Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

Sue Bohlin offers a quiz covering Bible basics rather than trivia. That's because we're not reading and studying the Bible. Who wrote the first five books of the Old Testament? .. Probe fulfills this mission through our Mind Games conferences for youth and adults, our 3-minute daily radio program, and.

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Each such galaxy comes with around a trillion stars inside it on average , and these galaxies clump together in an enormous, cosmos-spanning web that extends for 46 billion light-years away from us in all directions. In fact, the full suite of evidence indicates something quite to the contrary. The observable Universe might be 46 billion light years in all directions from our point of view, but there's certainly more, unobservable Universe, perhaps even an infinite amount, just like ours beyond that.

Over time, we'll be able to see more of it, eventually revealing approximately 2. Even for the parts we never see, there are things we want to know about them. That hardly seems like a fruitless scientific endeavor. If you learn nothing else about the Big Bang, it should be this: the Universe was not constant in space or in time, but rather has evolved from a more uniform, hotter, denser state to a clumpier, cooler and more diffuse state today.

As we go to earlier and earlier times, the Universe appears smoother and with fewer, less-evolved galaxies; as we look to later times, the galaxies are larger and more massive, consisting of older stars, with greater distances separating galaxies, groups, and clusters from one another. If you look farther and farther away, you also look farther and farther into the past.

The earlier you go, the hotter and denser, as well as less-evolved, the Universe turns out to be. The earliest signals can even, potentially, tell us about what happened prior to the moments of the hot Big Bang. The limit to our cosmic perspective is set by the distance that light has had the ability to travel since the moment of the Big Bang.

Our entire cosmic history is theoretically well-understood, but only qualitatively. It's by observationally confirming and revealing various stages in our Universe's past that must have occurred, like when the first stars and galaxies formed, and how the Universe expanded over time, that we can truly come to understand our cosmos.

The relic signatures imprinted on our Universe from an inflationary state before the hot Big Bang give us a unique way to test our cosmic history. A finite Universe would display a number of telltale signals that enable us to determine that we don't live in an infinite sea of spacetime. We'd measure our spatial curvature, and could find that the Universe was shaped like a sphere in some way, where if you traveled in a straight line for long enough, you'd return to your starting point.

You could look for repeating patterns in the sky, where the same object appeared in different locations simultaneously. You could measure the Universe's smoothness in temperature and density, and see how those imperfections evolved over time. If the Universe were finite, we would see a specific set of properties inherent to the patterns that the Big Bang's leftover temperature fluctuations displayed. But what we see instead are a different set of patterns, teaching us the exact opposite: the Universe is indistinguishable from being perfectly flat and infinitely large.

The appearance of fluctuations in the CMB with differing angular sizes would point to different spatial curvature scenarios.

3 Ways to Use the Law of Attraction - wikiHow

Presently, the Universe appears to be flat, but we have only measured down to about the 0. Of course, we can't know that for certain.

If all you had access to was your own backyard, you couldn't measure the curvature of the Earth, because the portion you had access to was indistinguishable from flat. Based on the portion of the Universe we see, we can state that if the Universe is finite and does curve back on itself, it must have at least millions of times the volume of the portion we can see, with no upper limit to that figure.

You see, we can extrapolate the Big Bang backwards to an arbitrarily hot, dense, expanding state, and find that it couldn't have gotten infinitely hot and dense early on. From the end of inflation and the start of the hot Big Bang, we can trace out our cosmic history. Dark matter and dark energy are required ingredients today, but when they originated is not yet decided. This is the consensus view of how our Universe began, but it is always subject to revision with more and better data. That phase, a period of cosmological inflation, describes a phase of the Universe where rather than being full of matter and radiation, the Universe was filled with energy inherent to space itself: a state that causes the Universe to expand at an exponential rate.

