Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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A number of other notable earthquakes occurred during ; they are included in the following summary:—. Several new seismological stations were established in various parts of New Zealand during the year The purpose of establishing seismographs in different localities is to enable earthquake epicentres to be determined with greater precision, and also to enable some light to he thrown on the velocity of the earthquake waves as they radiate outwards from the origin.

At the Dominion Observatory, Wellington, two Milne-Shaw horizontal seismographs and a Galitzin-Wilip vertical seismograph have been in continuous operation. On the 28th January a Wood-Anderson short-period seismograph was established for the purpose of recording local earthquakes. The Ishimoto clinograph, for recording tilt, has been in continuous operation at the Observatory. A Milne seismograph which was installed at Arapuni in July, , has given continuous records.

The Imamura strong-motion seismograph was transferred from Wellington to Takaka in January, Immediately after the Hawke's Bay earthquake on the 3rd February a Milne-Jaggar shock-recorder was placed at Hastings for recording aftershocks. On the 30th April this seismograph station was discontinued, until August, when it was re-established at the New Plymouth Prison. A Milne seismograph has continued in operation at the Magnetic Observatory, Christchurch.

A set of Wiechert seismographs with mechanical registration is installed at the Observatory at Apia, Samoa. One twin-boom Milne seismograph is installed at Suva, Fiji, and by the courtesy of the Government of Fiji the seismograms are forwarded to the Dominion Observatory. The Fiji records are useful in supplementing those of New Zealand.

The records of the New Zealand stations are sent to the General Secretary of the Seismological Committee of the British Association, to the Station Centrale Seismological, Strasbourg, France, and to the principal observatories of the world. The following table gives the number of earthquakes recorded on the seismographs at the various New Zealand stations:—.

N OTE. The numbers given for Christchurch are those from the Wood-Anderson seismograph only, which was established in July. The following is a complete summary of earthquakes as reported felt in New Zealand for the Year —. Since there has been established in New Zealand a system of observing local earthquakes at selected telegraph-stations, and more recently at lighthouses distributed throughout the extent of the Dominion.

Whenever a shook occurs and is felt by an officer in charge of one of these stations he fills up a form giving the New Zealand mean time of the beginning of the shock, its apparent duration and direction, and the principal effects observed by him. Some of the officers exhibit considerable care and skill in making up these returns, and the data have been used to determine principal origins of earthquakes within the New Zealand region.

A number of private observers also assist in reporting earthquakes. The following table gives the number of earthquakes in , in which the maximum intensity reached various numbers in the Rossi-Forel scale of intensity:—. The maximum intensity experienced in each of the years to inclusive is given in the following table:—. Prior to the Hawke's Hay earthquake on 3rd February, , deaths due to earthquakes in New Zealand were very few. The following table gives the number of deaths due to earthquakes which have occurred since —. The rapid increase in the number of deaths in recent years must be regarded as a natural consequence of the increase in population and settlement.

It is not necessarily due to increasing seismic activity. An important factor in considering the havoc wrought by an earthquake is the position of the epicentre with regard to the centres of population. The Buller earthquake of June, , and the Hawke's Bay earthquake of February, , are both classed as seismological disturbances of the first magnitude, and both would have been attended by equally disastrous results had they occurred in equally populated districts.

This was not the case however: the centre of the Buller earthquake was in a sparsely populated region, whilst that of the Hawke's Bay earthquake was within a few miles of two thickly populated towns. Hence the difference in the number of deaths caused by these two great upheavals.

The following article on the climate of New Zealand has been prepared by Dr. Kidson, O. As was the case last year, it has been possible to allot only a small space for the article on climate. The discussion is confined, therefore, to a few aspects. In last year's article data were given for certain stations. This year, in order to extend the information, a somewhat different set will be used.

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Where data regarding a particular district are found lacking, they will frequently be found on referring to earlier numbers of the Year-Book. It causes us much personal discomfort, but the production of the food by which we live depends directly on the availability of moisture from this source. The distribution of annual rainfall is shown in the accompanying map.

Its control by topography is very conspicuous. Areas exposed to the westerly winds have heavier rains than those protected from them by mountain ranges. Next, the greater the altitude, the greater in general is the precipitation. There must be a limit beyond which precipitation begins to decrease again with altitude, but this has not yet been determined in New Zealand. The indications are that precipitation is heaviest between 3, ft. The annual total varies from about 13 in.

