The third period ca. In the course of these events, social Islamization and Islamic political and military movements gained further momentum in many Muslim countries, including several post-Soviet states. The fourth period to the present can be regarded as culmination of Islamist social and political influence and activities. It has been shaped to a large extent by the rise and spectacular successes of new jihadist movements in different parts of the Muslim world and beyond, the outcome and impact of which still remains to be assessed.
The comparative study of the diverse and competing political representations of the Prophet will bring out an ongoing process of both secularization and renewed sacralization of the Prophetic image and model, a process which has gone along with an increasingly globalized struggle over this image and its control.
The mentioned sharifianmonarchies base their very legitimacy on the claim to Prophetic descent. A further field of inquiry will focus on the role of the Prophetic model in state and nation building, and in the formation of public institutions and structures. Christiane Gruber University of Michigan. Zeynep could not have been more correct in her assessment: I was left astounded when the staff brought out four large glass bottles into the reading room.
These were no manuscripts, and I had never seen objects like these in my fifteen years of working in Turkish collections.
La France deviendra-t-elle une République islamique ?
However, to my knowledge, the three hilye bottles are not attested to in any other publicly accessible institution in Turkey or elsewhere in the world. Rather, as my paper aims to demonstrate, these rare objects appear to have been used for both talismanic and curative purposes. A close examination of the three hilye bottles lead us to a number of preliminary conclusions. Depending on use and location, such items could be shut closed, opened on demand, or permanently kept ajar. In the latter case, no further interactions were necessary. In other cases, however, a chain and rope suggest more ritualistic uses, including carrying or suspension in festive commemorations of the Prophet or other religious holidays, including the celebration of his celestial ascension.
These newly uncovered hilye bottles raise a number of issues concerned with late Ottoman artistic traditions as these intersect with devotional practices dedicated to the Prophet, especially in a larger Constantinopolitan setting. Perhaps the two most important questions that arise are: first, what were the uses and purposes of creating gold dust, and, second, what are the origins and hence symbolic meanings of these icon bottles? In addition, these bottles—just like other contemporary devotional icons devoted to the Prophet—provided a material mechanism to make and gather gold pigments.
That two bottles included hilyes meant to scrape at the inside walls further strengthens this hypothesis. This prophetic liquid was then preserved in small flasks, imbibed to break the evening fast during Ramadan, and administered as a curative potion throughout the year. Lastly, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries these hilye bottles formed part of a larger production of vessels produced to contain the consecrated water of the Zamzam well in Mecca. Known as Zamzamiyyas , these flasks were made of both transparent glass and imported Chinese porcelain, their necks often fastened shut with a rope or thread in a manner reminiscent of the hilye bottles.
The sacred water contained in these Zamzamiyyas was thought to heal the sick and bring them baraka through the process of imbibing and hence physical absorption. Still acting as the carriers of Meccan blessings to the present day, Zamzam water bottles are sold to pilgrims to the holy city. In sum, it appears that these newly discovered hilye bottles essentially provided a new type of prophetic pharmacon in the Ottoman palace during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in particular.
Such pious engagements involved multiple senses, especially sight, touch, and taste. Like other healing tonics, these new products essentially provided a new kind of prophetic antidote promising cure for illness and a long life. As a focus for personal emulation and normative precedence and as a source of hope for salvation, cultural pride and empowerment, the Prophet of Islam continues his presence among the Muslim believers.
This includes eschatological beliefs about him which connect the beginnings of Islam and for some also the origin oft he whole created world with the present time and the end of days. A metahistorical immediacy is also evoked by the transmitted Prophetical sayings, which speak to the believer and suggest blessing and even victory for those who keep hold the Prophetic Sunna. Building on patterns of piety which emerged already in later medieval times, the Prophetic model has since the early modern period its beginning taken here from c.
It will shift in the second year to the Prophet as a ressource of personal and collective empowerment and of legal and political authority and power 2.
The last year will be devoted to the publications. The programme is designed to clear the ground for interdisciplinary and comparative approaches to the history of Prophetic piety and its different dimensions since the early modern period. Its larger goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the interplay between religion, society and politics in a central field of Islamic culture which has turned over the last decades into an arena of conflict on an increasingly global scale.
