Some assessments serve gatekeeping roles—college admission tests, for instance. Some assessment methods reflect some of what we have come to realize are preferred teaching practices; consequently, they contain activities that are congruent with and that support good instruction. They tend to invite diverse responses and to promote a range of thinking—hands-on science and mathematics problem-solving activities, for example. In some cases, assessment tasks may extend over several days, allowing students to reflect on their work, to polish and revise it.
Some assessments give students the opportunity to respond in any of several ways, including writing, drawing, and making charts or graphic organizers. In general, trends indicate that alternative assessment tends to do the following: Use a variety of progress indicators, such as projects, writing samples, interviews, and observations. Focus on an individual's progress over time rather than on one-time performance within a group. Bring teachers into conference with students about their work and progress, helping students to evaluate themselves by perceiving the results of their own work.
Years ago, the professionals at Harlem Park Middle School in Baltimore realized the vital importance of taking parental involvement seriously. They added three parent coordinators to their staff and located them full-time in the neighborhoods the school serves rather than in the school building itself.
Living and working in those neighborhoods, the coordinators helped to fight a steady rise in the school's dropout rate by teaching parents how to keep their children in school, help with homework, keep track of progress, and work with school representatives before a crisis develops. In Mesa, Arizona, school officials recognized that parenthood is 18 years of on-the-job training. So they organized a "Parent University," filling a Saturday schedule with 40 workshops ranging from creative art activities for preschoolers, to helping young people survive junior high, to financing a college education.
More than people attended Education Leaders Consortium, The list of ways in which school people have come to grips with the need to bring home and school together for the good of the children varies widely across the United States, limited only by the resourcefulness and imagination of the people in each school and district. Epstein outlines several broad avenues by which parents and schools can share in a child's development. Parents have the basic obligation to provide food, clothing, and shelter; to ensure a child's general health and safety; and to provide child rearing and home training.
But parents can also provide school supplies, a place for schoolwork at home, and positive home conditions for learning. Parents can be directly involved in the work of the school: assisting teachers and students with lessons; chaperoning class trips; participating in classroom activities; aiding administrators, teachers, and school staff in the school cafeteria, library, laboratories, and workshops; organizing parent groups in fund-raising, community relations, political awareness, and program development; attending student assemblies, sports events, and special presentations; and participating in workshops, discussion groups, and training sessions.
Parents can involve themselves in learning activities at home by developing a child's social and personal skills and by contributing to basic-skills education, development of advanced skills, and enrichment. In governance and advocacy, parents can assume decision-making roles in parent-teacher organizations, on advisory councils, or through other committees and groups at the school, district, or state levels.
They can become activists in monitoring schools and by working for school improvement. The Comer Model is based on the belief that parental involvement is the cornerstone of effective and responsible school change. Comer maintains that one cannot separate academic development from the child's social and cultural background. Thus one of several programs within the project has emphasized a school's obligation to work cooperatively with parents and mental health professionals in meeting the needs of children.
Involving parents in their children's formal education improves student achievement. Parent involvement is most effective when it is comprehensive, long-lasting, and well planned. The benefits of family involvement are not confined to early childhood or the elementary levels of schooling; strong effects result from involving parents continuously throughout high school. Henderson also concluded that involving parents in their own children's education at home is not enough.
To ensure the quality of schools as institutions serving the community, parents must be involved at all levels of schooling. Moreover, children from low-income and minority families have the most to gain when schools involve parents. Parents can help, regardless of their level of formal education. We cannot look at the school and the home in isolation from one another.
We must see how they interconnect with each other and with the world at large.
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In Empowering the Spectrum of Your Mind , Colin Rose declares that most of us are probably using only 4 percent of the enormous potential of our brains. Therefore, the easier it is to remember and learn yet more new material. Once considered appropriate for use almost exclusively with students identified as gifted and talented, accelerated learning has come to be regarded as effective with students of any level of performance or ability.
How does one "accelerate learning"? What is the theory behind the phrase? Rose begins with a seemingly obvious fact: no learning can take place without memory. How does one best encode things into memory? By creating concrete images of sights, sounds, and feelings, and by the strong association of one image with another. The stronger the original encoding, the better the ultimate recall. Thus, an ideal learning pattern involves the following steps: Immediate rehearsal of new facts in the short term. Repetition or testing of the facts a few minutes later.