In a Universe filled with matter or radiation, the expansion rate will decrease over time, as the Universe becomes less dense. But if the energy in inherent to space itself, the density will not drop, but rather remains constant, even as the Universe expands. In a matter or radiation dominated Universe, the expansion rate slows as time goes on, and distant points recede from one another at ever slower speeds. Note that, in inflation, each time interval that goes by results in a Universe that is doubled in all dimensions from its prior size.

This implies:. The simplest model of inflation is that we started off at the top of a proverbial hill, where inflation persisted, and rolled into a valley, where inflation came to an end and resulted in the hot Big Bang. Instead of getting upset, accept hardships as part of life. Then, reach out to people who care about you to get support. Then, think about how you can use this experience to do better next time.

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This helps you see something good that the hardship brought into your life. Similarly, consider how your experience can enable you to help others. For instance, failing a class might have taught you how to be a better student, and going through a bad breakup might teach you what you want in a relationship. Take control after a setback or hardship to boost your confidence.

Facing an obstacle can shake your confidence and break your positive mindset, but regaining control give you back your power. Start by listing the actions you can take to move forward. Then, do one small thing to help you move in the right direction. Instead of dwelling on it, update your resume and go through job listings.

While you apply for new jobs, take a free online class to help boost your job skills. It is good to focus and feel abundant about the things that you want, but if you keep thinking about them all the time, then you will release thoughts of doubt, worry and the pain of not having it.

The best thing is to focus on what you want for several minutes everyday and then release it and go about your day with gratitude. Yes No. Not Helpful 26 Helpful What is the best way to apply the law of attraction to help obtain money and wealth? Be grateful for the money that you have been given throughout your life, expect money to come to you in big or small ways, feel good about money and feel as though you are already rich.

Finally, ask the universe for the specific amount of money you want to come to you. Not Helpful 3 Helpful Of course. It's all about emitting positive energy. Not Helpful 12 Helpful Begin by removing all negativity. No sadness, no shame, no guilt, no despair.

Stop hurting your soul for past mistakes. Let go of everything. Don't let negativity penetrate your consciousness when the Law of Rhythm has got you down. Be happy to be alive. Life isn't about gaining, it's about learning. Not Helpful 48 Helpful When you have positive self-esteem and are completely apart from negative thoughts, then in return, the Universe gives you the things you want, the things that you are passionate about and the things you know you will get one day.

If you can meditate everyday, you can achieve anything in your life, guaranteed. Always think positive. Not Helpful 54 Helpful Remember that there is a difference between sending out a hope that something you'd like to happen will happen and putting in the appropriate effort or planning to ensure that something actually will happen.

If you don't believe that something will happen, perhaps you're not willing to plan and work for it. You need a balance of both hope to inspire and effort to achieve for an outcome to be realized. Not Helpful 75 Helpful Through your feelings. If you imagine or visualize having something and feel good after doing it, then you are definitely on the right track. Whereas if you do not feel good, you are not on the right track. The better you feel, the better and faster the results will be. Not Helpful 11 Helpful The Universe is only matter.

How does something without life or a mind answer, give, or respond to me? Matter is nothing but energy. Thoughts are also energy. Therefore, thoughts can become things. Not Helpful 62 Helpful Can I ask for more than one thing at a time? Say three or four? Or will this be confusing the universe? You can ask for as many things as you want, ambitious you. Write a list of all that you want. The more you believe that they are coming your way, the better you will feel. The better you feel, the more you are allowing and the more things that will come to you. The more you see these things coming to you, the better you will feel and it's an incredible avalanche of awesomeness.

Truly believe and allow. Not Helpful 43 Helpful For the last 2 years I have been demanding 20 million dollars from the universe but I am not getting it. I am getting small things very easily but not the big money -- why? You have to feel that you already have it. Your question reveals that you are thinking of the "how" process, the getting rather than the already having. Your feelings should reside in joy and peace, a calm acceptance that it is already as it should be. Not Helpful 49 Helpful Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.

Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Tips The law of attraction is not the same as making wishes to the universe. You are simply focusing your attention on putting out positive energy so you'll attract more positive energy. Trigger good feelings by listening to your favorite song, enjoying your hobbies, or hanging out with friends. This will help you stay positive.

