Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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It was billed as the Boston Massacre, and it confirmed in the minds of Americans that the British had lapsed so far from virtue, lapsed so deeply into depravity, that they were now willing to shoot down their fellow British subjects without provocation. The outcry was so great that the 29 th Regiment had to be withdrawn from Boston and a new government, headed by Frederick North, the Earl of Gifford, suspended the Townsend taxes, except for the tax on the imports of tea.

Americans relaxed their vigilance but not their anxieties.


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Committees of correspondence were organized, linking the colonial legislatures and monitoring British activities. A British revenue cutter was burned near Providence, Rhode Island, in June , and American merchants tried to apply economic leverage on Parliament by boycotting English imports. Learn more: The Rejection of Empire. What blew the lid off this uneasy peace was the Tea Act of , which is odd, because the Tea Act not only did not involve new taxes, but it actually offered Americans a luxury item at bargain prices.

It originated halfway around the world, in India, where the last of the great old joint-stock companies, the East India Company, was teetering on the brink of bankruptcy. Hello reader! You could be getting much more from this article by watching its accompanying video lecture on The Great Courses Plus! All taxes except the Townsend tax on colonial imports of tea—all taxes on 17 million pounds of stockpiled Indian tea—would be lifted.

The Boston Tea Party and the Beginning of the American Revolution

That would drive down the price of Indian tea and help the East India Company move its inventory everywhere in the British Empire, including America. Learn more: The Great War for Empire. However, far from being grateful at visions of cheap cups of tea, Americans were only prepared to put the most sinister of constructions on the Tea Act. In Boston, however, Lieutenant Governor Hutchinson, still smarting from the destruction of his home and the Stamp Act riots, flatly ordered the three tea ships in his harbor unloaded over the fearful protests of their captains, who had already been visited by the Sons of Liberty.

The Boston Tea Party and the Beginning of the American Revolution

The captains were right to be fearful. In nearly 10 years of political turmoil, the Americans had protested, insulted, and harassed soldiers and representatives of the crown, but they had never taken direct destructive action until now, at least not in the open. This Boston Tea Party, as it became known, broke that last line of restraint. Retaliation only bred more anger in America. There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans. The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night.

Kaldi reported his findings to the abbot of the local monastery, who made a drink with the berries and found that it kept him alert through the long hours of evening prayer. The abbot shared his discovery with the other monks at the monastery, and knowledge of the energizing berries began to spread.

As word moved east and coffee reached the Arabian peninsula, it began a journey which would bring these beans across the globe. Coffee cultivation and trade began on the Arabian Peninsula. By the 15th century, coffee was being grown in the Yemeni district of Arabia and by the 16th century it was known in Persia, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey.

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Coffee was not only enjoyed in homes, but also in the many public coffee houses — called qahveh khaneh — which began to appear in cities across the Near East. The popularity of the coffee houses was unequaled and people frequented them for all kinds of social activity. Not only did the patrons drink coffee and engage in conversation, but they also listened to music, watched performers, played chess and kept current on the news. European travelers to the Near East brought back stories of an unusual dark black beverage. By the 17th century, coffee had made its way to Europe and was becoming popular across the continent.

He decided to taste the beverage for himself before making a decision, and found the drink so satisfying that he gave it papal approval. Despite such controversy, coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Holland. Those who drank coffee instead of alcohol began the day alert and energized, and not surprisingly, the quality of their work was greatly improved.

We like to think of this a precursor to the modern office coffee service. By the midth century, there were over coffee houses in London, many of which attracted like-minded patrons, including merchants, shippers, brokers and artists.


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  6. Many businesses grew out of these specialized coffee houses. Though coffee houses rapidly began to appear, tea continued to be the favored drink in the New World until , when the colonists revolted against a heavy tax on tea imposed by King George III. The revolt, known as the Boston Tea Party, would forever change the American drinking preference to coffee. As demand for the beverage continued to spread, there was fierce competition to cultivate coffee outside of Arabia.

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    The Dutch finally got seedlings in the latter half of the 17th century. Their first attempts to plant them in India failed, but they were successful with their efforts in Batavia, on the island of Java in what is now Indonesia. The plants thrived and soon the Dutch had a productive and growing trade in coffee.