Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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He was a rather neurotic man, who preferred the company of dogs to the company of people. Schopenhauer considered himself to be a seeker after Truth, however painful that may be. The book is not so much a philosophy, as a guide to every-day life. In his introduction, Schopenhauer explains what the book is about and his fundamental pessimism when it comes to the possibility of happiness. The central aim of the book is to assist the reader in ordering his or her life in such a way that he or she can obtain the greatest possible amount of pleasure.

Such an existence might perhaps be defined as one which, looked at from a purely objective point of view, or rather, after cool and mature reflection—for the question necessarily involves subjective considerations—would be decidedly preferable to non-existence; implying that we should cling to it for its own sake, and not merely from the fear of death; and further, that we should never like it to come to an end.

Now whether human life corresponds, or could possibly correspond, to this conception of existence, is a question to which, as is well known, my philosophical system returns a negative answer Accordingly, in elaborating the scheme of a happy existence, I have had to make a complete surrender of the higher metaphysical and ethical standpoint to which my own theories lead; and everything I shall say here will to some extent rest upon a compromise , p.

In Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit, Schopenhauer holds three ingredients to be responsible for the destiny of a person. According to Schopenhauer , p. Good health leads to a cheerful character. Therefore, subjective blessings—a noble nature, a capable head, a joyful temperament, bright spirits, a well-constituted, perfectly sound physique, in a word, mens sana in corpore sano, are the first and most important elements in happiness; so that we should be more intent on promoting and preserving such qualities than on possession of external wealth and external honour. Schopenhauer explains that superior mental ability helps to prevent tedium and keeps people from pursuing passions that lead to problems.

We have to take our character into account and should only do things that suit it. Property is far less significant. One man can be satisfied with small wage, whereas another man will feel poor with twice the amount. We need enough wealth to live, but more is not necessary. It is preferable to look after our health and try to grow intellectually. Wealth can free us from working, but for many people this is not a blessing as most people would be terribly bored. Our position is least important of all. Vanity makes people vulnerable and lack of respect and fame can make one very unhappy.

Early youth is the time when we learn about the world around us and we are relatively alone. This is a happy time, because children are naturally close to nature, which changes when they grow up. Later youth and adolescence are unhappy because we are constantly looking for happiness that cannot be found in human life. We are disappointed and unhappy. In the last period of our life, life is dominated by fear of misfortune.

We have come to understand that there is no true happiness to be found in our lives and we will be satisfied with a painless existence. Our energy diminishes, but our experience and insight grow. We can finally see our lives in perspective. Since our libido, which causes trouble, dies away; we can become truly reasonable.

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In his description of the phases of life, Schopenhauer comforts us with a vision of a relatively pleasant old age when we have finally learned to accept the true nature of life. A life without the illusions and passions of youth is preferable to the constant striving for pleasure that hardly exists at all. He starts with a set of general rules, followed by rules about the relationship with oneself. The third set of rules and greatest in number deals with behaviour towards other people. It is of no use to walk the hedonistic treadmill, because even if you fulfil your wishes, you will still feel an empty longing.

Therefore, it is better not to try too hard. Try to be happy with little and do not pursue happiness, but try to find freedom from pain. A painless state is the closest we can get to happiness. Schopenhauer also proposes a measure for happiness to fit his views:. These philosophies hold that we should limit our expectations of life. The Stoa also strongly propagates an unemotional attitude towards life.

We must never let ourselves be ruled by our emotions. The emphasis on freedom from pain is plainly Buddhist. In Buddhism, life automatically means suffering. It is our task to find a way to handle this suffering, for instance by asceticism. For example, he tells us that limitation contributes to happiness.

The less the Will is excited, the less we suffer. Concentrate on living in the present. Try to make the present time as painless as possible and enjoy it. Use the one thing you can control, your mind, to guide you. Especially noteworthy is his idea that happiness can only be found in solitude. The adaptation needed to be around with other people robs you of being yourself; and the company of other people offers no compensation for this loss. Related to pessimism is also his advice to accept your misfortunes, and only to think about them if you are partly responsible for them.

