The Chongzhen Emperor of the Ming dynasty , acting on the advice of his ministers, banned the book as a means of preventing revolts. The novel, praised as an early "masterpiece" of vernacular fiction ,  is renowned for the "mastery and control" of its mood and tone. These seduction cases are the hardest of all. There are five conditions that have to be met before you can succeed. First, you have to be as handsome as Pan An. Second, you need a tool as big as a donkey's. Third, you must be as rich as Deng Tong.
Fourth, you must be as forbearing as a needle plying through cotton wool. Fifth, you've got to spend time. It can be done only if you meet these five requirements. First, while I'm far from a Pan An, I still can get by. Second, I've had a big cock since childhood. The opening episode in the novel is the release of the Spirits , imprisoned under an ancient stele-bearing tortoise.
The next chapter describes the rise of Gao Qiu , one of the primary antagonists of the story. Gao abuses his status as a Grand Marshal by oppressing Wang Jin; Wang's father taught Gao a painful lesson when the latter was still a street-roaming ruffian. Wang Jin flees from the capital with his mother and by chance he meets Shi Jin , who becomes his apprentice.
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Lin Chong is framed by Gao Qiu for attempting to assassinate him, and almost dies in a fire at a supply depot set by Gao's henchmen. He slays his foes and abandons the depot, eventually making his way to Liangshan Marsh, where he becomes an outlaw. Meanwhile, the "Original Seven", led by Chao Gai , rob a convoy of birthday gifts for the Imperial Tutor Cai Jing , another primary antagonist in the novel. They flee to Liangshan Marsh after defeating a group of soldiers sent by the authorities to arrest them, and settle there as outlaws with Chao Gai as their chief. As the story progresses, more people come to join the outlaw band, including military personnel and civil officials who grew tired of serving the corrupt government, as well as men with special skills and talents.
Stories of the outlaws are told in separate sections in the following chapters. Connections between characters are vague, but the individual stories are eventually pieced together by chapter 60 when Song Jiang succeeds Chao Gai as the leader of the band after the latter is killed in a battle against the Zeng Family Fortress. The plot further develops by illustrating the conflicts between the outlaws and the Song government after the Grand Assembly of the outlaws.
Song Jiang strongly advocates making peace with the government and seeking redress for the outlaws. After defeating the imperial army in a great battle at Liangshan Marsh, the outlaws eventually receive amnesty from Emperor Huizong. The emperor recruits them to form a military contingent and sends them on campaigns against invaders from the Liao dynasty and rebel forces led by Tian Hu , Wang Qing and Fang La within the Song dynasty's domain.
Although the former outlaws eventually emerge victorious against the rebels and Liao invaders, the campaigns also led to the tragic dissolution of the heroes. At least two-thirds of them died in battle while the surviving ones either return to the imperial capital to receive honours from the emperor and continue serving the Song government, or leave and spend the rest of their lives as commoners elsewhere. The following outline of chapters is based on a chapters edition.
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Yang Dingjian's chapters edition includes other campaigns of the outlaws on behalf of Song dynasty, while Jin Shengtan 's 70 chapters edition omits the chapters on the outlaws' acceptance of amnesty and subsequent campaigns. The extended version includes the Liangshan heroes' expeditions against the rebel leaders Tian Hu and Wang Qing prior to the campaign against Fang La. Other stories tells such as the heroes fighting the Jurchen -ruled Jin dynasty or moving to Siam.
Since Chinese fiction was not at first a prestigious genre in the Chinese literary world, authorship of early novels was not carefully attributed and may be unknowable. The authorship of Water Margin is still uncertain, and in any case derived from many sources and involved many editorial hands. While the novel was traditionally attributed to Shi Nai'an , of whose life nothing is reliably known, recent scholars think that the novel, or portions of it, may have been written or revised by Luo Guanzhong the author of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
Many scholars believe that the first 70 chapters were indeed written by Shi Nai'an; however the authorship of the final 30 chapters is often questioned, with some speculating that it was instead written by Luo Guanzhong, who may have been a student of Shi. Shi appropriated oral and written texts accumulated over time.
This theory suggests that Shi Nai'an gathered and compiled these pieces of information to write Water Margin. Some believe that Water Margin was written entirely by Luo Guanzhong. He also felt that Shi wrote a simplified version of Water Margin , which is not the current edition. During the Qing dynasty , Shi Hui and Shi Nai'an were linked, suggesting that they are actually the same person.
The textual history of the novel is extraordinarily complex for it includes oral folklore, storytellers' tales, and printed versions of different parts and variations.
Not until the s were there studies which began to set these questions in order, and there is still disagreement. The earliest extant complete printed edition of Water Margin is a chapter book dating from the lateth century in Yet other editions were published since this era to the early Qing dynasty , including a chapter edition by Jin Shengtan.
