Physical Ill-Health, Age and Depression. Back Matter Pages The main aims of EMRC are to exchange information on the research policies pursued by its member organizations and to initiate and stimulate international cooperation in biomedical research. Since biomedical research is highly international in itself, EMRC concentrates its activities on furthering international collaboration in those fields where it can play a significant role as a complement to existing channels.
Depressive Illness | SpringerLink
Mental illness research has been judged by EMRC to fulfill these criteria. After a survey of the activities of the member organizations in mental illness research, EMRC decided in to set up a study group to look for areas within this field to which EMRC could contribute. The present volume contains the proceedings of the fourth workshop, held in and dealing with the course and outcome of depressive illness.
EMRC hopes that this volume will stimulate intensified research and research cooperation on mental illnesses. Editors and affiliations. Daly 2 1. In his book Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Haeckel actively participated in this as he propagated a selective Darwinism which became known as Social Darwinism. Different floras of the earth were represented there. Additionally, however, German plant species, and especially those growing in Saxony and Thuringia were shown. Drude, the head of the Dresden Botanical Garden explained it thus:.
To respectably represent the native flora is the task of the botanical gardens; for botanical studies are rooted unshakenly in native flora [ Graebner had presented the first scholarly study about the heath in North Germany with fairly differentiated results about heath formations. In a comprehensive list of some species and varieties he compiled plants which typically may be found in a heath and assembled them into heath groups and heath types [ ].
Nevertheless he pursued a patriotic goal. It was my highly respected teacher [ It may be as old as concepts of nations and of native and foreign people. He knew already that:. Those flowers that have been usually planted in former times in Gardens of this Kingdom [ Lange was influenced by Haeckel and also by Darwin. However, from a social perspective it was reactionary. It promoted dubious ideas about the assumed relationship between the German people and nature. Lange instrumentalized the emerging field of ecology and the idea of natural plant associations for his naturalistic trend in garden design.
In the Danish Eugenius Warming published the book Plantesamfund, grund traek afden oekologiske plantegeografi . Cowles read German also. Nowadays Cowles is known as the first professional American ecologist. The Study of Plant Communities . Braun-Blanquet popularized the doctrine of plant sociology and defined its subject as follows:. Every natural aggregation of plants is the product of definite conditions, present and past, and can exist only when these conditions are given.
The whole structure of plant sociology rests upon this idea of sociological determination [ VIII]. The invention of a plant community and even a plant association. As if this were not enough an additional category of determination is introduced. Thus alluding that determination helps against invasion. As we shall see later, American landscape architects such as Jens Jensen also saw analogies between associations of plants and human society.
For example Jensen believed that plants would communicate and associate like humans. In he wrote to his German colleague Camillo Schneider:. Plants, like ourselves, group together and have their likes and dislikes . Moreover, the garden had to be subordinated to the surrounding landscape.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Lange considered the centuries-old art of topiary as evidence of human hegemony over nature — cutting trees, shrubs, and hedges was a form of anthropocentric dominance over nature, and an expression of the unnatural attitudes of other cultures. Consequently Lange saw garden art as a constituent of national culture. Let us find the national style for our gardens, then we will have art, German garden art.
As long as different nations exist, there must exist different national styles [ ; our translation]. For him the superiority of the German people was part of their national identity. For Lange, the German people were rooted in the soil, and every German required and deserved an appropriate natural-spatial environment:.
Our feelings for our homeland should be rooted in the character of domestic landscapes; therefore it is German nature that must provide all ideas for the design of gardens. They can be heightened by artistic means, but we must not give up the German physiognomy. Thus, our gardens become German if the ideas for the design are German, especially if they are borrowed from the landscape in which the garden is situated [ ; our translation]. The American landscape architect Frank A.
Such a garden should help to strengthen a nationally-oriented culture against modern and international tendencies in the arts.
Only our knowledge of the laws of the blood, and the spiritually inherited property, and our knowledge of the conditions of the home soil and its plant world plant sociology enable and oblige us to design blood-and-soil-rooted gardens [ 43; our translation]. These professionals regarded Impatiens parviflora a stranger, which dared to spread and even compete with Impatiens noli tangere, a similar but larger species which was considered native. Presumably, the stranger endangered the purity of the German landscape, and in their final sentence the botanists extended their claim dramatically:.
This notion encompasses a remarkable mixture of sound biology, invalid ideas, false extensions, ethical implications, and political usages both intended and unanticipated [ 11] [ Numerous publications give evidence of this biased viewpoint. An essential part of this realm of moral qualities is the idea of the nation. This idea developed in the Western world in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries at the same time as disciplines such as plant geography, plant ecology, and plant sociology were being established.
However, this interest faded in the early part of the 20th century. In England, for instance, William Robinson and others searched for the truly English garden. Waugh tried to pull away from the garden design of the Old World and wanted to establish a genuinely American garden style clearly distinguished from the European. Only in Germany, however, this interest became part of a radical nationalistic movement which emerged in early 20th century. Then nationalism, hate and dislike of anything foreign and un-German, which had been common in fractions of the society in Germany ever since, turned into a powerful public movement.
It helped to promote the myth of plant-invaded gardens and landscapes. New ways of aesthetic expression as well as new forms of social life were being explored. Many people attempted to escape what were perceived as out-dated late 19th century customs. The new approach was associated with, for instance, Cubism, Expressionism and Functionalism which to some extent found their way into garden design [Wolschke-Bulmahn , ]. Willy Lange represented such an approach in landscape architecture. In a statement shortly before World War I Lange claimed that scientific progress would influence garden design:.
Today we have a natural science that is based on the history of development. It teaches us, as far as the interrelations between creatures with their homeland and their fellow creatures are concerned, to understand the laws of life. Biology penetrates all previous knowledge, which was only superficial. Biology, applied to art, establishes a new, a biological aesthetic [ 29; our translation].