Gbahié Koudou Jeannot. Le prophète annonciateur de la crise
Program and abstracts available here. Published on -line:. The Prophet is without a doubt the most emblematic figure of Islam. The simple man turned into a Prophet thanks to his ability to see in the future and to perform miracles. These features are particularly highlighted in the narratives of his expeditions, where he is depicted as a great warrior who could change the course of a battle by himself, and a leader who embodies political authority.
It is worth underlining that during the Abbasid era, from which our most ancient sources are drawn, the new caliphate was seeking legitimacy in order to support its rise to power between the 8th and the 9th century C. Therefore, it has played a decisive part in shaping the figure of the Prophet, defining his features and contributing to the emergence of his worship, regardless of the prohibitions displayed in the Koran. In addition to a ruthless warrior, the Prophet was also a caring man, providing for his religious kin and capable of forgiving.
In this normative literature, stories of the Prophet can be seen as exempla , i. His expeditions  can be classified in four categories: raids or razzias  , ranked battles, sieges and assassinations. In each of them the Prophet plays a key part, choosing the strategy for battles, selecting targets, blessing the warriors before and after combat and fighting side by side with his companions . The traditionalists pay tribute to his heroic deeds at war, quoting his companions and poems that were allegedly composed by early Muslims around him.
Publications de l’Institut français du Proche-Orient
These extracts include features of epic literature, as the Prophet is truly seen as a hero, fighting for the quest that was given to him, that is to say spreading Islam with the use of his sword if necessary. These epic depictions reach a climactic point during duels, where the Prophet displayed a tremendous force against a single foe, usually the champion of the opposite camp.
With a single blow, the Prophet instantly killed Ubayy who fell to the ground. As early as the second half of the 8 th century C. This large collection of weapons and gear has contributed to shaping the image of the Prophet as a warlord and an epic hero. As a warlord and a messenger of God, the Prophet was also capable of performing miracles in the heat of the battle. For example at Badr, the Quraych were in great number against the Believers and decided to charge quickly.
With this simple gesture, the Quraych were blinded and could not keep fighting, forced to retreat. The walls collapsed and the Muslims invaded the fortress, leading them to victory. The Prophet had no power of his own, but rather called upon God who expressed his power and wrath through him. This miracle is the only one that can be found in the Koran as well . Conjuring up the protection of angels was already a common practice before Islam, as Glen W. Bowersock analyzed in a series of inscriptions and ex-voto in Petra .
Although the Koran contains very few information about supernatural events at the time of the Prophet, the traditionalists are well aware of them and have rewritten most of the Judeo-Christian miracle tradition.
However, most of his miracles were performed in times of war. These miracles can be sorted in categories as well. First the Prophet could restore eyesight. The Prophet spat in his eyes, thus restoring his sight. Later during combat, as another companion was hit in the eyeball by an arrow, the Messenger of God took the eyeball out of the orbit, then blew on it before putting it back in. The companion was able to recover his eyesight, and his vision was even improved. In other versions, the Prophet simply touched the injured part of their limbs, resulting in an instant recovery. The Prophet, burdened by his message and mission, was doomed to be persecuted by those who refused the ultimate Revelation.
Since it was inevitable, he prayed to God for them, so they would avoid His wrath on the day of the Apocalypse. Verily, you alone are the Forgiving, the Merciful. University of California, , 23 volumes. Jonathan E. William Montgomery Watt, W. First page of the MS Vollers d Leipzig , see above note Et si oui, comment se manifeste-t-elle? Ahmad b. Fella Audrey dir. Histoire et dictionnaire , Paris, Robert Laffont, Graham William A. Gilliot et T. Honerkamp Kenneth L. Pourjavardi et M. Karamustafa Ahmet T. Mojaddedi Jawid A. Nouvel essai sur le lexique technique des mystiques musulmans , Beyrouth, Dar el-Machreq, Mojaddedi, The Biographical Tradition , p.