The distribution of the precipitation throughout the year is little less important than its total amount, the effect of rainfall in winter, for example, being very different from that in summer. There are three principal factors controlling the annual variation of rainfall in New Zealand. The first of these is the proximity to the high-pressure belt in the subtropics. In this belt the rainfall year is divided into a dry summer and a wet winter season.

We will call this distribution type A. As the distance from the high-pressure belt increases, the contrast between summer and winter decreases, so that by the time southern New Zealand is reached the variation due to this factor is small. The next most important factor is the influence of the prevailing westerly winds. These bring rains to the areas exposed to them, while those which are protected from them by mountain ranges have little rain when the westerlies are blowing. Now, the westerly winds are strongest in spring, the maximum How being in October.

There is a temporary drop in February, followed by a partial recovery in the autumn, but the How is least in winter. The regime of the westerly winds, therefore, tends to produce a second type of annual variation, type C, in which the rainfall is heaviest in spring, falls somewhat in the late summer, increases again in the autumn, and falls to a minimum in winter. The third factor is the convection which takes place during periods of light winds, clear skies, and intense sunshine, especially when the preceding winds have brought, cold air over the land from the South. After conditions of the type mentioned have endured for several days, the convection is likely to be so intense as to produce local showers.

These are often heavy, sometimes accompanied by thunder, and occasionally of the nature of local cloud-bursts. Rainfall of this type is most common in the interior of continents. Being caused by solar radiation, it is most frequent when solar radiation is strongest—namely, in summer. According to type B. Table 1. T ABLE 1. Type C is developed strongly in Westland and the south-west Fiord country. It is shown fairly well by Hokitika, but much more distinctly if the data for a number of West Coast stations be combined. It is dominant in the far South, in the mountains of Nelson, and in the portion of the North Island not yet referred to.

In this latter are? Most districts show the effect of the westerly winds in a relatively high rainfall in October, but this is least noticeable in the low country east of the main ranges. The areas where type C dominates are those with the heaviest rainfall. Type B is dominant in the interior and southern portions of Canterbury and the central and eastern portions of Otago, and is characteristic of the dry areas of the provinces mentioned. The summer rains of this type are of great importance to the farming communities in the interior of Canterbury and Otago.

The regime of annual rainfall experienced had an important influence in determining the nature of the primitive vegetation in the various districts. Table 2. T ABLE 2. Next to the amount and the annual variation of precipitation, the frequency with which it falls is its most important characteristic.

In Table 2 the average number of days with rain in each month is given for some representative stations. A day with rain is one on which 0. Generally speaking, there is a fairly close relationship in New Zealand between the amount of rain and the number of rain days, but the latter is not directly proportional to the rainfall.

There are considerable areas on the west coast of the South Island, for instance, which have ten or more times as much rain as the driest portions of the interior, but only about double the number of rain days. Marlborough seems to have a small number of wet days compared with its rainfall. To the south of New Zealand there is a rapid increase in cloudiness, showers fall with great frequency, and the number of rain days becomes high. This effect begins to be felt at Stewart Island, as can be seen from the data for Half-moon Bay.

New Zealand is extremely fortunate in that even where the rainfall is very heavy, intervals between rains are almost everywhere sufficiently frequent and prolonged to ensure adequate drainage, while there is enough sunshine to dry the soil-surface. Otherwise, large areas in the west and south would be covered with peat. But it is much less variable, and in the Southern Hemisphere, especially, is largely determined by latitude. Its influence is, therefore, taken much more for granted. The specification of the temperature of a place is, however, not so simple a matter as might appear.

Many different factors are involved in the determination of the precise temperatures experienced in any locality. The sea, for instance, responds very slowly to both daily and yearly changes in the amount of heat received from the sun, while on the land the response is rapid. Consequently, the nearer a station is to the sea the smaller are its daily and yearly fluctuations of temperature. It is to this effect that the principal difference between a continental and a marine climate is due.