Review of the facts an hour later. A short recap of them after a night's rest. Sleep appears to help memorization; new information is reviewed during REM—rapid eye movement—sleep. Short review a week later. Short review a month later. Rose claims that such a schedule of learning can enable the recall of up to 88 percent of the new information an individual receives—four times better than the usual rate of recall.
Among techniques recommended by advocates of accelerated learning are the following: Chunking, that is, reducing new information to manageable bits—a chunk no longer than seven words or seven digits, for instance. Use of music and rhyme as aids to memory. Peripheral learning and the use of memory maps to encourage association, and thus recall. Encoding as specifically as possible by principles rather than through isolated examples by rote. The classroom "discussion" dragged on. Predictably, the teacher asked one factual-recall question after another about the short story at hand.
Each question invariably elicited a right-or-wrong answer from one, and sometimes two, student volunteers. Then the teacher reached that point in the story where the main character faced what seemed like a life-or-death personal dilemma. Hands shot up all around the room, some flapping in urgency. I'm afraid I've touched some raw nerves," the teacher exclaimed. So did the students' attention to the topic. The authors suggest and their suggestions are well supported by research how even the timeless classroom practice of questions from the teacher can be adapted to elicit individual involvement rather than passive response.
They also show how to follow through for even greater student participation and response. Their advice, in part, includes the following suggestions pp. Encourage students to respond. Most teachers answer two-thirds of their own questions. Ask questions in all modes. Most questions are asked at the level of basic recall or recognition. Questioning that is more complex increases student achievement.
The number and quality of student answers increase when teachers provide wait time of three to five seconds after asking a question. Appropriate wait time is particularly important in teaching low achievers. Some higher-level questions might require as much as 15 to 20 seconds of wait time. Call on students randomly, but be sure not to forget the low achiever. If a student's response is vague, call for clarification or elaboration—for example, "Tell me more.
Encourage students to develop and ask their own questions, thus increasing their opportunities for thinking. Use techniques that require students to pose their own questions and to make discoveries on their own. For example, ask students in a science class to make predictions, based on their own experiences, before a demonstration or an experiment.
The processes of observing, comparing, and describing are as important as the product. Other studies of questioning techniques suggest that teachers break the total content of their questioning into bits small enough so that students are assured of being able to answer at least three-quarters of the questions correctly.
They urge a high proportion of questions that are well beyond mere factual recall—questions that encourage interpretation or that challenge critical thinking. Questioning need not simply follow a lesson or an assignment as a means of checking to see if students have completed or understood it. Reading specialists, for instance, have long advocated the use of prereading questioning techniques, using teacher- or student-generated questions to develop background knowledge, to preview key concepts, and to set purposes for the reading. Questioning after reading should provide students with opportunities to practice or rehearse what they have learned from the text, as well as increase associations between textual information and their own background knowledge "Questioning Promotes," To stimulate student discussions, Dillon suggests a three-step process: Carefully formulate one or two questions to get the discussion going.
From then on, ask questions only when perplexed and genuinely in need of more information. Then make more statements that present facts or opinions, reflect students' opinions to them, register confusion, or invite elaboration and student-to-student exchanges.
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Student-generated questions and student-led discussions give students a higher stake and interest in their classroom activities and learning. Framing their own questions requires young people to interact with the meaning of content or text from a variety of perspectives. Generating their own questions, they support and challenge each other and recognize the social aspects of exploring the meaning of what they encounter in reading or in other learning activities. Teachers need to model effective questioning and discussion strategies, including how to interact with others as well as how to think about and discuss text or content.
Touch a raw nerve now and then—not to aggravate, but to stimulate! Think of your most recent drink of water. Exactly what steps did you follow in taking it? What facts, what prior experiences, what understandings did you call on?
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It's been estimated that you performed 50 or so actions while taking that drink of water. Did you think of all 50—that is, did you bring any of them, in isolation, to the forefront of your consciousness while drinking? Probably not. Your brain handled all the necessary steps for you! At the same time, your brain was probably helping you consider your plans for the weekend, reminding you of the slight soreness in your left thumb, telling you it was a warm afternoon, and juggling countless other "programs"—chains of thought needed to accomplish some foreseen goal, whether soaking your thumb or quenching your thirst Della Neve et al.