They felt they should prefer native plants in their early 20th century American garden and landscape designs. Some even believed in the exclusive use of native plants. Here we will discuss Miller and Jensen only. For him:. The prairie style of landscape gardening is an American mode of design based upon the practical needs of the middle-western people and characterized by preservation of typical western scenery, by restoration of local color, and by repetition of the horizontal line of land or sky which is the strongest feature of prairie scenery [ 5].
For Miller:. With his proposal for a regional garden style for the Midwest, Miller reacted against the garden design which had become popular among wealthy garden owners in the North Eastern Atlantic Seaboard in the United States and which he feared would become the prevailing style. This was along the lines of the subordination of the garden to the surrounding landscape, a landscape which would be able to defend itself against plant-invaders. Jensen believed that ideas about nation, race, and the natural environment are closely interwoven.
Perhaps it may be too restricted to design a landscape picture only by the means of simple indigenous plants. But please consider that it was them amongst whom we grew up, that they taught us a particular language, without interruption since the earliest days of our tribe, that they are interwoven with the soul of our race and, indeed, no art of landscape gardening will be called true art and will be able to reflect the soul of a tribal people, if it does not take its means of expression from the environment of these people [ 68; our translation].
Nothing can take its place. It is given to us when we are born, and with it we live. Art must come from within, and the only source from which the art of landscaping can come is our native landscape. It cannot be imported from foreign shores and be our own [Jensen 63].
No plant is more refined than that which belongs. There is no comparison between native plants and those imported from foreign shores which are, and shall always remain so, novelties [ ]. But where Seifert still allowed a few less native plants in a garden, Jensen took a more uncompromising position:. Seifert seems to distinguish between the garden inside an enclosure and the landscape — here he submits to compromise [ To be true to yourself, I mean true to your native landscape is a very fundamental issue — it is to be, or not to be.
In the garden you give assent to one idea and outside its boundary to another. Strange things, grotesque things, usually attractive to the novice will creep in and the purity of thoughts in garden making suffers. Freaks are freaks and often bastards — who wants a bastard in the garden, the out of door shrine of your home? Where else would one enjoy what beautiful things we happen to have received from foreign countries? The garden is a fine barometer by which to judge the intellect of a people. If the garden which is a true expression of the life of a people will not consist of horticultural specimens, rather of a simple arrangement of plants in a harmonious whole — that is art.
The other is science or decoration. It takes a higher intellect to create a garden out of a few plants than of many [ ]. Now plant-invaded gardens and landscapes are signs for the lower intellect, i. The landscape is always a form, an expression and a characteristic of the people [Volk] living within it.
It can be gentle countenance of its spirit and soul, just as it can be the grimace of its soullessness [Ungeist] and of human and spiritual depravity. In any case, it is the infallible, distinctive mark of what a people feels, thinks, creates, and acts. It shows, with inexorable severity, whether a people is constructive and a part of the divine creative power or whether destructive forces must be ascribed to it [ 13; our translation]. The gardens that I created myself shall [ They shall express the spirit of America and therefore shall be free of foreign character as far as possible [ The Germanic character of our race, of our cities and settlements was overgrown by foreign character.
Latin spirit has spoiled a lot and still spoils things every day [ ; our translation]. In any way Jensen brought forth another category for the myth of plant-invaded gardens and landscapes as he suggested to differentiate between Latin and Germanic race characters. This may lead to speculate if plants of supposed Germanic origin are entitled to invasion whereas plants of Latin origin are not. Two examples might illustrate this. Rhododendrons in the gas chambers!
Kristallnacht against Kudzu! William R. Several times in the past few years I have been brought up short by the suggestion that ecological restoration is a form of nativism — the ecological version of the sort of racist policies espoused by the Nazis or the Ku Klux Klan. Like the Nazis and the Klan, restorationists espouse the exclusion and removal of immigrants, and even a program to ensure genetic purity of stock in order to protect the integrity of the native, the true-born, the Blut und Boden.
Hence restoration offers a disturbing resemblance in the ecological sphere to policies of nativism, racism, and sexism in the social sphere — so the argument goes [ ]. The history of garden culture provides ample evidence for the multitude of connections between people, politics, design, and plants.
Such calls transmit reactionary ideas about nature, the design of gardens, parks, and other open spaces as well as about society. Rather a scholarly discussion about plants, trees, shrubs, their value and their significance for design should develop, and for that a look into history may be helpful.
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There is no need to glorify historical events. Professional development could profit from critical analyses of the works and the ideas of predecessors in biology, botany, garden and landscape design. Certainly there is no need for plant-invasion related mythology.
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He wrote in If this kind of garden-owning barbarian became the rule, then neither a gillyflower nor a rosemary, neither a peach-tree nor a myrtle sampling nor a tea-rose would ever have crossed the Alps. Gardens connect people, time and latitudes. If these barbarians ruled, the great historic process of acclimatization would never have begun and today we would horticulturally still subsist on acorns [ It is not the only democracy which such clumsy advocates threaten to dehumanize [ ; our translation].
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They grew in certain locations and became extinct and grew again somewhat modified in new locations. Of the many hundred thousands of years the last have seen a human interest to learn about the distribution of plants. Closer observation within the last half century revealed that even plants are not as static as some would have it. Borchardt, R.
Braun-Blanquet, J. Cassidy, V. Cowles, H. Darwin, C. Diboll, N. The Home Gardening Magazine 2. Drude, O. Echtermeyer, T.
Engler, A. Juni Fintelmann, G. Gothein, M. Gould, S. Wolschke-Bulmahn ed. Natural Garden Design in the Twentieth Century.