Although New Zealand is narrow, the high ranges shield the country to the cast of them to a considerable extent, so that there is a nearer approach to continental conditions than would otherwise be expected, particularly in the interior of Canterbury and Otago. Again, on plain country the air tends to stagnate, especially at night. At night-time the surface layer cools rapidly through radiation from the ground, while during the day it becomes heated by the sun.

There is less stagnation in the warm layer of the daytime than in the cold layer of the night. Consequently, stations on level plains or plateaux tend to be subject to frost and to have a relatively low mean temperature. The effect is accentuated near the slopes of hills because the cold air flows away down the slopes to lower levels. The hills, therefore, gain freedom from frost at the expense of the plains.

In windy situations, also, the susceptibility to frost is lowered owing to the prevention of stagnation. Apart from the effects due to air-drainage and windiness, the temperature decreases with altitude. It is unsound, therefore, to compare, for example, temperatures recorded at Thorndon, Wellington, which was only 12 ft. Such a procedure would lead to the erroneous conclusion that the climate had become colder. If charts of mean temperature are to be prepared it is clear that they will be very complicated, especially in a mountainous country like New Zealand, owing to this effect of altitude.

This has been done in Table 3. The Rotorua values, for example, have been increased by 2. If the actual temperature is required, it can be found by reversing this process. In New Zealand publications it has been the general practice to derive monthly mean temperatures from the means of the daily maximum and minimum. But, even on the average, the mean of the maximum and minimum differs slightly from the true mean for the day.

The correction to the mean for the day has been determined, from the records of thermographs, with fair accuracy at Wellington and more roughly at several other places. In table 3, therefore, the temperatures are reduced to sea-level and mean of day. For the remainder of the temperature tables the observed readings have been used without-correction. All are in Fahrenheit degrees. Table 3. T ABLE 3. The stations given in the above table were chosen with a view to illustrating the effect of changing latitude, the difference between east and west coasts, especially in the South Island, and the contrast between coastal and inland conditions.

Table 4. T ABLE 4. Table 5. T ABLE 5. Table 6. TABLE 6. Table 7. T ABLE. Table 8. Table 9. TABLE 9. Table TABLE The accompanying tables Nos. The first line gives the average of the maximum temperatures as observed each day, the second the average of the highest temperatures observed in each month and the year, and the third the highest yet recorded. Corresponding information regarding minimum temperatures follows. This gives some idea of the susceptibility to severe frosts, such as would affect fruit-trees. The last line gives the number of ground frosts. According to the British Convention, a ground frost is recorded when the grass minimum thermometer falls below In the preparation of these tables some of the older records have, for various reasons, been discarded.

T ABLE Sunshine —In Table II are listed for each month and the year the average number of hours of sunshine at all places from which a sufficiently long record is available. The greatest amounts are recorded at places protected from the prevailing winds by high mountain ranges. The excellence of New Zealand's climate, particularly for the growth of pasture, is undoubtedly due to the abundance of sunshine combined with a high rainfall and an absence of extreme temperatures.

Most of the fogs recorded are shallow radiation fogs occurring only in the early morning. During the approach of cyclonic depressions, however, widespread and persistent fog is a frequent occurrence. Occasionally parts of the coast are affected by fog in calm weather. The landlocked harbours and estuaries of North Auckland, as illustrated by the record from Rangiahua on Hokianga Harbour, appear to be unusually susceptible.

In the interior and at high altitudes it occurs more frequently. On the summits of the ranges in the whole length of the South Island and on the highest peaks in the North Island snow falls, on the average, on over thirty days per annum. In the interior of the South Island there is a considerable area of settled country which is subject to half that, number. Towards the coast, however, the number falls off rapidly. Data regarding snow lying are scanty.

In the North Island any snow falling on the low levels almost invariably melts as it falls, but on the high plateaux it may lie, especially in the hollows, for from one to three weeks during the year. In the South Island it practically never lies at low levels on the north or west coasts, but on the east coast does so on a few days in some years. At altitudes between ft. Railway traffic is interfered with by snow to an almost negligible extent.

It occurs more often in spring than at other times of year. The majority of the hailstorms recorded, however, are harmless, the stones being quite small. These are usually associated with thunderstorms, and are probably little less numerous on the east coast than the west and in the North Island as in the South. They are very rare in eastern districts in winter. Strong Winds. The figures for Wellington show the effect of the concentration of the winds through Cook Strait.