The brain is capable of such a vast number and array of functions that its functioning can be visualized most easily only in terms of programs and patterns—one program, perhaps, for getting a glass of water at the kitchen sink, a different program for sipping from the water fountain outside your classroom door.
How does the brain differentiate among the vast array of programs it stores? By recognizing an apparently endless number and variety of patterns among them. Thus "brain-compatible instruction defines learning as the acquisition of useful programs," write Della Neve and her colleagues For educational purposes, however, what counts is a broad, holistic understanding of what the brain is for it did not evolve to pass tests or fill in worksheets , its principal architecture, its main drives, and its way of relating to the real world.
Carnine describes some of the misunderstandings that can result in teachers, students, or both after "brain-antagonistic" instruction: Very young children know that the name of an object stays the same even after the orientation of the object has changed. For example, when a chair is turned to face the opposite direction, it remains a chair. Consequently, in preschool, when a b is flipped to face the opposite direction, children often assume that it still goes by the name of b.
Making this error doesn't necessarily imply that a student's visual brain function is weak or that the student would benefit from a kinesthetic approach to learning lowercase letters. Extensive research has shown that students are more likely to confuse objects and symbols that share visual or auditory sameness, such as b and d. The sameness they note is that these problems can be worked in either direction, from top to bottom or the reverse.
Soon thereafter come subtraction problems, such as 24 - Students can still apply the sameness learned in addition, thinking of the difference between 4 and 3 or between 3 and 4 and always subtracting the smaller number from the larger. However, when students encounter a problem such as 74 - 15, applying the sameness noted earlier leads them to subtract the smaller from the larger number and come up with the answer Such a mistake is a sensible application of a mislearned sameness. Della Neve and her colleagues at Drew Elementary School developed their own seven principles, which serve as focal points to guide teachers in designing and implementing brain-compatible instruction: Create a nonthreatening climate.
Input lots of raw material from which students can extract patterns—a vast array of activities, aided by an ample supply of materials, equipment, and print and audiovisual resources.
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Emphasize genuine communication in talking, listening, writing, and reading as ways to interact with other people. Encourage lots of manipulation of materials. Students need to be in command and able to push things around, encouraging them to work toward goals and explore a range of means. Emphasize reality. By using problems, examples, and contacts drawn from the "real world" rather than contrived exercises, texts, worksheets, and basal readers, students can see the real value of their own learning.
Address learning activities to actual, productive uses. Respect natural thinking, including intuitive leaps, a grasp of patterns as in number tables or good writing , and aesthetic and nonverbal interests and activities. Teaching should be multifaceted to allow all students to express visual, tactile, emotional, and auditory preferences. Providing choices that are variable enough to attract individual interests may require the reshaping of schools so that they exhibit the complexity found in life. Activating students' prior knowledge—through the use of schema theory, for example—helps youngsters integrate new knowledge and skills with their own experiences.
By doing so, teachers acknowledge that all students, regardless of their background, bring a wealth of knowledge to learning. The kind and amount "of knowledge one has before encountering a given topic in a discipline affects how one constructs meaning," writes Gaea Leinhardt Outcomes are determined jointly by what was known before and by the content of the instruction" pp. Consequently, it just makes sense for teachers to begin by learning what students already know about a topic, thus preventing youngsters from having to repeat what they already know or trying to build on knowledge they do not yet possess.
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Connecting new knowledge to previous learning builds a strong foundation for future learning; it also gives teachers valuable opportunities to correct misperceptions. Modifying activities to suit learners' preferences helps them construct new understandings. When tapping into students' prior knowledge, teachers recognize that the most effective means of learning is discovery, and the most effective means of teaching is modeling.
Modeling by the teacher is one of many powerful tools for activating prior knowledge. Depending on the task, the teacher decides what prior knowledge needs to be activated and asks students to develop and answer questions that cause them to activate it. The teacher then proceeds to model appropriate questioning processes. Activating students' prior knowledge engages them more actively in learning, in generating their own questions, and in leading their own discussions.
Another strategy that effectively activates students' prior knowledge, allowing them to explore what they already know about a topic, is the K-W-L activity, first developed by Donna Ogle. This strategy asks students to identify what they already k now about a topic, w hat they would like to learn, and, at the conclusion of the unit, what they actually did l earn. Teachers can encourage students to develop a list of questions they would like to answer. Teacher modeling helps students form these questions. Teachers can then assist students in clustering similar questions and in deciding which questions to answer by further explaining the content to be learned.
