on the books subjects led her to the aermy's food lab in Natick Mass. The folks at the lab were first hesitant to talk to her, figuring she was there to do a hack job on them. However, the book is a b I've been interested in this book since I heard and interview with the author back when the book was first published.
However, the book is a balanced exposure of the subject. Basically, all our processed food is the result of the miitary's quest for shelf stable eaily prepared food for the soldier in the field. Salcedo also provided an enlightening history of feeding the military thru the ages, from Genghis Khan, thru the US Civil War, Napoleon, the world wars, Viet Nam and the latest incursions in the middle east by the US military. The author learns to reconcile the need for processed foods and actually comes to peace with the idea that processed food serve a purpose.
She does note that there are some long term health concerns with some of the packaging materials currently. All in all a very interesting read.
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Jul 31, Donna rated it liked it Shelves: finished This book was fascinating. Scary, too about how much hi-tech processing goes into our modern food supply. Is this tech good or bad? Anastacia lets you decide for yourself. But, even with an advanced degree in nutrition and courses in food science and food safety, I found some parts of this slow going and over the top technical. Perhaps that is because she put so much information into the book that it had to be technical. I recommend reading this, but expect some heavy science. And expect to take This book was fascinating.
And expect to take a long time at the grocery store next time you go. May 11, Timothee rated it really liked it Shelves: available. Amazing insights on the work of the military into our food. I think being international I enjoyed this book even more. It's technical but done very well to still be readable without much biochemical knowledge.
This definitely has an impact as well and I can't see the food around me the same way now, though and I think that's the best thing about the book , I don't feel one way or the other about it necessarily. It makes you think but doesn't take position, which I highly respect.
Feb 17, Julie Manthey rated it liked it. This book will make sure you never look at a granola bar the same way again. Lots of interesting research about something so central to our lives that we often don't think about, at least, not as thoughtfully or scientifically. A big part of this book is about food science and figuring out how to extend food expiration as long as possible, while also finding food that tastes good and travels well. Readers who enjoyed Michael Pollan's books will also probably enjoy this one as well.
Dec 13, Riley rated it it was ok. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. There was a chapter in this book that was a tour of the supermarket briefly discussing the history of certain foods. That chapter is what I had hoped this entire book would be like.
Unfortunately most of it dove deep into food science and engineering which made it a chore to get through. May 12, Kimberly Karalius rated it really liked it Shelves: lovely-facts. Heavy reading, for sure, but I found the food science and military information fascinating. The information at times was disorganized, though, so i was a lot slower reading this than I was expecting. Feb 27, Jordan rated it liked it. In general, well-written, though it can get tedious at times.
Dec 19, Adam rated it it was amazing. Loved it start to finish. Will take a whole new approach to walking through the supermarket. Nov 16, Christine D rated it it was ok. I got bored at times and ended up skimming a lot of this. Very interesting topic but failed on the execution, in my opinion. Feb 16, Gphatty rated it really liked it Shelves: non-fiction.
Well researched, mostly good mix between dry science and lively historical facts. I give her great credit to keeping her view neutral through most of the book. However, she does come down on the side of "scientific progress is great! Still, a very fascinating history of the hundreds of products available in supermarkets that were first developed for potential military use. Mar 11, Maria rated it really liked it Shelves: audio-books , overdrive-navy , history , military , non-fiction , contemporary , eye-catching-title.
Salcedo explores the U. Army Natick Soldier Systems Center, ground zero for the processed food industry. Why I started this book: The title was awesome and I was eager to learn more. Why I finished it: This book was delightfully quirky, the audio jumped thru history, science experiments and the food industry with abandon.
Several times on the audio, I had to rewind to make Salcedo explores the U. Several times on the audio, I had to rewind to make sure that I hadn't missed anything. However there were a lot of side comments that are hysterical if you knew the history that Salcedo was winking at. I was struck by the variety that the military has introduced into the American diet, their efforts to deliver fresh food and their willingness to continually improve; searching for faster, safer and cheaper food. Apr 05, Mark rated it really liked it Shelves: history , cooking.
This is an excellent book. When we consider the "military-industrial complex", we peace freaks are most inclined to assume this idea is regarding the manufacture of weapons, armaments, electronics components, and etc. In fact, she concludes, that if one were to walk into a grocery and take away all the items within t This is an excellent book.
In fact, she concludes, that if one were to walk into a grocery and take away all the items within that the US Army and Department of Defense had some part in creating whether through ingredient sleight of hand, processing, packaging and transportation, you would be left with something less than half of the store. That's just how insidious the grip of military interest is over the modern civilian population in the US.
The food industry has profited immensely both monetarily and developmentally from ideas and projects contracted for and out of the US military chain of command since the late s. Hand in hand, they walk together, the great food giants, and the machinery of organized murder. And de Salcedo makes excellent historical references, names the names of the men responsible for the changes- not all necessarily negative- and different means of production that make the food you take for granted every day on your dinner table so much different than that your grandparents and great-grandparents knew.
An eye opener. Apr 19, Eric rated it really liked it. Those recruits need to meet a certain standard by the time boot camp is over. How do they do it? First, all recruits must meet a minimum standard when going in. Learn more. Now What? Now you learn how to run for Speed and Short distances. But if you want to be able to run fast and be done in under 20 minutes then this book is right up your alley.
Learn More. With these guides you can work the body completely. Learn More… 1 Minute Cardio 2. Five exercises where 1 minute makes a difference. Learn More… Introducing 1 Minute Poses: 1 Minute Poses consists of three quick workouts, each taking only 1 minute to complete. Learn more Secrets of Miltary Fitness: 21 Techniques the military uses that can get you ship shape Time and time again, the military gets new recruits. Learn more 1 Minute Isometrics: 1 Minute Isometrics consists of quick workouts that can help develop strength and possibly rehab some old injuries.