The month was a stormy one and temperatures were still somewhat below average. The rain was particularly heavy on the west coast of the South Island, the southern half having probably the wettest January since settlement commenced. Some flooding occurred. Parts of the eastern districts in both Islands had less than the average precipitation. In the strength and frequency of north-westerly winds it resembled one of the spring months. Rainfall was much below normal in eastern and northern portions of the North Island. In the South Island south from Nelson it was above normal, southern districts again having a very wet time.

The growth of vegetation was retarded. March was very dry, but the effect of the dry conditions was mitigated by cool temperatures and an absence of wind. In the Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay districts the situation was relieved by good rains. The first of these occurred on the 2nd and 3rd, and was accompanied by northerly gales, which were very strong about Cook Strait. In parts of the Tararua Mountains and northern Nelson rains of unprecedented amount were recorded. The highest known floods occurred in the Hutt and Otaki rivers.

Extraordinary high tides occurred at Nelson. On the coast of Westland there was a remarkable accumulation of foam. In places it was heaped up to a height of 8 f t. This storm occurred, unfortunately, at the beginning of the Easter holidays. Much damage was done and several accidents were caused, two lives being lost. The second period of severe storm was between the 7th and the 12th. The southerly gale on the 11th was only slightly less severe than the northerly previously mentioned.

The month was, in the mean, cool, but there was no very severe cold spell. The heavy rains connected with the storms produced a considerable improvement in the condition of pastures in most districts. The rainfall was approximately normal in Westland and Stewart Island, hut elsewhere only about half the average. A number of extensive snowfalls occurred. That on the 19th to the 20th was in many places the heaviest for the past thirty to fifty years. For the third month in succession rainfall continued to be deficient in South Canterbury and North Otago.

Elsewhere precipitation was above normal. Mean temperatures did not depart much from the average. Temperatures were below normal and frosts were numerous. A severe north-west gale occurred on the 12th, damage being done in Canterbury. The weather was stormy, southerly winds predominating. Growth of pasture remained backward and there was considerable mortality amongst lambs.

Most districts had more than the average rainfall. A widespread fall of snow occurred on the night of the 5th, being particularly heavy in the central portion of the North Island. Another severe northerly gale was experienced in Canterbury on the 8th, trees, fences, and telegraph-lines being damaged. A violent thunderstorm struck Reefton on the night of the 8th.

Windows were cracked and the telephone and electric-light systems thrown into confusion. October provided a marked contrast with the preceding months of the year. The weather was mainly fine, with a prevalence of warm northerly winds and bright sunshine. The 24th was an exception, a bitter cold southerly on that day bringing hail and snow showers to many parts of the South Island and the central portion of the North.

In the severe frost which followed, much damage was done to orchards and tender vegetation. Rainfall during the month was almost everywhere below average. On the 10th, for the third time since the beginning of August, a north-westerly gale wrought considerable destruction on the Canterbury Plains.

Heavy rain in the Alps caused floods in the Canterbury and West Coast rivers. On the 20th a northerly gale reached its greatest severity at Dunedin, where damage was done to buildings, fences, and gardens. The wind was the strongest experienced in the city for many years. November was another fine and very warm month.

Many places had the highest mean temperature recorded for November. Numerous thunderstorms occurred. On the 12th a particularly severe one, accompanied by deluges of rain, affected the Waimarino and Waipukurau districts. On the 24th to the 25th there was another isolated cold snap. Hail was widespread on the 24th and particularly severe at Leeston and Seafield in Canterbury. The frost of the following night caused much damage to orchards and vegetable crops in Canterbury and Otago. The rainfall was again below average. Heavy and general rains in the middle portion were of great benefit to crops and pastures.

The rainfall in most eastern districts, however, still remained below normal. Thunderstorms were again frequent. Indeed, east of the main ranges from East Cape to Cook Strait the year was the driest recorded. Feed was very scarce in these districts, and stock in many eases in very poor condition. In the South Island, mainly owing to heavy rains in January and February, there was as great an excess of rain on the west coast as there had been a deficit in In some of the wettest country the normal was exceeded by as much as 50 in.

