Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Lines Plan of Different Ship Types - ppt video online download

It is, for all positive numbers less than 1. Same formula as above. However, on a really dark night, we will see the "loom" of light, the brightening of the horizon by the light of the distant lighthouse, a bit before we see the light itself. Back to section 8 on Eratosthenes, Columbus, etc. The questions below can be used in the lesson or in reviewing it later.

On the day when in Syene in southern Egypt, he observed the noontime Sun was directly overhead "at zenith" , as evidenced by its reflection in a deep well. The Sun in Alexandria, some miles to the north, was not overhead, as shown by the fact that a vertical column cast a shadow at noon. If Alexandria is exactly north of Syene, the two are on the same line of longitude. Let us complete that line into a circle around the Earth. A number of other estimates exist for the size of the Earth, including those by Posidonius and by Arab scientists under Caliph El-Mamun, who ruled in Baghdad around the year The Roman writer Strabo suggested India could be reached by sailing westward.

Because from what they knew about the size of the Earth, they felt the distance was too great. Columbus responded with a different, smaller estimate of the size of the Earth one which we know was wrong. Subtracting from that the known distant from Spain to India going eastward , what remained, the distance from Spain westward to India, was not too large.

Naval History and Heritage Command

But it is still the standard meter, now redefined in units of wavelengths of light, which provide an accurate standard not related to any material object. Why, in fact, do all planets and the Moon appear round? The reason is gravity.


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If the Earth were made of water, a spherical shape would be stable. In , an officer from Constitution boarded a suspicious schooner , an American merchant ship H. Upon examining her below decks, the officer found that Gambrill had been refitted to carry a large number of slaves. Before the mids, naval officers received no formal schooling.

They learned sea skills on missions at sea.


  • Presentation on theme: "Lines Plan of Different Ship Types"— Presentation transcript:!
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In , the U. Naval Academy was established. Over the course of the next decade, the Navy retired its sailing vessels and re-placed them with steamships. Thus, in , Constitution became a School Ship where midshipmen could learn the ropes. In , Constitution embarked on the National Cruise to thank Americans for contributing to her restoration. Flotillas of large and small boats followed her in and out of harbors, bands played, and parades, dinners, and dances were held in her honor.

The beak head was the location of the holes where the crew relieved themselves -- in other words, the latrine. The navy word head, which comes from this old term, is still used by seamen today. The Sailors were to be the older and stronger men who would do the hoisting of the sails, getting the tacks aboard, hauling the bowlines, and steering the ship when needed.

The Younkers were the young men sometimes called "the foremast men" who took in the topsails, or top and yard, or furled the sails, or slung the yards, bousing and trussing. They might also take their turns at the helm. Ships boys were between the ages of ten and fourteen. They signed on as the youngest crew members aboard ships.

Your duties on board the ship were important to help you learn these jobs, and to boatswain made sure you learned your duties well. One of your duties might be to keep track of time on board the ship.

Physical Science

This sounds simple but can be kind of hard. The men on one watch would run the ship while the men on the other watch rested.

Every four hours the two watches changed, and the me who had been working had a chance to rest. First Watch. Second Watch. Midnight to 4 AM. Day or Morning Watch. Forenoon Watch.

Afternoon Watch. Noon to 4 PM. Look Out Watch. Last Dog Watch. This was done by using a thirty minute sand glass. For example, if your watch started at noon, you would ring the bell five times at , seven times at and so on. Every watch ended with eight bells. Mistakes would be punished by the boatswain. Measuring Nautical Speed. If someone drives a car down the interstate, and it takes that person exactly one minute to travel one mile, then how fast is he or she driving?

How about if that person takes two minutes to travel one mile? If you know how long it takes you to cover a given distance, you can figure out how fast you are going. Late 16 th and early 17 th century sailors measured speed with the chip log. They threw a piece of wood called a chip into the water, and the ship sailed away from it.

They weighted the chip with lead and attached a line to it. The chip floated vertically and stayed in one spot as the ship sailed away. If four knots passed in thirty seconds, then the ship travelled four knots. A knot equaled one nautical mile per hour. A nautical mile equals 5, feet. Today it equals 6, ft.

Presentation on theme: "Lines Plan of Different Ship Types"— Presentation transcript:

The ratio of distance to time is the same. If the ship sails 42 feet in 30 seconds, it should travel 5, feet in 1 hour, so it travels 1 nautical mile per hour or 1 knot. If the ship sails feet in 30 seconds, then it should travel about 20, feet in one hour. This is 4 nautical miles an hour or 4 knots.