It is the appropriation of the Quranic verses according to a living experience which does not have its source in any sort of exegesis. This type of Quranic commentary is paradoxical. It is individual in that it expresses the welling up of an intimate experience, one that is strictly and profoundly individual, but it also belongs to a way of thinking, to a group. In fact, these exegeses of the Quran exist in a mystical tradition that attaches great importance to the transmission of the experiences of the great figures of past spirituality. The notion of the imitation of the ancients seems an evident interpretation: an ever-enriching and developing imitation, pre-supposing a powerful mimetic impulse in the hermeneutic process.
Clearly, this imitation is based on the prophetic model, by which I mean the model of Muhammad himself, as well as that of other Quranic prophets. I am basing this notion on the hypothesis that each prophetic figure in the Quran refers back to the experiences of Muhammad and to his relationships with his contemporaries. For it situated both the perception of the problem of the decline of the Muslim Umma and the suggestion for its solution within an Islamic model of history and not on the basis of the Western experience of modernity with its implications of secularism as progress.
It adopted the lifestyles of its enemies, thinking that power lay therein: in the culture, language, social structures, ideologies, etc. In the process it rejected further its prophetic-centred identity and henceforth came to know itself only in reference to its colonial masters.
This age saw the birth of an identity that was derived from difference, opposition, and estrangement. During this period all Muslims are asleep, in a state of unawareness ghafla to the extent that they are even unaware of their condition and actually think themselves fully conscious.
What is the difference… is it merely rhetorical or is it conceptual? Following the guidelines set by Western contemporary scholars of the time, almost all were eager to limit the role and significance of Muhammad to the historically and rationally demonstrable; they accepted as real only what is scientifically demonstrable Accordingly, the character of religious truth and finally all truth became at best a matter of probability and the goal of certainty became increasingly unattainable.
Such an understanding based as it is in a time that precedes all time supersedes any earthly function of prophecy. The Real al-Haqq facing the Prophet; 2. Mankind khalq facing the Prophet; and 4. The first face in the mirror of al-Haqq reveals all knowledge of the divine attributes, of the wisdom of Divine Grace, and of a cosmology that precedes this world of creation. The third position mirrored by humanity looking at the Prophet shows the trials and disbelief which all of the prophets and true gnostics and lovers of Allah have met on their path and how most people have responded to their messages of love and faith with suspicion, mockery, insults, rejection, hypocrisy, envy, and hatred.
And finally, in the fourth position, in the mirror of the Prophet facing humankind, one finds the model for compassion, love, and tolerance of the frailty of human nature. He had realized the destructive, intolerant nature of such rational discourse. And they are truly astray and perplexed at each hour and moment.
They draw conclusions and then undo them. They build and then destroy what they built. They make grave statements after long search and great efforts. Then they put these statements into doubt. Then they convert their doubts into new statements, and, finally, they doubt their doubts… Such is their condition: always running back and forth between affirmation and negation… And this is the state of the perplexed who are astray. Only if one is grounded in such wisdom, can one truly accept others in their necessary differences.
On the contrary. He is neither referred to as Muslim or eastern, and neither is his counterpart marked by otherness, Western, Christian, Jewish. The term Islam and Muslims very rarely occurs in this three volume work even though the work is about how to be a perfect servant of Allah. You are the one meant by what you read.
The grim realities of colonial politics did not decrease their appreciation of Western sciences and technology. Many scholars have, in the meantime, pointed out the connection between the spreading of the vernacular in the printed media and the rhetoric of nationalism and social revolution.
- Evenement 12222.
- Imaging of Orthopaedic Fixation Devices and Prostheses?
- Der Chevalier de Maison-Rouge (German Edition).
- Recipe for Desire;
The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of national states in the lands of Islam were, to say the least, greatly helped by these inventions. The true threat to the reformist agenda came from within: from false Islam, dead Islam, in one word, traditional Islam.
Cardijn, Joseph [WorldCat Identities]
The mujaddid as reformer is guided in his mission by utilitarian principles of achieving the greater good for the umma : power and glory for a deified Islam. Albertini , T. Religion becomes a definable entity whose parameters and interests are separable and perhaps even contrary to the welfare of the Muslim people.
The modern discourse of reform deepens this gap. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers. Thank you.