East of the ranges, practically all the plain country had much less than the average. For most of these parts the driest year known is , and so far as annual totals are concerned, was not so dry. In South Canterbury and North Otago, however, the cumulative effect of and was little less severe. Some wheat crops were entire failures, and in Canterbury, Marlborough, and parts of Otago pastures were generally in a very bad condition by the end of the year. Nevertheless, in all provinces there were areas where conditions were good, and in the country as a whole production was maintained at a high level.

Temperatures were below normal, but not nearly so much so as in For the mean pressure in inches reduced to sea-level and standard gravity was: Auckland, Cockayne, C. Honorary Botanist, State Forest Service :—. For various reasons the plant-life of New Zealand is of peculiar interest, especially its extreme isolation from other land-masses, its flora of diverse origin but with an astonishing number of endemic species and group after group of wild hybrids, the numerous and often peculiar life-forms of its members, its having developed unmolested by grazing and browsing mammals, and its vegetation, so diversified that only a continent extending into the tropics can claim an equality.

Nearly 79 per cent, of this flora is found wild in no other land endemic , and the remaining species are chiefly Australian , and the balance subantarctic South American 58 , Cosmopolitan in a narrow sense most also Australian , Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, and Polynesian; while a good many of the families and genera are Malayan, which tropical element found its way to New Zealand during a great extension of its area northwards in the early Tertiary period.

The high endemism of the flora is not confined to the species, for there are 39 purely New Zealand genera, some of which are only very distantly related to genera elsewhere— e. The specially large families and genera, together with the number of species each contains, are as follows: Families— Compositae daisy family , ; Filices ferns , ; Cyperaceae sedge family , ; Gramineae grass family , ; Umbelliferae carrot family , 89; Orchidaceae orchids , 71; Ranunculaceae buttercup family , 01; Rubiaccae coprosma family , 55; Onagraceae willowherb family , 45; Epacridaceae Australian -heath family , 44; Leguminosae pea family , 38; Boraginaceae forget-me-not family , Genera— Hebe koromikos , 66 at a low estimate; Carex sedges , 59; Celmisia mountain-daisies , 56 at least; Coprosma karamus , 48; Ranunculus buttercups ,47 at least; Epilobium willowherbs , 41; Olearia daisy-trees , 35; Senecio groundsels, mostly ligneous , 35; Poa poa grasses , 33; Myosotis forget-menots , 32; and there are 10 other genera with 20 to 30 species, and 11 with from 13 to 19 species.

It is not of necessity the large genera which dominate the landscape, for some of the smallest are of particular moment in this regard— e. Besides the species and their varieties, the flora contains, according to recent research, no less than groups of hybrids some with hundreds of distinct forms between the species, together with many within the species themselves between their varieties; nor is this all, for there are a few well-marked hybrids between certain genera—e.

How widespread in New Zealand is wild hybridism appears from the fact that hybrids are now known to occur in 44 families and genera; and were it not that many species never come into contact there would be still more hybrids, for certain species which never meet in nature have spontaneously given rise to hybrid progenies when planted side by side in gardens.

This new knowledge concerning natural hybridism is already making radical changes in the classification of New Zealand plants, and it may also have a profound bearing on plant classification in general and on theories of evolution. Coming next to the primary biological groups of which the flora is composed, the following gives the name of each class and the number of species it contains: Trees including 12 tree-ferns , ; shrubs, ; semi-woody plants including 10 ferns with short trunks , ; herbaceous plants including 93 ferns which grow on the ground ,; grasslike plants, ; rushlike plants, 49; climbing-plants mostly ligneous, and including 7 ferns , 51; perching-plants both ligneous and herbaceous, and including 26 ferns , 45; parasites mostly ligneous , 17; water-plants all herbaceous , These biological classes are made up of many life-forms—i.

In no few instances a plant can modify its form as its habitat changes or if it moves to a different habitat from that to which it is accustomed. Further, the flora contains quite a number of life-forms rare or wanting in many other floras. Not the least interesting feature in this matter of life-forms is the presence in the flora of or more seed-plants which for a longer or shorter period have a juvenile form quite distinct from that of the adult; while in about species the plant remains for many years—it may exceed fifty—a juvenile, and in these eases such may blossom and produce seed, the tree juvenile below and adult above—two species, as it were, on the one plant.

