His work was divided between surveying in the field and tending the drawing, or drafting, room adjacent to Porte Saint-Louis. In Duberger completed a detailed plan of the city of Quebec and its defences to accompany a report from Mann on the state of the fortifications.
Duberger pushed on. It had had to be completed almost in secret in order not to provoke open opposition to its being sent to England. Meanwhile Duberger had been accumulating misfortunes. It was well furnished and even boasted a few luxuries such as a mahogany piano, seven pictures, and silverware.
Duberger also had a small collection of some 20 books on mathematics and surveying. The following year Duberger was granted his promotion.
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The reversal of fortunes was short-lived, however; his health began to fail. Exposure to cold and wet weather while he was out on his surveys over the years had resulted in rheumatism and impaired eyesight, and though he now worked mostly indoors, he was frequently absent. In early he was in Montreal drawing plans for the Lachine Canal, and when he returned to Quebec about April he was gravely ill and transferred most of his work to his son Jean-Baptiste.
Irritated not a little by bad health, Duberger also suffered from injured pride at not having received proper recognition for his work. Although Duberger retired in the bitterness of unrecognition, during his career he had established ties to the British authorities and population that ensured the future of at least some of his children: Jean-Baptiste had followed him into the Royal Engineers as surveyor-draftsman in , and two daughters made excellent marriages with British inhabitants in None the less Duberger appears to have maintained his religious and social connections with the Canadian population.
He was an extremely devoted father and from Saint-Thomas corresponded regularly with his daughters, in French. In he began learning Arabic and several Berber languages and was interested in their philology and the social structures of Berber society. Another interest was in archaeology, especially the Roman ruins of Aures. Algiers, A. Alfred Maury Louis Ferdinand Alfred Maury March 23, — February 11, , was a French scholar and physician, important because his ideas about the interpretation of dreams and the effect of external stimuli on dreams pre-dated those of Sigmund Freud.
He was born at Meaux. Biography A worker's son, he began acting at age 10 and played the roles of children in several plays. So he stopped as a danser, and took a job as an apprentice in a bookshop. There he saw other starting authors like M.
Masson liked reading books, and he started writing too. But he did not like the commercial side of his job. His versatile genius occupied itself in turn with chemistry, poetry, painting and history. In he published, under the pseudonym of L.
Turning to chemistry, he discovered collodion in , but its value was not recognized at the time; and its application later to surgery and photography brought him no advantage. He escaped to London, returning to Paris only in He was notable as the compiler of Biographie Universelle In he participated in the Battle of Valmy and the Battle of Jemappes. Having reached the rank of captain in the nd line regiment, he left the army for health reasons.
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Giguet died in , he founded a at first clandestine printing press, specializing in books about religion and the monarchy. He was imprisoned with his brother and N.
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Giguet for several months in for having printed anti-Bonapartist literature. He obtained his first commission from abbot Jacques Delille, then a refugee in London, who entrusted him with his books to be printed. Universal Biography In he published a biography of many notable individuals at the end of the 18th century and early Early life and education He was born in Paris to a humble family: his father was a skilled artisan who polished swords and metal arms.
Mercier nevertheless received a decent education. Literary career Mercier began his literary career by writing heroic epistles. He early came to the conclusion that Boileau and Racine had ruined the French language and that the true poet wrote in prose. He wrote plays, pamphlets, and novels and published prodigiously. Mercier often recycled passages from one work to another and expanded on essays he had already written. Mercier's keen observations on his surroundings and the journalistic feel of his writing meant that his work remained riveting despite the nature of its composition.
Moses wrote articles under the pseudonym Duallim an anagram of Millaud. His son was the journalist, writer and playwright Albert Millaud. In , he became chief editor of the Revue et Gazette musicale de Paris. Monnais sometimes wrote under the pseudonym of Paul Smith. Modeste Gruau 25 March - 28 January was a lawyer and author. Gruau was a French attorney who, on 22 December , was appointed prosecutor in Mayenne. Naundorff named Graua "Count of La Barre". In , Gruau followed Naundorff into exile in the Netherlands. After Naundorff's death in , Gruau continued to support Naundorff's heirs in their claim.