The teacher and students design a plan to find the answer for each question. Allowing students to work in cooperative and collaborative groups is effective because such groups encourage students to share their answers and the rationale behind the answers. During the sharing, the teacher has an opportunity to correct student misunderstandings.
In exploring new topics, students can experience a variety of active, experiential, or authentic assignments. Such assignments—for example, manipulating objects or concepts, engaging in product-oriented activities, and participating in real-life experiences that actively construct knowledge—allow youngsters to explore concepts in some depth and to make discoveries on their own. The opportunity to apply new learnings to real-life contexts that reflect the students' world helps them retain and effectively use new concepts and skills.
Many of the approaches to teaching and learning that appear in this book challenge the traditional model of schooling, which demands that students receive knowledge solely from the teacher. In explaining the nature of the "pedagogy of poverty," Martin Haberman notes that teachers and students are engaged in fundamentally different activities: teachers teach and students learn. But what if teachers join students as fellow learners searching for answers to real-life problems or for ways to describe and generalize scientific phenomena?
Another means of creating what might be called a pedagogy of plenty is to embrace a constructivist approach to teaching. Constructivism emphasizes an understanding of how and why students and adults learn; it provides a way to combine good teaching and learning practices. These practices include activating students' prior knowledge; providing a variety of active learning resources; using a variety of hands-on, minds-on activities; engaging youngsters in a variety of cooperative learning experiences; allowing students to formulate questions and discover concepts that can guide future learnings; asking students to think aloud while approaching a task; modeling powerful thinking strategies; and providing students with opportunities to apply new learnings within the context of real-life activities.
Such an instructional setting honors the importance of hands-on and "heads-on" experiences in learning. For students to learn to reason about their world, they must be constantly encouraged to ask questions and to solve problems that have meaning to them. Teachers can provide a wide variety of activities to help students construct—and reconstruct—their new learning in their own terms, as they begin to realize that knowledge is created out of life experiences. Constructivist theory suggests that the goal of schooling is not simply acquiring specific knowledge and expertise, but rather building understanding.
Learning how to learn becomes the goal. Considered from a constructivist viewpoint, the learning environment is a laboratory that provides the tools to support learners in their quest for understanding. In this approach, teachers facilitate learning by providing appropriate activities such as modeling and questioning techniques in well-designed, well-organized, well-managed classroom environments that allow students to construct their own understandings of concepts.
Constructivist teaching is best facilitated though the use of varied learning configurations. Providing students with opportunities to work in collaborative or small-group learning activities helps them to construct their own knowledge. Students have the opportunity to listen to other points of view, debate, discuss, and form insights into new ideas while working collaboratively with their peers.
Such activities must also activate students' prior knowledge to help them develop questioning skills. When the classroom environment encourages growth and development, students will respond. Instructionally effective environments offer youngsters a wide variety of powerful experiences, which include ways of interacting with and learning from one another in instructional areas that support experiential, problem-based, active learning. Creating such environments calls for the teacher to construct and allow cooperative, collaborative strategies.
Classroom design simply means arranging the room to make the best use of space and to create a comfortable learning climate—both physically and psychologically. Classroom management reflects the ways in which the teacher orchestrates high-quality instructional activities that help children take charge of their learning and eliminate unwanted behavioral and discipline problems.
Our school system was invented to provide a sit-and-learn process of education. In , for instance, John Dewey reportedly described the difficulties he encountered during an exhaustive search for furniture "suitable from all points of view—artistic … and educational—to the needs of children. You want something at which children may work; these are for listening. Amazingly, little has changed in U. Regardless of individual differences, many, many children are still expected to sit on a hard seat, not move, and not speak—just listen and answer questions.
Research strongly supports the important role of environmental preferences in students' motivation and their ability to learn. The quality of the environment in which we live and work is vitally important. Individuals tend to respond to their physical environment first in terms of personal comfort. Harmony makes it easier to concentrate and remember information. The proper use of space within a classroom generates student activity and learning. Room arrangement, for example, allows students to work at computer stations, engage in small-group work, engage in project-based learning, and use multimedia equipment for individual or group activities.
Appropriate classroom design empowers teachers to create instructional areas, such as learning and interest centers and media centers, that offer students varied learning opportunities and accommodate individual learning needs and interests. Well-designed classrooms display high levels of student cooperation, academic success, and task involvement.
