Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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View purchasing options. Find in this title Show Hide Page Numbers. On This Page. Copy to Clipboard. A neo-Gramscian approach to the regulation of urban regimes: Accumulation strategies, hegemonic projects, and governance. Bob Jessop. Looks like you do not have access to this content. Click here for free trial login. View all chapters View fewer chapters. Loading content They try to integrate the strengths of each approach since none of these appear to provide a completely satisfactory explanation. Thus, hybrid models, such as that developed by Isard , consider the concentric effect of central locations CBDs and sub-centers and the radial effect of transport axis, all overlaid to form a land use pattern.

Also, hybrid representations are suitable to explain the evolution of the urban spatial structure as they combine different spatial impacts of transportation on urban land use, let them be concentric or radial, and this at different points in time. Land rent theory was also developed to explain land use as a market where different urban activities are competing for land usage at a location.

It is strongly based in the market principle of spatial competition where actors are bidding to secure and maintain their presence at a specific location. The more desirable a location is, the higher its rent value. Transportation, through accessibility and distance-decay, is a strong explanatory factor on the land rent and its impacts on land use. However, conventional representations of land rent leaning on the concentric paradigm are being challenged by structural modifications of contemporary cities.

Cell states thus symbolize land uses and transition rules express the likelihood of a change from one land use state to another. Because cells are symbolically connected and interrelated e. The cellular approach enables to achieve a high level of spatial detail resolution and realism, as well as to link the simulation directly to visible outcomes on the regional spatial structure.

They are also readily implementable since Geographic Information Systems are designed to work effectively with grid-based spatial representations. In this essence, urban morphology is used as an important assessment tool or method in determining the change transformation processes of urban fabrics, making sense of the historical roots of spatial and functional structures and bringing them to the present day.

Urban morphology can be considered as primarily concerned with the structure of urban form Kropt , 1 , an important part of urban design is the creation of urban form. It is reasonable that the discipline that has as its central purpose in the understanding of urban form should contribute to both the theory and practice of designing that form Whitehand Early humans led a nomadic existence, relying on hunting and gathering for sustenance. Between 8, and 10, years ago, systematic cultivation of plants and the domestication of animals allowed for more permanent settlements.

During the fourth millennium B. Cities serve as centers of government. In particular, the emergence of the great nation-states of Europe between and led to the creation of new capital cities or the investing of existing cities with expanded governmental functions. Urban planning has undergone several changes over the years.

The morphological variety of cities and towns reflects the periods in which they were formed and evolved. Major morphological factors The major morphological factors of cities include natural determinants and human-made determinants. The natural determinants are studied from the geographical location of city. The human-made determinants for the form of a city are influenced by human intervention.

The natural and human-made determinants were considered for the urban morphological study from the traditional way. These determinants have played noteworthy roles in the shape of urban forms for both historical and present settlements. The climate of a region in the world is determined by its latitude, longitude and terrain. There was no doubt that different cities have their climate feature. Climate is a determinant for the form of settlements due to the shelter is the fundamental need of people.

Some houses of a city were built according to the climate. The forming of urban settlements influenced the street network, and then determined the urban underlying pattern. The arrangement of houses for Islamic cities was particular due to its hot-humid climate. The urban forms depend on their local climatic circumstances Fathy, ; Talib, Due to the geographical locations of European cities, USA cities, Islamic cities, and East Asian cities, the urban underlying structures must have differences. Topography of a region has underlying effect for the establishment or expansion of the urban settlements Smith, Morris shows that in history and today, the topography is a main part in the creation of urban dimension.

There are outstanding European examples such as Athens, Rome and Edinburgh and they are affected by their topographical settings. The construction materials also shape different style of architectures. These determinants for the process of natural settlements have the human intervention and people have significant influence in the shape of urban forms. The human-made determinant had great effect for the organic growth and planned town. Cities or towns built for fortification were greatly affected by the human-made factors. Compared to the natural determinants, the human-made determinants are numerous, and they involve economy, politics, religions, defence, the gridiron, aesthetic planning and functional regions.

For the market place of a city, it needs space for selling goods. The marketing areas affect the form of urban settlements. The European towns have their urban space for communal trading activities, but the circumstance is different in Islamic cities Morris, The major markets in some European cities might are gradually consolidated. In different cities, the economic activities influence their underlying pattern.

The political factor are various with countries. The citadels, castles and palaces could be built for the cities as a military power. Due to the different politics, the urban forms have differences. The religion is another determinant factor. The functional regions affect the groups of buildings and street layouts. For the defence factor, most cities or towns have their special patterns.

The moats, walls and defensive system could affect the urban street network and they could make the fortified cities and towns have geometric forms. For example, Naarden and Antwerp have their regular defensive system and these urban patterns are based on their military roles. The European fortification cities and towns developed in different periods were studied together to find their urban forms and regular outlines.

The original gridiron plan was used to divide the planned areas into building blocks by the orthogonal street networks. The gridiron pattern is also different in European and USA cities. The orthogonal streets of urban street network are straight and long for some special USA cities. The gridiron pattern provides a way to study the various urban forms. The aesthetic planning of different countries in different period make the shape of urban settlements diverse.