Gruau as purported teenage author The work The First Book of Napoleon by "Eliakim the Scribe" is tentatively attributed to Gruau, though Gruau would have been about fourteen years old. Life Monnier was born at Florence. His father was French, and his mother a Genevese; he received his early education in Naples, he then studied in Paris and Geneva, and he completed his education at Heidelberg and Berlin. He became professor of comparative literature at Geneva, and eventually vice-rector of the university. He died at Geneva on April 18, Cambridge University Press.
Although the evidence was strongly in favour of Jousserandot, neither party prevailed and both parties were ordered to pay the court costs.
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He died in Paris aged 60 years. Life Son of a Jewish cobbler who had converted to Catholicism, born Yvan Salmon at Attigny, Vosges, he adopted "Victor Noir" as his pen name after his mother's maiden name. He went to Paris and became an apprentice journalist for the newspaper La Marseillaise, owned and operated by Henri Rochefort and edited by Paschal Grousset. Background to shooting In December , a dispute broke out between two Corsican newspapers, the radical La Revanche, inspired from afar by Grousset and the loyalist L'Avenir de la Corse, edited by an agent of the Ministry of Interior named Della Rocca.
The invective of la Revanche concentrated on Napoleon I. On 30 December, l'Avenir published a letter sent to its editor by Prince Pierre Bonaparte, the great-nephew of. Roger Boutet de Monvel 4 December — 25 December  was a French writer of historical studies and magazine articles on fashion and other topics.
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Biography Born in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, Roger Boutet de Monvel was the oldest son of Maurice Boutet de Monvel — , a painter and illustrator of children's books. He then engaged in literary work as a contributor to various periodicals. From to he was assistant librarian at the University of Paris; but he gave up that position to devote himself entirely to literature. He died prematurely of typhoid fever after eating contaminated oysters.
Life de Julleville was born in Paris. After holding various posts as a teacher he became professor of French medieval literature and of the history of the French language in the university of Paris in Published in , English translation It is a notable history of the Revolt of the Camisards. External links Biography-Bibliography, in French. English translation. Maurice Ourry 19 October — 19 February was a French poet, playwright and journalist. Biography After his studies at the College of Juilly, he moved to Paris in His career was launched with his first vaudeville, La Danse interrompue, which obtained an important success.
But the plays that followed, even if numerous, would not equal the success of the first. An editor by the Journal des arts and the Journal de Paris of which he became chief editor, after the cessation of the newspaper, he founded the Nouveau journal de Paris, solely dedicated to the arts and literature.
A member of the Caveau Moderne and the Soupers de Momus, seriously ill, he died from an operation in Works La danse interrompue, vaudev. Life He was born at Calais; he is said to have traced his pedigree on the mother's side to Eustache de St Pierre. His youth was stormy. He twice carried off young ladies of some position, and was in consequence twice imprisoned by lettre de cachet.
The first, a Miss Crawford, the daughter of an English merchant whose office Pigault had entered, died almost immediately after her elopement; the second, Mlle de Salens, he married. He became a soldier in the Queen's Guards, then a very unsuccessful actor, and a teacher of French. At the breaking out of the great war he re-enlisted and fought at Valmy. He wrote more than twenty plays, and a large number of novels, the first of which appeared in In his old age he took to graver work, and executed an abridgement of French history in eight volumes, besides some other work.
Biography From a Parisian cultured "bourgeoise" family upper-middle class , he earned first a doctorate in law, then became in succession a lawyer, notary clerk, soldier a dragoon for two years , but irresistibly attracted by writing, he achieved his first success in with his one-act play Le Parasite, represented at the Odeon Theatre in Paris.
He had a successful career with his comedies about social customs comedies de moeurs.
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He was an associate of the Romantic movement, and one of the original "Bohemians". He is known for his collection Feu et flamme. He played a major role in the French entry into the First World War, when he was the French ambassador to Russia and supported the Russian mobilization against Germany that led to world war. The family's relation to the Palaiologos Byzantine Imperial family is doubtful, though Alexandru's ancestors claimed it at the end of the 17th century.
Life Much of Senancour's childhood was spent in a state of ill-health. To avoid a profession for which he had no vocation, Senancour, with the help of his mother, fled to Switzerland in