Start by focusing on small, easy to measure goals so you can see how the law of attraction works. For example, you might focus on earning a good grade in your class or attaining a new pet. Be patient because change takes time. Warnings Avoid worrying, as this sends a message to the universe that you expect bad things to happen.

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Instead, picture a positive future for yourself. You are not to blame for health issues or the actions of others. Don't focus on a particular person or thing. For instance, don't try to make someone fall in love with you. Instead, draw in a healthy, satisfying relationship with someone you're meant to be with. Edit Related wikiHows. Article Summary X To use the law of attraction, you want to put positive energy out into the world so that positive things come back to you.

Did this summary help you? Time 60 Score 0. Score: High score: Want to try again? Play again! Want to play a fun game and learn about wikiHow? Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 3,, times. Did this article help you? Cookies make wikiHow better. By continuing to use our site, you agree to our cookie policy.

Co-Authored By:. Co-authors: A similar appeal to the senses establishes the infinity of the universe, since what is finite must have an edge, and an edge is conceived in reference to something beyond it. Hence, it is infinite. And if the all is infinite, so is the void and the number of atoms as well, for otherwise atoms would be too widely dispersed ever to meet LH 41— Epicurus now has in place the fundamental constituents of his natural world, and he might have stopped here, with atoms and void and the denial, on the grounds of inconceivability, of any other kind of basic physical principle.

All secondary properties, such as color and taste, will be explained as epiphenomena of atomic combinations, and perception of things at a distance by the continual emission of infinitesimally thin laminas from objects, which maintain the relevant features of the source in the case of vision, for example, the laminas will preserve the atomic patterns specific to the color and shape of the object and directly stimulate the relevant sense organ.

This is a tricky thesis, and again posed puzzles: how do the lamina or simulacra, as Lucretius called them, of a mountain enter the eye, for example? In fragments? By somehow shrinking? We do not know the answer to this one. A few more concepts fill in the picture of the natural world: thus, Epicurus denies that there can be infinitely many kinds of atoms, for then all shapes which define the kinds at any given magnitude would be exhausted and atoms would have to reach visible proportions, which we know that they do not this argument depends on the idea of minima, discussed further below ; instead, the number of kinds i.

This condition is also invoked to explain why there is a limit on possible types of combinations of atoms, and hence on the number of viable species of things in the perceptible world: if there were infinitely many kinds of atoms, Epicurus believed, they could combine to generate absolutely anything — an infinity of different sorts of thing. Why did Epicurus complicate matters still further with the doctrine that atoms themselves consist of still smaller parts in the form of mathematically minimal expanses, as we saw above that he does?

Finite bodies, according to Epicurus, had to be composed of smaller expanses, and if there were no lower limit in size to such expanses, one would have to imagine traversing such a body in an infinite number of moves — but then, however small these infinitesimals might be, the object that contained them, Epicurus reasoned, would have to be infinitely large LH 56— What are such minima like? Epicurus asks us to think of the smallest perceptible thing.

It differs from larger visible entities in that it has no sub-parts to be traversed with the eye: if you do attempt to visualize such sub-parts, they simply coincide with the original perceptible minimum. Since such minimal visible entities have no parts, they do not touch edge to edge edges are parts , and yet they measure out the body that contains them, larger bodies having more such minima. By analogy with the visible, then, we conceive of the smallest part of an atom LH 58— This conception resembles the way points exist in a line, according to Aristotle, since they too do not touch, nor can they exist independently.

But Epicurean minima differ from points in that they are physical expanses and so have extension. This looks like a contradictory state of affairs: can we imagine, for example, an atom consisting of just two minima? Or ten? It would be like counting up the least visible bits of a perceptible object.

Geometrical problems arise as well, since it was known that the side and diagonal of a cube, for example, were incommensurable, yet both must, it would appear, be composed of finite and hence commensurable numbers of minima. But sufficient evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. Having established the physical basis of the world, Epicurus proceeds to explain the nature of the soul this, at least, is the order in which Lucretius sets things out.