Try not to worry about all the things that can go wrong. It is no use building castles in the air. Schopenhauer advises us to look back on our lives from time to time, because we can learn from it; to fight envy for it contributes to unhappiness; to find a proper proportion between thoughts about the past, the present and the future; to think before acting, but not to waste any time afterwards by rethinking the path we have chosen; to consider what we have instead of what we lack; to concentrate on mental intellectual work; to keep busy; to avoid being led by phantoms of our imagination; to use reason to control our thoughts; and to take good care of our health.

Schopenhauer thinks being together with other people is in most cases a terrible ordeal. His view of people in general is very bleak. People are dumb, selfish, out to harm you and can therefore never be trusted. Being around with others is dangerous, so one has to be careful und cunning to avoid being hurt. People are essentially only interested in themselves. Therefore, they are both easily offended and flattered. Being friendly and kind to other people will make them arrogant and intolerable. Never let yourself become dependent on someone.

Always behave with a little disregard. Exhibiting intelligence and discernment makes you very unpopular because it confronts other people with their intellectual inferiority. Schopenhauer based his advice on his philosophy and personal experience in 19th century Germany. How well does it fit the situation of the average citizen today? We can check by comparing his recommendations with the empirical research findings on conditions for happiness in modern society.

For instance, if Schopenhauer is right that one can better keep away from people, empirical studies would show loners to be happier than people who socialize. Below we consider the reality value of his recommendations one by one. For each we check whether there is corresponding empirical research and to what extent the available findings fit the advice.

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We draw on a large body of empirical research on happiness. The abundance is such that we cannot separately cite all the studies we used. Schopenhauer writes that a lot of money does not make one very happy. Everybody needs a basic income to be able to survive, but after that, wealth is very relative. This view is corroborated in the findings of contemporary empirical research.

Satisfaction with income is more strongly related to happiness than actual income. Schopenhauer is right when he states that satisfaction with income is more a matter of interpretation than of objective circumstances. Schopenhauer sees social status as fundamentally unimportant, but acknowledges that it is difficult to accept that people do not respect you. This view is not wholly supported by contemporary research findings.

He was said to have been quite happy after the success of Parerga und Paralipomena , because he was finally as popular as he thought he should be. He died, relatively satisfied, at the ripe age of Other circumstances are less important. Our lives are destined by luck and the characteristics with which we are born. Schopenhauer therefore advises us to seek happiness in ourselves.

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Many empirical investigations on happiness consider its relationship to personality. Diener et al. Happiness is partly dependent on inheritance and has trait-like properties Diener et al. Extraversion enhances well being, because of the greater sensitivity to rewards and by seeking more pleasant social interactions.

Optimism stimulates happiness by generalized positive expectancies of the future and the related thought that outcomes in the future are under personal control. Neuroticism lowers well being by its focus on the negative aspects of the world Diener et al. This is almost the exact opposite of what Schopenhauer proposes to his readers.

A defender of Schopenhauerian pessimism can ask what the relevance is of the differences of opinion about personality. As stated, personality is largely inheritable, and in a happiness enhancing self-help book it is not as important to be right about the happy personality traits, as it is to give solid advice on changing the interaction with the environment. It can even be said that Schopenhauer offers solace to people without happiness-enhancing personality traits. He warns that negative affect has nothing to do with personal inferiority, but is a logical consequence of the state of the world.

This stimulates acceptance and may serve as an antidote to negative rumination. However, the position of Schopenhauer on personality is problematic in a self-help book, because personality also influences the interaction with the social environment. Schopenhauer tells his readers not to try to solve problems in the interaction with others, but to avoid them altogether and to use emotion-focused coping for the remaining negative affect.

Passive, careful, thoughtful, peaceful, controlled, reliable, even-tempered, calm. Quiet, pessimistic, unsociable, sober, rigid, moody, anxious, reserved. Sociable, outgoing, talkative, responsive, easygoing, lively, carefree, leader like. Active, optimistic, impulsive, changeable, excitable, aggressive, restless, touchy. Adapted from Headey and Wearing The phlegmatic type rates low on well being and low on psychological distress.

These people lead a rather monochrome life. The sanguine type rates high on well being and low on psychological distress. They lead a rather happy and social life, without worrying too much. The choleric type has both high levels of well being but also of psychological distress. The melancholic type rates low on well being and high on psychological distress. According to Headey and Wearing, people experience a personal dynamic equilibrium in patterns of life events. History will repeat itself.