In some instances so different are juvenile and adult-that accomplished botanists have described them as different species. How widespread is the phenomenon stands out clearly from the fact that these species belong to 30 families and 50 genera, and that 51 are trees, 82 shrubs, 19 woody climbing-plants, 10 herbaceous plants, and 3 water-plants; a few ferns exhibit the same peculiarity.

Rome of the commonest trees come into the above category—e. Taking the flora as a whole, a large proportion of the species are evergreen; conspicuous flowers are far from common; annuals and plants which die yearly to the ground are rare; water-plants are few in number; turf-making grasses are not abundant; and bulbous plants are almost negligible.

Altitude, on the one hand, and proximity to the coast, on the other, have a profound bearing on the distribution of the species. Thus about species are confined to the coast-lino or its immediate vicinity, and 9 families and 35 genera containing 41 species are virtually coastal. Then there are about species which are confined to the lowlands and lower hills, and there are no less than 24 families and genera which are purely lowland.

Finally, there is a plentiful high-mountain Flora, with about species belonging to 38 families and 87 genera, which never descend to the lowlands, but as compared with the lowland flora the number of genera only 16 confined to the high-mountain-hell is trifling. On the other hand, Cook Strait and Foveaux Strait are of but little moment as barriers to advance or retreat. Far greater is the influence of wet and dry local climates, which is most striking; when two such areas impinge on one another as in the case of the wet area which extends from the Tasman Sea to near the eastern base of the Main Divide, which is forest-clad to the timber-line, and the dry area extending thence to the east coast, which is clothed with tussock-grassland.

In the dry area of Marlborough and the contiguous wet western area of north-western Nelson, there are 36 species confined to the dry area locally endemic and 39 to the wet area. So, too, dry Central Otago possesses 15 locally endemic species. Speaking of the distribution of the species in a wide sense, there is every transition, from those which extend continuously from the north of the North Island to Stewart Island to those found in only one limited area e.

The physical features of New Zealand; its many types of climate, especially with regard to the annual rainfall and the number of rainy days; its varied altitude, ranging from sea-level to the snowfields of the Southern Alps; its many kinds of soils, particularly their water-holding capacity; the diverse frost-tolerating ability of the species; their aggressive powers—largely a matter of their life-forms and inherent plasticity—all these and other factors have led to a most varied vegetation made up of a host of plant communities, some of which appear out of place in the Temperate Zone.

Thus between tide-marks in the northern rivers and estuaries there is a true mangrove community—an unexpected occurrence outside of the tropics; and even so far south as north-western Nelson groves of tall palm trees are a striking feature. But, more than all else of an unexpected character— though familiar enough to all New-Zealanders—is the lowland forest, which resembles in no whit the forests of temperate Europe, Asia, or America, but is a true tropical rain-forest. This tropical character is shown in its groups of tall tree ferns, which may exceed 40 ft.

Rarely does one tall canopy tree dominate, but the uppermost story of the forest is constructed out of the crowns of various kinds of trees growing side by side, just as the undergrowth is composed of many species. But no forest is homogeneous in its structure, for differences in the topography of the area, in the water content of the soil, and in the relative amount of light in the interior of the forest, lead to various combinations of species. Taking the New Zealand forests of all kinds for the whole of the region, their species number ferns and their allies , conifers 19, monocotyledons 70, dicotyledons , and they belong to 70 families and genera , the largest of which are: Families — Ferns, ; Rubiaceae , 34; Compositae , 32 but most are confined to subalpine scrub-forest ; Cyperaceae , 25; Orchidaceae , 23; Pittosporaceae , 21; Myrtaceae, 18; Araliaceae, As for the biological groups of forest, they are as follows: Trees, but a good many are frequently shrubs also ; shrubs, 84; herbaceous and semi-woody plants 56; grasslike and rushlike plants, 29; climbing-plants, 33; perching-plants, 17; parasites, 14; and ferns, The considerable number of species for the whole New Zealand community may easily lead to an exaggerated estimate of the number of species to be found in any ordinary piece of forest, even though of considerable extent.