This too, of course, consists of atoms: first, there is nothing that is not made up of atoms and void secondary qualities are simply accidents of the arrangement of atoms , and second, an incorporeal entity could neither act on nor be moved by bodies, as the soul is seen to do e. Body without soul atoms is unconscious and inert, and when the atoms of the body are disarranged so that it can no longer support conscious life, the soul atoms are scattered and no longer retain the capacity for sensation LH There is also a part of the human soul that is concentrated in the chest, and is the seat of the higher intellectual functions.

The distinction is important, because it is in the rational part that error of judgment enters in. Sensation, like pain and pleasure, is incorrigible just because it is a function of the non-rational part, which does not modify a perception — that is, the reception of lamina emitted from macroscopic bodies — by the addition of opinion or belief.

The corporeal nature of the soul has two crucial consequences for Epicureanism. From this it follows that there can be no punishment after death, nor any regrets for the life that has been lost. Second, the soul is responsive to physical impressions, whether those that arrive from without in the form of laminas or simulacra, or those that arise from internal motions of the body.

No phenomena are purely mental, in the sense of being disembodied states or objects of pure consciousness conceived as separate from embodiment. The elementary sensations of pleasure and pain, accordingly, rather than abstract moral principles or abstract concepts of goodness or badness, are the fundamental guides to what is good and bad, since all sentient creatures are naturally attracted to the one and repelled by the other.

The function of the human mind — that part of the soul that is located in our chest — is not to seek higher things, but to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. That is its entire objective; the risk a substantial one is that it may miscalculate, since it is subject to false beliefs and errors in cognitive processes. Unlike other Hellenistic schools, such as those of Aristotle and the Stoics, the Epicureans were not greatly interested in formal logic, but they certainly needed a theory of the formation of beliefs.

As far as the ideational content of thinking — that is, the thought of something — is concerned, Epicurus proposed a radically reductive hypothesis: just as sensations occur as a result of thin films emitted by objects that enter the appropriate sense organ, so too some of these simulacra are fine enough to penetrate directly to the mind located in the chest , and that is how we imagine such objects e. This process is invoked to explain not only dream images, but many kinds of mental impression, including impressions constituting voluntary thought: the latter occurs when we attend to one or another of the exiguous physical films that are continuously floating through the air.

How we manage to attend voluntarily to whichever of these films we choose is not explained in the surviving sources. Imagining a thing is thus nothing more than picking out the simulacra that have been emitted by it, and which may endure beyond the life of the thing itself hence we can imagine the dead. These mental images have no privileged status, such as Plato gave to his noetic Ideas or Forms; they are always true, but in this do not differ from the information provided by the senses.

Mistakes occur here too when the wrong beliefs are associated with such impressions, for example, that because we have a mental image of a dead person it follows that he or she still exists in a ghostly form. Epicurean physics proves that this is impossible. A great barrier to correct thinking is language itself, which, because it has a name for death, may suggest that death being dead is something a person can experience and hence deserves to be feared.

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The culprit in misunderstanding is always an illegitimate inference from sensation the latter including thoughts produced by film-like images. An example is the belief that centaurs exist. Epicurus does not deny that the thought of a centaur corresponds to some real stimulus in the form of simulacra: his theory of knowledge commits him to the view that it must. We know that this is unreal because such a combination is physically impossible: horses and human beings mature at different rates, for example, and eat different foods see Lucretius 5.

Palaephatus On Incredible Tales Beliefs about whether sensations correspond to an actually existing thing must be tested against knowledge of the world, as informed by Epicurean theory. The ability to reason or calculate logismos cannot be a function of images. What is more, one must know something about the nature of pleasure in order to pursue it rationally, and likewise for pain.

