Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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How 'Namaste' Entered The English Time Traveler for karma The first known use of karma was in See more words from the same year. More Definitions for karma. English Language Learners Definition of karma.

Karma - Wikipedia

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Take the quiz True or False? Take the quiz Syn City Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Play the game. The Sammyutta Nikaya makes a basic distinction between past karma P.


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Karma in the early canon is also threefold: Mental action S. Various Buddhist philosophical schools developed within Buddhism, giving various interpretations regarding more refined points of karma. A major problem is the relation between the doctrine of no-self, and the "storage" of the traces of one's deeds, [43] for which various solutions have been offered. The concept of karma originated in the Vedic religion , where it was related to the performance of rituals [82] or the investment in good deeds [83] to ensure the entrance to heaven after death, [82] [83] while other persons go to the underworld.

The concept of karma may have been of minor importance in early Buddhism. The doctrine of karma may have been especially important for common people, for whom it was more important to cope with life's immediate demands, such as the problems of pain, injustice, and death. The doctrine of karma met these exigencies, and in time it became an important soteriological aim in its own right.

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Sarvastivadins argued that there exists a dharma of "possession" prapti , which functions with all karmic acts, so that each act or thought, though immediately passing away, creates the "possession" of that act in the continuum of instants we experience as a person. This possession itself is momentary, but continually reproduces a similar possession in the succeeding instant, even though the original act lies in the past.

Through such continual regeneration, the act is "possessed" until the actualization of the result. Good and bad deeds performed are thus said to leave "seeds" or traces of disposition that will come to fruition. The Petavatthu , which is fully canonical, endorses the transfer of merit even more widely, including the possibility of sharing merit with all petas. The rebirths of bodhisattvas after the seventh stage S.

If the act lasted till the time of ripening, the act would be eternal. If the act were terminated, how could the terminated produce a fruit? In Tibetan Buddhism, the teachings on karma belong to the preliminary teachings, that turn the mind towards the Buddhist dharma. In the Vajrayana tradition, negative past karma may be "purified" through such practices as meditation on Vajrasattva because they both are the mind's psychological phenomenon.

Otherwise, loving others, receives love; whereas; people with closed hearts may be prevented from happiness. The story of the koan is about an ancient Zen teacher whose answer to a question presents a wrong view about karma by saying that the person who has a foundation in cultivating the great practice "does not fall into cause and effect.

He is then able to appear as a human and ask the same question to Zen teacher Baizhang, who answers, "He is not in the dark about cause and effect. The Zen perspective avoids the duality of asserting that an enlightened person is either subject to or free from the law of karma and that the key is not being ignorant about karma. Nichiren Buddhism teaches that transformation and change through faith and practice changes adverse karma—negative causes made in the past that result in negative results in the present and future—to positive causes for benefits in the future.

Buddhist modernists often prefer to equate karma with social conditioning, in contradistinction with, as one scholar puts it, "early texts [which] give us little reason to interpret 'conditioning' as the infusion into the psyche of external social norms, or of awakening as simply transcending all psychological conditioning and social roles.

Karmic conditioning drifts semantically toward 'cultural conditioning' under the influence of western discourses that elevate the individual over the social, cultural, and institutional. The traditional import of the karmic conditioning process, however, is primarily ethical and soteriological—actions condition circumstances in this and future lives. Some western commentators and Buddhists have taken exception to aspects of karma theory, and have proposed revisions of various kinds.

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These proposals fall under the rubric of Buddhist modernism. The "primary critique" of the Buddhist doctrine of karma is that some feel "karma may be socially and politically disempowering in its cultural effect, that without intending to do this, karma may in fact support social passivity or acquiescence in the face of oppression of various kinds.

Wright, a scholar specializing in Zen Buddhism, has proposed that the doctrine be reformulated for modern people, "separated from elements of supernatural thinking," so that karma is asserted to condition only personal qualities and dispositions rather than rebirth and external occurrences. Loy argues that the idea of accumulating merit too easily becomes "spiritual materialism," a view echoed by other Buddhist modernists, [note 19] and further that karma has been used to rationalize racism, caste, economic oppression, birth handicaps and everything else.

Loy goes on to argue that the view that suffering such as that undergone by Holocaust victims could be attributed in part to the karmic ripenings of those victims is "fundamentalism, which blames the victims and rationalizes their horrific fate," and that this is "something no longer to be tolerated quietly. It is time for modern Buddhists and modern Buddhism to outgrow it" by revising or discarding the teachings on karma. Other scholars have argued, however, that the teachings on karma do not encourage judgment and blame, given that the victims were not the same people who committed the acts, but rather were just part of the same mindstream -continuum with the past actors, [] and that the teachings on karma instead provide "a thoroughly satisfying explanation for suffering and loss" in which believers take comfort.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Action driven by intention which leads to future consequences.

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For the use of this term in other Indian religions, see Karma. Dharma Concepts. Buddhist texts. Buddhism by country. See also: Right view and Parable of the Poisoned Arrow. See also: Anatta and moral responsibility.


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See also: Development of Karma in Buddhism. Main article: Pre-sectarian Buddhism. Main article: Transfer of merit. Main article: Karma in Tibetan Buddhism. This section uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them.

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Karma in Buddhism

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