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The functional regions of a city could determine the layout of urban street networks. Considering the several natural determinants and human-made determinants various urban forms were studied from the traditional perspective. Cities in European countries could have similarity, but they could also have different urban patterns due to their historical development, natural and human-made determinants.

The European cities have various types, for instance, cities developed in Rome and its Empire time, medieval towns, cities developed in Renaissance time and so on. Some Islamic cities and East Asian cities have their own urban patterns. History, culture, geography, humanity or other aspects affect the shape of urban forms.

So does Amsterdam. Amsterdam, looking from north to south. The arrangement of 1. The study of the form of layout of the city or land use in urban human settlements and the urban area areas.

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Describes the urban 2. A set of relationships and transformation. The spatial structure and well as the adjacent urban form and its character of a settlement by physical underlying examining the patterns of infrastructures interactions of its component parts and the people, freight and process of its development information.

Helps to create, develop, and interconnect participation structures for the population, professionals, and media as to improve knowledge regarding content and methods for designing the urban environment. As one moves out, there are factories and industries. Further out, there are houses that were built many years ago are very old showing that people decided to live close to where they worked. This can be likened to the transition zone which has industries and poor quality housing. Beyond this zone, there is the commuter zone where people live in the outskirts and travel to work in the CBD.

This portrays the commuter residential zone of the concentric model. The spatial form of Chicago also depicts the concentric model as developed by Burgess as well as the sector model of Homer Hoyt. Commuter towns are primarily residential; most of the residents commute to jobs in the city. They are sometimes called bedroom communities because residents spend their days away in the cities and only come home to sleep. In general, commuter towns have little commercial or industrial activity of their own, though they may contain some retail centers to serve the daily needs of residents.

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Although most exurbs are commuter towns, most commuter towns are not exurban. Exurbs vary in wealth and education level. In the United States, exurban areas typically have much higher college education levels than closer-in suburbs, though this is not necessarily the case in other countries.

They typically have average incomes much higher than nearby rural counties, reflecting the urban wages of their residents. Although some exurbs are quite wealthy even compared to nearer suburbs or the city itself, others have higher poverty levels than suburbs nearer the city. This may happen especially where commuter towns form because workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living.

Sociologists have posited many explanations for counterurbanization, but one of the most debated is whether suburbanization is driven by white flight. The term white flight was coined in the mid-twentieth century to describe suburbanization and the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries, from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban regions. During the first half of the twentieth century, discriminatory housing policies often prevented blacks from moving to suburbs; banks and federal policy made it difficult for blacks to get the mortgages they needed to buy houses, and communities used restrictive housing covenants to exclude minorities.

White flight during this period contributed to urban decay, a process whereby a city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. Symptoms of urban decay include depopulation, abandoned buildings, high unemployment, crime, and a desolate, inhospitable landscape. More recently, the concept has been extended to newer forms of suburbanization, including migration from urban to rural areas and to exurbs. In a similar vein, some demographers have described the rural rebound, and the newest waves of suburbanization, as a form of ethnic balkanization, in which different ethnic groups not only whites sort themselves into racially homogeneous communities.

These phenomena, however, are not so clearly driven by the restrictive policies, laws, and practices that drove the white flight of the first half of the century. A Suburban Neighborhood : Suburban neighborhoods often feature large, manicured lawns. Cities are dynamic places—they grow, shrink, and change. Sociologists have developed different theories for thinking about how urban populations change. The growth machine theory of urban growth says urban growth is driven by a coalition of interest groups who all benefit from continuous growth and expansion.

First articulated by Molotch in , growth machine theory took the dominant convention of studying urban land use and turned it on its head. The field of urban sociology had been dominated by the idea that cities were basically containers for human action, in which actors competed among themselves for the most strategic parcels of land, and the real estate market reflected the state of that competition.

Growth machine theory reversed the course of urban theory by pointing out that land parcels were not empty fields awaiting human action, but were associated with specific interests—commercial, sentimental, and psychological. In other words, city residents were not simply competing for parcels of land; they were also trying to fulfill their particular interests and achieve specific goals.

In particular, cities are shaped by the real estate interests of people whose properties gain value when cities grow. Whether explained by older theories of natural processes or by growth machine theory, the fact of urban growth is undeniable: throughout the twentieth century, cities have grown rapidly.

The Earliest Cities

In some cases, that growth has been poorly controlled, resulting in a phenomenon known as urban sprawl. Urban sprawl entails the growth of a city into low-density and auto-dependent rural land, high segregation of land use e. As a result, residents must use an automobile. Urban sprawl tends to include low population density: single family homes on large lots instead of apartment buildings, single story or low-rise buildings instead of high-rises, extensive lawns and surface parking lots, and so on.

Critics of urban sprawl argue that it creates an inhospitable urban environment and that it encroaches on rural land, potentially driving up land prices and displacing farmers or other rural residents. Urban sprawl is also associated with negative environmental and public health effects, many of which are related to automobile dependence: increases in personal transportation costs, air pollution and reliance on fossil fuel, increases in traffic accidents, delays in emergency medical services response times, and decreases in land and water quantity and quality. Some have suggested that urban sprawl is driven by consumer preference; people prefer to live in lower density, quieter, more private communities that they perceive as safer and more relaxed than urban neighborhoods.