The various editions of Water Margin can roughly be classified into two groups - simplified and traditional. The simplified editions include stories on the outlaws being granted amnesty, followed by their campaigns against the Liao dynasty , Tian Hu , Wang Qing and Fang La , all the way until Song Jiang 's death. The Complex editions are more descriptive and circulated more widely than their simplified counterparts. The three main versions of the Complex editions are a chapters, a chapters and a chapters edition. The most commonly modified parts of the Complex edition are the stories on what happened after the outlaws are granted amnesty.
Water Margin has been translated into many languages.
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In , publisher Kagaya Kichibei commissioned Utagawa Kuniyoshi to produce a series of woodblock prints illustrating the heroes in Water Margin. The — series, called Heroes of the Water Margin or Tsuzoku Suikoden goketsu hyakuhachinin no hitori , catapulted Kuniyoshi to fame. It also brought about a craze for multicoloured pictorial tattoos that covered the entire body from the neck to the mid-thigh.
Following the great commercial success of the Kuniyoshi series, other ukiyo-e artists were commissioned to produce prints of the Water Margin heroes, which began to be shown as Japanese heroes rather than the original Chinese personages. Among these later series was Yoshitoshi 's — series of 50 designs in Chuban size, which are darker than Kuniyoshi's and feature strange ghosts and monsters. Pearl S. Buck was one of the first English translators of the chapter version.
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Titled All Men are Brothers and published in , the book was well received by the American public. However, it was also heavily criticised for its errors and inaccuracies; an often cited example from this edition is Buck's mistranslation of Lu Zhishen 's nickname "Flowery Monk" as "Priest Hua". Jackson, edited by Fang Lo-Tien. Of the later translations, Chinese-naturalised scholar Sidney Shapiro 's Outlaws of the Marsh is considered to be one of the best.
However, as it was published during the Cultural Revolution , this edition received little attention then. Jacques Dars translated the book into French and its 1st edition was published in The novel is based on the story of Wu Song avenging his brother in Water Margin , but the focus is on Ximen Qing 's sexual relations with other women, including Pan Jinlian.
In Water Margin , Ximen Qing is killed by Wu Song for murdering the latter's brother, while in Jin Ping Mei he dies a horrible death due to an accidental overdose of aphrodisiac pills. The story is set after the end of the original Water Margin , with Li Jun as the protagonist.
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It tells of how the surviving Liangshan heroes are forced to become outlaws again due to corruption in the government. When the armies of the Jurchen -ruled Jin dynasty invade the Song dynasty, the heroes rise up to defend their nation from the invaders. The heroes eventually decide to leave China for good and sail to distant lands. Yu disagreed that the Liangshan outlaws are loyal and righteous heroes, and was determined to portray them as ruthless mass murderers and destroyers, hence he wrote Dang Kou Zhi. He stated that the latter were former students of the general's martial arts tutor, Zhou Tong.
Hsia commented that the connection was a fictional one created by the author. Zhou tutors Wu in the "rolling dragon" style of swordplay during his one-month stay in the capital city. It also said that Zhou is a sworn brother of Lu Zhishen and shares the same nickname with the executioner-turned-outlaw Cai Fu.
Song Jiang and Li Kui make several appearances in the protagonist's dreams. In both works of fiction, characters bearing the same stars of the Water Margin characters as personal emblems of destiny are featured prominently. Between and , the Italian artist Magnus published four acts of his work I Briganti , which places the Water Margin story in a setting that mixes Chinese, Western and science fiction in Flash Gordon style elements.
Before his death in , the four completed "acts" were published in a volume by Granata Press; two following "acts" were planned but never completed. In , Asiapac Books published a graphic narrative version of portions of the novel. Animations adapted from Water Margin include: Giant Robo: The Animation , an anime series based on Mitsuteru Yokoyama 's manga series; Outlaw Star , another cartoon series which makes several references to the novel; Hero: , a flash animated series produced by various companies and shown on Cartoon Network.
The Hong Kong television series Shades of Truth , produced by TVB , features three characters from the novel who are reincarnated into present-day Hong Kong as a triad boss and two police officers respectively. Some enemy sprites are taken from other beat 'em ups and modified, including Knights of the Round , Golden Axe and Streets of Rage. Yan Poxi , a Pingju form of the story focused on the concubine Yan Poxi , was performed by Bai Yushuang and her company in Shanghai in the s.
Painted Nails is now slated to premiere on public television in the spring of and has been acquired by libraries and universities around the United States for their permanent collections. Jordan's second feature documentary Bound to Freedom now in post production will premiere in film festivals in summer He has been in the industry for 20 years on more than 30 major motion pictures, and quickly grew into a position as a Visual Effects Director of Photography.
He began his personal dramatic filmmaking career with the motion picture Retaliation which played at prestigious film festivals.
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Andrew Feltenstein and John Nau have been working their musical magic for almost two decades. The release date is June 30th Above and beyond the Film and T. They also started a collaboration with their contemporaries producing music and forming the band Crown and the M.