As for the rational part or mind, we have positive and negative experiences through it too. Most prominent among the negative mental states is fear, above all the fear of unreal dangers, such as death. Death, Epicurus insists, is nothing to us, since while we exist, our death is not, and when our death occurs, we do not exist LM —25 ; but if one is frightened by the empty name of death, the fear will persist since we must all eventually die.

These states too depend on belief, whether true or false. But Epicurus does not treat khara as an end, or part of the end for living: rather, he tends to describe the goal by negation, as freedom from bodily pain and mental disturbance LM Although the precise nature of this distinction is debated, kinetic pleasures seem to be of the non-necessary kind see below , such as those resulting from agreeable odors or sounds, rather than deriving from replenishment, as in the case of hunger or thirst. The philosophical school known as the Cyrenaics advocated increasing desires and seeking ever new ways of gratifying them.

Epicurus objected that such pleasures are necessarily accompanied by distress, for they depend upon a lack that is painful Plato had demonstrated the problematic nature of this kind of pleasure; see Gorgias C—A, Philebus 31E—32D, 46A—50C. In addition, augmenting desires tends to intensify rather than reduce the mental agitation a distressful state of mind that Epicurean philosophy sought to eliminate. Catastematic pleasure, on the contrary, is or is taken in a state rather than a process: it is the pleasure that accompanies well-being as such. The Cyrenaics and others, such as Cicero, maintained, in turn, that this condition is not pleasurable but rather neutral — neither pleasurable nor painful.

For Epicurus, there are some fears that are perfectly legitimate; so too are some desires. Epicurus offers a classification of desires into three types: some are natural, others are empty; and natural desires are of two sorts, those that are necessary and those that are merely natural see Cooper Natural and necessary are those that look to happiness, physical well-being, or life itself LM Unnecessary but natural desires are for pleasant things like sweet odors and good-tasting food and drink and for various pleasurable activities of sorts other than simple smelling, touching and tasting.

Empty desires are those that have as their objects things designated by empty sounds, such as immortality, which cannot exist for human beings and do not correspond to any genuine need. The same holds for the desire for great wealth or for marks of fame, such as statues: they cannot provide the security that is the genuine object of the desire. Such desires, accordingly, can never be satisfied, any more than the corresponding fears — e. Such empty fears and desires, based on what Epicurus calls kenodoxia or empty belief, are themselves the main source of perturbation and pain in civilized life, where more elementary dangers have been brought under control, since they are the reason why people are driven to strive for limitless wealth and power, subjecting themselves to the very dangers they imagine they are avoiding.

Although human beings, like everything else, are composed of atoms that move according to their fixed laws, our actions are not wholly predetermined — rather than entertain such a paralyzing doctrine, Epicurus says, it would be better to believe in the old myths, for all their perversities LM What enables us to wrest liberty from a mechanistic universe is the existence of a certain randomness in the motion of atoms, that takes the form of a minute swerve in their forward course evidence for this doctrine derives chiefly from later sources, including Lucretius and Cicero.

It is not entirely clear how the swerve operates: it may involve a small angle of deviation from the original path, or else a slight shift sideways, perhaps by a single minimum, with no change in direction. It did, at all events, introduce an indeterminacy into the universe, and if soul atoms, thanks to their fineness, were more susceptible to the effects of such deviations than coarser matter, the swerve could at least represent a breach in any strict predestination of human behavior.

According to Lucretius 2. This seems a curious idea: given that time, like space, was infinite according to Epicurus, he need not have imagined a time prior to collisions. In the beginning, human beings were solitary; they reproduced haphazardly, could not communicate verbally, had no social institutions, and survived because they were physically hardier than their modern descendants. With time, the race softened, thanks in part to the discovery of fire, in part too to the emergence of the family and the gentler sentiments toward spouses and offspring to which the family gave rise.

At this stage, human beings were in a position to unite in order to fend off natural dangers, such as wild beasts, and they developed various kinds of technical skills, such as agriculture and the building of houses, as well as language. Upon this basis, people later, nation by nation, established certain terms by convention for the purpose of improving clarity and brevity in communication. Finally, certain individual experts further augmented the vocabulary by the introduction of new and specialized words, to explain the results of their theoretical investigations.