Teachers work to develop intrinsic motivation in students, which is essential to creating lifelong learners. Thus effective classroom environments create multiple learning situations capable of addressing students' diverse characteristics to enhance their satisfaction and academic performance. Such classes are child centered; they meet young people's instructional needs by exposing them to a variety of highly motivating, stimulating, multilevel instructional activities.
Current research in the functioning of the brain confirms that we learn best in a rich, multi-sensory environment. We learn more about people by interacting with them in real-life contexts. We learn more meaningfully when we are fully immersed in the learning experience. Therefore, we should provide students with active learning experiences that incorporate a wide variety of materials, including high-quality, well-written literature. Powerful learning activities are most likely to occur in a highly organized learning environment. When orchestrating such a setting, it is important to keep in mind how instruction will be reinforced, reviewed, and enriched to extend youngsters' learning potential; how procedures for completing assignments, working, locating instructional resources, and acquiring assistance will be facilitated; and how students will evaluate their own performance and that of others.
Making a classroom an effective educational tool depends on creating not only a physically comfortable environment that supports instructional goals but also one that is emotionally, socially, psychologically, and physically safe. Classrooms should be places where a child can think, discover, grow, and ultimately learn to work independently and cooperatively in a group setting, developing self-discipline and self-esteem.
At the heart of an emotionally safe learning environment is cooperation—among staff, students, and other stakeholders. Cooperation leads to ownership, involvement, and great opportunities for student self-discipline, says Jerome Freiberg —but first must come trust. Students learn to trust through opportunities to take ownership of and responsibility for their own actions and those of others. Strategies to promote cooperation include establishing rules and regulations with the assistance of students for codes of behavior and conduct; talking about consequences of behavior; offering youngsters training in peer mediation and conflict resolution; creating rotating classroom management positions, with clearly outlined responsibilities; and helping youngsters develop norms of collaboration and social skills to enable them to work effectively in groups.
When children are truly engaged in learning and the approach to discipline is an active one, teachers do not have to waste valuable time dealing with disciplinary issues. When learning becomes less meaningful to students' lives, less interactive, or less stimulating, teachers increasingly need to control their students; in the process, they unwittingly create opportunities for undesirable student behaviors.
Teachers who try to impose too many rules, too much rigidity, and too many uniform activities quickly lose control. Teachers who can bring themselves to share power and confidence with their students gain more control. That is exactly why teachers should concentrate on creating conditions in which students can and will manage themselves. Kline for their contributions to this chapter. Adams, M. Teaching thinking to Chapter 1 students. Williams et al. Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Andrews, R. The development of a learning styles program in a low socioeconomic, underachieving, North Carolina elementary school.
Insights into education: An elementary principal's perspective. Dunn Ed. Ascher, C. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Redesigning assessment [Videotape]. Alexandria, VA: Author. Atkins, A. New ways to learn. Better Homes and Gardens, 71 2 , 35— Au, K. Research currents: Talk story and learning to read. Language Arts, 62 4 , — Culture and ownership: Schooling of minority students.
Childhood Education, 67 5 , — Banks, J. Preparing teachers and administrators in a multicultural society. Bateson, G. Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York: Bantam. Bauer, E. The relationships between and among learning styles, perceptual preferences, instructional strategies, mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics of learning disabled and emotionally handicapped students in a suburban junior high school.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 6 , Becher, R. Parent involvement: A review of research and principles of successful practice. Bempechat, J. Underachievement and educational disadvantage: The home and school experience of at-risk youth Urban Diversity Series No. Benard, B. Moving toward a "just and vital culture": Multiculturalism in our schools. Bennett, C. Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice. Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Bloom, B. Human characteristics and school learning.
New York: McGraw-Hill. Bloome, D. Reading as a social process. Language Arts, 62 2 , — Boyatzis, R. Assessing individuality in learning: The learning skills profile. Bransford, J. Teaching thinking and problem solving: Research foundations. American Psychologist, 41 10 , — Brown, S.
Integrating manipulatives and computers in problem-solving experiences. Arithmetic Teacher, 38 2 , 8— Brunner, C. Mildly handicapped students can succeed with learning styles. Educational Leadership, 48 2 , 21— Bruno, A. Hands-on wins hands down. Early Years, 13 2 , 60— Buechler, M. Performance assessment. Policy Bulletin. Burroughs, R. The uses of literature. Executive Educator, 15 7 , 27— Butler, K. Learning and teaching styles: In theory and practice. Maynard, MA: Gabriel Systems. Caine, R. Teaching and the human brain. Campbell, J. The improbable machine. Carbo, M.