Headey and Wearing , pp. Since social interaction is one of the more important satisfiers, one of the possibilities is to learn the social skills that extrovert and stable people have naturally. It is also important to find some kind of meaning or purpose in life. In general it might help to explore fully the activities one likes to do best.

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Headey and Wearing tell their readers to enthusiastically seek interaction with the environment, and not to limit themselves to emotion-focused coping. A weakness in their argument is that they base their advice for the people low on well being on the behaviours that work well for the people with other personality traits, whereas Schopenhauer strongly emphasizes that personality is given. Can the advice to change the interaction with the environment be counterproductive, as it requires from people that they change something that is outside their control, their personalities?

We were unable to find intervention studies that enable us to answer this question directly, but a secondary analysis of the Australian Panel Study allowed us to test if the benefits of intimate social ties had equally strong positive effects for different personality types see below. This advice is unfortunate for two reasons. The first is that absence of distress is not sufficient to warrant happiness.

We have described above that phlegmatic people are low on distress and low on well being. Also, choleric people are high on distress, but high on well being as well. It can be concluded that happiness is a more positive state than the mere absence of pain.

The second reason is that emotion-focused coping keeps people from actively pursuing the goals in life they find important. Schopenhauer tells them not to try too much, because in the end nothing lasts. Research, however, shows that having goals can add structure and meaning to daily life and that progress towards goals can produce high well being Diener et al. Reaching a certain goal makes people feel more in control of their lives and increases feelings of self-worth Baumeister, , pp.

Happy people are usually active, outgoing, concerned in the world and involved in the lives of other people Veenhoven, We mentioned above that optimism is correlated with higher well being, and it is worthwhile to go deeper into this subject, because Schopenhauer believed that superficial optimism would render people vulnerable to depression. He advised people not to be too optimistic, because the worst is yet to come. Research however shows that optimism is also a positive trait in challenging circumstances.

It helps people to see the negative in perspective: by seeing the future as enjoyable, you are more likely to see negative events as temporary. Optimism gives people the strength to deal with the negative, because it helps people to focus on aspects of a given situation that are within their personal control, so they can make the best of adversities. Optimism correlates positively with well being Scheier et al. Pessimism however is not always bad.

Norem explains that defensive pessimism the cognitive strategy where individuals set low expectations for an upcoming performance, despite having done well in the past helps people high on anxiety to prepare for challenges. People using this strategy usually perform well. They realize what a bad performance can mean for them and this inspires them to put effort into the preparation. By expecting the worst they curb anxiety about failures. In these circumstances the low expectations are not self-fulfilling. Unrealistic optimism can lead to risk behaviour and quitting when things turn out to be more difficult than expected.

People need enough optimism to start something new and enough pessimism to see that the road ahead might be difficult. His message is that no matter how terrible our ordeal is, we must try and make the best of it. We should never give up, and should never let our misfortune get to us. He also makes it easier to accept misfortunes by helping people to acknowledge that they are only partly to blame for them.

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After all, we must realize that we do not live in the best of all possible worlds. Try to face the negative aspects of life bravely, and concentrate on what you have instead of what you lack: this is also a form of advice that is almost optimistic. The same is true for his idea that we should not hesitate to spend time or money to avoid misfortunes. Not all people are awful and we can even find some friends and a partner of our liking.

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Our well being is greatly served by it. According to Schopenhauer people and friendship should not be trusted and especially the talented should prefer loneliness. The empirical findings indicate that this is not correct. This idea is not supported by contemporary data. It seems that women are more able to form social networks that buffer the loneliness of being single.

Below we will see that marriage is especially profitable for neurotics. Schopenhauer warns his readers about the dangers of conformism. You can better be yourself and not pay too much attention to the opinions of others. The existing findings on this subject are mixed. There is a positive correlation between happiness and being courteous, cooperative, tactful, conscientiousness, trustworthy and with seeking social approval, which seems to indicate that compliance with a group raises happiness. The advice of Schopenhauer may have been too extreme in his emphasis on self-determination, but his emphasis on internal motivation instead of giving in to societal pressures, is probably conducive to happiness.