Once language reached a developed state, people began to establish alliances and friendships, which contributed further to collective security. This early form of social life had various advantages: among others, the relative scarcity of goods prevented excessive competition sharing was obligatory for survival and thereby set limits on those unnatural desires that at a later, richer phase of society would lead to wars and other disturbances. It would appear too that, before language had developed fully, words more or less conformed to their original or primitive objects, and were not yet a source of mental confusion.

But thanks to a gradual accumulation of wealth, the struggle over goods came to infect social relations, and there emerged kings or tyrants who ruled over others not by virtue of their physical strength but by dint of gold. These autocrats in turn were overthrown, and after a subsequent period of violent anarchy people finally saw the wisdom of living under the rule of law.

This might seem to represent the highest attainment in political organization, but that is not so for the Epicureans. For with law came the generalized fear of punishment that has contaminated the blessings of life Lucretius 5. Lucretius at this point gives an acount of the origin of religious superstition and dread of the gods, and although he does not relate this anxiety directly to the fear of punishment under human law, he does state that thunder and lightning are interpreted as signs that the gods are angry at human sins 5.

While primitive people in the presocial or early communal stages might have been awed by such manifestations of natural power and ascribed them to the action of the gods, they would not necessarily have explained them as chastisement for human crimes before the concept of punishment became familiar under the regime of law. People at an early time knew that gods exist thanks to the simulacra that they give off, although the precise nature of the gods according to Epicurus remains obscure for contrasting intepretations, see Konstan and Sedley ; but the gods, for him, do not interest themselves in human affairs, since this would compromise their beatitude see Obbink — If one does not fear the gods, what motive is there for living justly?

Justice, for Epicurus, depends on the capacity to make compacts neither to harm others nor be harmed by them, and consists precisely in these compacts; justice is nothing in itself, independent of such arrangements KD 31— According to Epicurus LM , KD 5 , someone who is incapable of living prudently, honorably, and justly cannot live pleasurably, and vice versa. This again sounds calculating, as though justice were purely a pragmatic and selfish matter of remaining unperturbed.

Epicurus does not entertain the thought experiment proposed by Plato in the Republic C—D , in which Plato asks whether a person who is absolutely secure from punishment would have reason to be just. Did Epicurus have an answer to such a challenge? He may simply have denied that anyone can be perfectly confident in this way. Perhaps, however, he did have a reply, but it was derived from the domain of psychology rather than of ethics. A person who understands what is desirable and what is to be feared would not be motivated to acquire inordinate wealth or power, but would lead a peaceful life to the extent possible, avoiding politics and the general fray.

An Epicurean sage, accordingly, would have no motive to violate the rights of others. Whether the sage would be virtuous is perhaps moot; what Epicurus says is that he would live virtuously, that is prudently, honorably, and justly the adverbial construction may be significant. He would do so not because of an acquired disposition or hexis , as Aristotle had it, but because he knows how to reason correctly about his needs.

Hence his desires would be limited to those that are natural not empty , and so easily satisfied, or at least not a source of disturbance if sometimes unsatisfied. Epicurus placed an extremely high value on friendship or love: philia. Epicurus held that a wise man would feel the torture of a friend no less than his own, and would die for a friend rather than betray him, for otherwise his own life would be confounded VS 56— These are powerfully altruistic sentiments for a philosopher who posits as the unique goal in life happiness based on freedom from physical pain and mental anxiety.

Since human beings were originally asocial and only later learned to form alliances and compacts, it is possible that Epicurus means to say that this capacity for friendship arose out of need, but that once the capacity for such feelings was acquired, feeling them came to be valued in itself.

The argument would be similar to the modern idea that altruism could have developed as a result of natural selection. But the evidence does not permit a firm conclusion on this matter. When Epicurus spoke of friendship, he may have had at least partly in mind specifically the relationship among his followers, who seem to have thought of themselves as friends.