Matching reading styles: Correcting ineffective instruction. Educational Leadership, 45 2 , 55— Teaching students to read through their individual learning styles. Learning styles strategies can help students at risk. Teaching Exceptional Children, 20 4 , 55— Carlsen, W. Questioning in classrooms: A sociolinguistic perspective. Review of Educational Research, 61 2 , — Carnine, D. New research on the brain: Implications for instruction.
Phi Delta Kappan, 71 5 , — Carr, K. How can we teach critical thinking? Childhood Education, 65 2 , 69— Cherkasky-Davis, L. Chi, M. Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13 2 , — Cohen, H.
Two teaching strategies: Their effectiveness with students of varying cognitive abilities. School, Science and Mathematics, 92 3 , — Cole, M. Improving science and mathematics education for minorities and women: Contextual factors in education. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.
Collins, J. Language and class in minority education. Anthropology in Education, 19 4 , — Comer, J. School power. Connolly, L. Motivating the Mexican American student. Costa, A. Teaching the language of thinking. Educational Leadership, 45 2 , 29— Cousins, N. Head first: The biology of hope. New York: E. Danehower, V. Implementing whole language: Understanding the change process. Schools in the Middle, 2 4 , 45— Darling-Hammond, L.
Creating accountability in big city schools Urban Diversity Series No. Dash, R. The challenge—Preparing teachers for diverse student populations Roundtable Report. Della Neve, C. Huge learning jumps show potency of brain-based instruction. Phi Delta Kappan, 68 2 , — Dillon, D. Showing them that I want them to learn and that I care about who they are: A micro-ethnography of the social organization of a secondary low-track English-reading classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 26 2 , — Dillon, J.
Research on questioning and discussion. Educational Leadership, 42 3 , 50— Dunn, R. Teaching secondary students through their individual learning styles: Practical approaches for grades 7— Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Edmonds, R. If you want happiness for a month - get married. If you want happiness for a year - inherit a fortune.
If you want happiness for a lifetime - help someone else. Sometimes your greatest asset is simply your ability to stay with it longer than anyone else. It wipes out all sense of time, destroying all memory of a beginning and all fear of an end. But we can beg for an increase of love in our hearts that will vitalize and transform all our individual actions.
That magnet is unselfishness, thinking of others first. When you learn to live for others, they will live for you. Then another step. It is always the same step, but you have to take it. The key to the ability to change is a changeless sense of who you are, what you are about and what you value. It is a constant state of awareness of oneness with God. If you are not willing to make the sacrifice, then keep searching.
No stream or gas drives anything until it is confined. No Niagara is ever turned into light and power until it is tunneled. No life ever grows great until it is focused, dedicated, disciplined. But you have already borne the pain. What you have not done is feel all you are beyond that pain.
Each of us owes deepest thanks to those who have rekindled this light. I have gone ahead despite the pounding in the heart that says: turn back. The greatest loss is what dies inside us while we live. A spoon of salt in a glass of water makes the water undrinkable. A spoon of salt in a lake is almost unnoticed. Overcome it and you take charge of your life and your world. Once you accept yourself, you open the door to change. When you do so, you apologize for the truth.
But to befriend the one who regards himself as your enemy is the quintessence of true religion. The other is mere business. May your mountains rise into and above the clouds. The creative is the place where no one else has ever been. You have to leave the city of your comfort and go into the wilderness of your intuition. You have done what you could. Some blunders and absurdities no doubt crept in; forget them as soon as you can. Tomorrow is a new day; begin it well and serenely and with too high a spirit to be cumbered with your old nonsense.
The more uncivilized the man, the surer he is that he knows precisely what is right and what is wrong. All human progress, even in morals, has been the work of men who have doubted the current moral values, not of men who have whooped them up and tried to enforce them. The truly civilized man is always skeptical and tolerant, in this field as in all others.
A little less hypocrisy and a little more tolerance towards oneself can only have good results in respect for our neighbor; for we are all too prone to transfer to our fellows the injustice and violence we inflict upon our own natures. Then they begin to hope it can be done.