Yet our assessment of reality consequences was largely based on investigations among the general population. Possibly, the recommendations work out differently for different people, and it is not far-fetched to think that the advice could work out positively for people like Schopenhauer. As noted earlier, Schopenhauer seems to have been an introvert, to have had trouble making and keeping friends, to have been lonely, thoughtful and emotionally unstable anxious, nervous. This makes him a melancholic personality. This seems to fit the description of Schopenhauer very well. Actually, Schopenhauer , p.

Headey and Wearing , p. They have poor social networks. They feel relatively helpless, vulnerable and unable to control their lives. They worry a lot. Schopenhauer fits this picture very well. Are neurotics like him better off if they cultivate their misanthropy, avoid social contacts and forego marriage? We investigated if the effects of marriage for melancholic people are as strong as for people with sanguine, phlegmatic and choleric personalities. The correlation between life satisfaction and marriage for different personality types.

Is such a comparison appropriate? At first sight there are reasons to doubt it. First, one could object that the paradigms are too different, since Schopenhauer was a philosopher, while contemporary research is done by social scientists. The questions asked are similar. Furthermore, the particular book by Schopenhauer we are considering is not a straightforward philosophical book, but a practical guide. Did Schopenhauer consider his work as universal and timeless? His book is still very readable, but some of his remarks, for example on honour, have little bearing on our times.

Other values are more implicit and consequently more difficult to understand. His advice, which was predominantly aimed at men, was to refrain from marrying, for in his times women depended on marriage for their income. Even if it is sound advice now—according to recent data—to marry, it may be that this was different in his times. Schopenhauer himself, however, in his introduction answers the question whether his philosophy was intended to be. According to Schopenhauer, the wise have, said the same throughout the ages, and the fools have said the complete opposite.

Therefore, we conclude that Schopenhauer considered his statements to be timeless, although we may not agree with him about this. Another question we have to ask is: Are Schopenhauer and contemporary researchers concerned with the same thing? Note that we use a modern definition of happiness as the subjective appreciation of life as a whole.

However, as this is—according to him—an unattainable state, his advice is meant to enhance durable life-satisfaction. This comes very close to a modern definition of happiness as the subjective appreciation of life as a whole. In a sense, his book is empirical, but exclusively based on his personal findings in life.

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Schopenhauer wrote one of the first self-help books. It gives the reader advice on how to make life bearable. Some of his remarks are very apt. For instance he advises the reader to restrain from striving for wealth; and contemporary data shows that once a basic income is achieved, more money does little to increase happiness. He also advises us to stay busy, which is a valid suggestion. Ironically, he did not realize the strong interaction between his own personality and his view on happiness. His gloomy view on human interaction dominates his advice about happiness. Contemporary data prove Schopenhauer wrong in these remarks on social interaction.

Social interaction is a key determinant for happiness. His advice to shy away from people and to distrust others is probably the worst advice for anyone to follow. The book is amusing and well written, but it would be a mistake to follow all of its recommendations. Schopenhauer did not succeed in using his pessimistic world-view constructively for creating happiness enhancing advice. Misanthropy and social isolation will make you unhappy, even when you are someone with a neurotic personality like Schopenhauer. USD 5. Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview The very purpose of life is to seek happiness.

That is clear. Whether one believes in religion or not, we all are seeking something better in life. And this guide to happiness and success as described by the Winsome Campbell-Green in her book is the way that many other people walk to develop and free themselves to a happy life. The approach to the advice delineated in this book is a very practical one: We can achieve happiness by developing our mind and applying it, in other words by personal development.

We can achieve success by changing our approach, being consistent, keep a positive outlook and how we think about situations. The author, talks a lot about happiness and how to achieve it and she gets to the very heart of the matter from the very first chapter. Product Details About the Author. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Businesses know they need to extend their markets into the digital world, and expose internal data to the Internet. View Product. Today's psychotherapists come from many disciplines -- psychiatry, psychology, social work, psychiatric nursing, and a Today's psychotherapists come from many disciplines -- psychiatry, psychology, social work, psychiatric nursing, and a variety of counseling professions -- but they are united by a common goal: to deliver an effective therapeutic service to those in need.

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