Harris and Ullman's Multiple Nuclei Model- EXPLAINED!

Such preferences echo a common strain of criticism of urban life, which tends to focus on urban decay. According to these critics, urban decay is caused by the excessive density and crowding of cities, and it drives out residents, creating the conditions for urban sprawl. An alternative theory suggests that density does not cause crime, and crime does not cause people to leave the city; when people leave, city neighborhoods are abandoned and neglected, resulting in crime and decay. Anticipating decay, people likewise fail to maintain their own properties.

Cities have responded to urban decay and urban sprawl by launching urban renewal programs.


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Two specific types of urban renewal programs—New Urbanism and smart growth—attempt to make cities more pleasant and livable. Smart growth programs draw urban growth boundaries to keep urban development dense and compact.

In addition to increasing the density of cities, urban growth boundaries can protect the surrounding farmland and wild areas. Smart growth programs often incorporate transit-oriented development goals to encourage effective public transit systems and make bicyclers and pedestrians more comfortable. New Urbanism is an urban design movement that promotes walkable neighborhoods with a range of housing options and job types. As an approach to urban planning, it encompasses principles such as traditional neighborhood design and transit-oriented development.

A neighborhood designed along New Urbanist principles would have a discernible center such as a square or a green with a transit stop nearby. Most homes would be within a five-minute walk of the center and would provide a variety of housing options, including houses, row houses, and apartments to encourage the mixing of younger and older people, singles and families, and poor and wealthy.

Broken windows : Broken windows in Detroit signal urban decay. Skip to main content. Population and Urbanization. Search for:. Urbanization and the Development of Cities The Earliest Cities Early cities arose in a number of regions, and are thought to have developed for reasons of agricultural productivity and economic scale. Learning Objectives Summarize the various beginnings of cities, from centers of agriculture to areas of protection, and the factors they need to be successful.

Cities reduced transport costs for goods, people, and ideas by bringing them all together in one spot. Preindustrial Cities Preindustrial cities had important political and economic functions and evolved to become well-defined political units. Learning Objectives Examine the growth of preindustrial cities as political units, as well as how trade routes allowed certain cities to expand and grow.

They offered freedom from rural obligations to lord and community.

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In the early modern era, larger capital cities benefited from new trade routes and grew even larger. Key Terms lord : A titled nobleman or aristocrat rural obligations : For people during the medieval era, cities offered a newfound freedom from rural obligations. City residence brought freedom from customary rural obligations to lord and community. Preindustrial cities : While ancient cities may have arisen organically as trading centers, preindustrial cities evolved to become well defined political units.

Industrial Cities During the industrial era, cities grew rapidly and became centers of population growth and production. Learning Objectives Discuss the problems urbanization created for newly formed cities. Key Takeaways Key Points Rapid growth brought urban problems, and industrial-era cities were rife with dangers to health and safety.

Poor sanitation and communicable diseases were among the greatest causes of death among urban working class populations. In the 19th century, better sanitation led to improved health conditions. Key Terms industrial cities : Rapid growth brought urban problems, and industrial-era cities were rife with dangers to health and safety. Quickly expanding industrial cities could be quite deadly, full of contaminated water and air, and communicable diseases. The Structure of Cities Urban structure is the arrangement of land use, explained using different models. Learning Objectives Analyze, using human ecology theory, the similarities and differences between the various urban structure models, such as grid model, sectoral model and concentric ring model, among others.

Key Takeaways Key Points In the grid model of cities, land is divided by streets that run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. This model promotes development. The concentric ring model describes the city as an ecosystem in which residents sort themselves into a series of rings based on class and occupation.

Urban structure can also describe the location of the central business district, industrial parks, or urban open spaces. The sectoral model says the city develops in wedge-shaped sectors instead of rings: certain areas of a city are more attractive for various activities, which flourish and expand outward in a wedge. The multiple nuclei model assumes that car ownership granted people more mobility and led the the development of specialized regional centers within cities.

The irregular pattern model was developed to better explain urban structure in the Third World. It attempts to model the lack of planning or construction found in many rapidly built Third World cities. Key Terms central business district : The central area of a city in which a concentration of certain retail and business activities takes place, especially in older cities with rail transportation.

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Human Ecology : Human ecology described the city as analogous to an ecosystem, with natural processes of adaptation and assimilation. The Process of Urbanization Urbanization is the process of a population shift from rural areas to cities, often motivated by economic factors. Learning Objectives Analyze the proces of urbanization and its effects on economics and the environment in society.

Key Takeaways Key Points Urbanization may be driven by local and global economic and social changes, and is generally a product of modernization and industrialization. Urbanization has economic and environmental effects. Economically, urbanization drives up prices, especially real estate, which can force original residents to move to less-desirable neighborhoods. Recently in developed countries, sociologists have observed suburbanization and counterurbanization, or movement away from cities, which may be driven by transportation infrastructure, or social factors like racism.

Key Terms suburbanization : A term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities; one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl. Urban Patterns The U.