Then they see it can be done. Then it is done and all the world wonders why it was not done centuries ago. I have your review before me. In a moment it will be behind me. Somerset Maugham. A life without contradiction is only half a life; or else a life in the Beyond, which is destined only for angels. But God loves human beings more than the angels. Who looks outside, dreams.
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Who looks inside, awakens…. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is the source of all true art and science. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings, as something separate from the rest - a kind of optical delusion of consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty.
In the depths of the human multitude there slumbers an immense spiritual power which will manifest itself only when we have learnt how to break through the dividing walls of our egoism and raise ourselves up to an entirely new perspective, so that habitually and in a practical fashion we fix our gaze on the universal realities. We want something new but cannot let go of the old — old ideas, beliefs, habits, even thoughts. We are out of contact with our own genius. In both cases we have to do something. If you moved outside the atom you would see those electrons moving with a pattern around the atom.
If you rise further above you see that atoms are actually the building blocks of larger structures called molecules. And so it goes, on up the scale, ad infinitum. True creativity is allowing yourself to gain the loftiest perspective you can in relation to the object of your quandary or inquiry. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man. I merely found two thousand ways not to make a lightbulb. But a moment is a long time, and thought is a painful process. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete. The first method is far more difficult.
Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity. Genius hits a target no one else can see. Genius must always have lapses proportionate to its triumphs. Practice should always be based on a sound knowledge of theory.
When you meet someone not as good as you are, look within and examine your own self. I think only how to solve the problem. But when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong. Buckminster Fuller. We must make here a clear distinction between belief and faith, because, in general practice, belief has come to mean a state of mind which is almost the opposite of faith. The believer will open his mind to the truth on the condition that it fits in with his preconceived ideas and wishes.
Faith, on the other hand, is an unreserved opening of the mind to the truth, whatever it may turn out to be. Faith has no preconceptions; it is a plunge into the unknown. Belief clings, but faith lets go. In this sense of the word, faith is the essential virtue of science, and likewise of any religion that is not self-deception. Babbage, if you put into the machine wrong figures, will the right answers come out? I am not able rightly to apprehend the kind of confusion of ideas that could provoke such a question.
Just as GOTO allows control to go anywhere, a variable allows data to go anywhere. Sometimes our actions are questions not answers. My beliefs I test on my body, on my intuitional consciousness, and when I get a response there, then I accept. One should always try both directions of every problem. Prejudice has caused famous mathematicians to fail to solve famous problems whose solution was opposite to their expectations, even though they had developed all the methods required.
As applied to software: design software as if it were the beautiful paradise you want it to be, then build pieces of the scaffolding back to the status quo. Whatever the present moment contains, accept it as if you had chosen it. Always work with it, not against it. If it is perfectly acceptable, it turns into aliveness, alertness, and creativity.
It means fear is no longer a dominant factor in what you do and no longer prevents you from taking action to initiate change. If it is perfectly acceptable, it turns into aliveness, alertness and creativity. Conventional opinion is the ruin of our souls, something borrowed which we mistake as our own. Ignorance is better than this; clutch at madness instead. Always run from what seems to benefit your self: sip the poison and spill the water of life.
Revile those who flatter you; lend both interest and principal to the poor. Let security go and be at home amidst dangers. Leave your good name behind and accept disgrace. The struggle of what one likes and what one dislikes is the disease of the mind. Mysteries never open up for those who go on questioning. Questioners sooner or later end up in a library. Questioners sooner or later end up with scriptures, because scriptures are full of answers. And answers are dangerous, they kill your wonder. You cannot have it in your fist. If you want to have it, you have to keep your hands open.
Find your own light. If you are in a shipwreck and all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to keep you afloat may come along and make a fortuitous life preserver. And then I looked around for Frances. My sweet Frances had a terrible fall a few years ago. She went to the hospital. She lay in a coma for about 18 days. I sat by her side. She never moved a muscle. The children cried, the grandchildren cried, and I wept. Not a movement. And then one day, she opened her eyes. I set a speed record in getting to her side. I love you. Sisters, honor your husbands.
They need to hear a good word. They need a friendly smile. They need a warm expression of true love.
Leaving my own family for a moment, my brothers and sisters, this has been a wonderful conference. We have been edified by wise and inspired messages. Our testimonies have been strengthened. I believe we are all the more determined to live the principles of the gospel of Jesus Christ.