Another class of forest, though usually possessing many rain-forest characteristics, is that where one or more species of southern-beach Nothofagus —there, are 5 species and very many hybrids dominate. Generally they are restricted to the mountains, but in places they descend to sea-level in southern Wellington, northern Marlborough and Nelson, and to the west of the coastal mountains of western Nelson and of the Southern Alps.

Throughout the high mountains the southern-beech forests generally form the uppermost forest belt. Nothofagus forest differs from lowland rain-forest in possessing about one-half the number of species and in lacking the exuberant richness of the forest interior, due largely to its comparative poverty in small trees, diversity of shrubs, climbing plants, perching-plants, and ferns, as also to the forest-floor and tree-trunks being but scantily covered, or draped, with filmy ferns, mosses, and the like. A fundamental difference, and one of great economic importance, is that southern-beach forest regenerates into forest of the same class, while rain-forest proper slowly changes into forest dominated by trees of small commercial value, such replacing the valuable timber-trees kauri, podocarps when those die; also, all the southern-beeches, as compared with other tall New Zealand trees, are of far more rapid growth.

Where water lies hero and there in shallow pools and the soil is always saturated with moisture there is semi-swamp forest which is of a true rain-forest character, though not directly dependant on a heavy rainfall, its composition depending upon the ability of many rain-forest species to tolerate a constantly wot substratum.

Its most marked characteristic is the overwhelming dominance of one tall tree, the kahikatea Podocarpus dacrydioides , the tall mast-like trunks of which, standing closely side by side, and their absurdly small crowns, stamp the community as absolutely distinct in appearance from any other typo of forest; while in the North Island its physiognomy is made still more remarkable by the astonishing number of asteliads perched on its branches, and resembling gigantic birds' nests. The florula for semi-swamp forest, as a whole, consists of about species, but of these only 4 species are confined almost exclusively to the community.

The forest under consideration bids fair in a few years to become almost a thing of the past, since the dominant tree is being rapidly converted into timber for butter-boxes, and the ground occupied by the forest is usually of a high class for dairy-farms. Proximity to the sea leads to a class of forest distinct from the usual lowland type in its composition, in the much lower stature of its members, and in the extreme density of its roof, the last two characters induced by the frequent more or less salt-laden winds.

The maritime climate favours the presence of trees which will not tolerate frost, so that a number of well-known trees and shrubs are confined, or nearly so, to coastal forest— e. In addition to forest, the other great New Zealand plant-community dependent on climate is tussock-grassland. This community is of but little moment in the North Island except on the volcanic plateau and the highest mountains, but in the South Island it was the original plant-covering of most of the country to the east of the Divide of the Southern Alps, excepting northern Marlborough, northern Nelson, and parts of Southland.

It extends from sea-level to the upper subalpine belt of the mountains, but is loss continuous at high than at low levels. It also occupies some of the lowland and montane river-valleys of north-western Nelson and Westland, and ascends to the subalpine western slopes of the mountains.

Raoulii var. Taking lowland and montane low tussock-grass land together, and excluding tall tussock-grassland, since they occupy a far more extensive area, and leaving out of the estimate the 74 or so exotic species now firmly established, the number of species they contain for the whole area is ferns and fern allies 10, monocotyledons 66, dicotyledons , which belong to 38 families and genera, the largest being: Families - Gramineae, 36; Compositae, 35; and Cyperaceae, Leguminosae, and Onagraceae, each As for the biological groups, they and the number of species to each are as follows: Trees, 2; shrubs, 31; tussocks, 13; other plants of the gras3 form, 43; herbaceous plants, 90; semi-woody plants, 30; and ferns, 7.

About 85 of the species are drought-tolerating. Where water can accumulate and remain fairly permanent, yet not too deep to hinder land-plants rooting in the mud, there is swamp. Except forest, no class of vegetation has been so greatly altered by man, or even destroyed, so that really primitive swamps are almost unknown. The florula consists of about 74 species, which belong to 18 families and 37 genera.

The following are specially common species: Raupo Typha angustifolia , frequently dominant; New Zealand flax Phormium tenax , dominant in drained swamp; niggerheads Carex secta, C. When, as frequently happens, the swamp gradually dries up, the number of shrubs increases and an early stage of semi-swamp forest is produced. At the present time, especially in the North Island and the north of the South Island, wide areas are occupied by bracken-fern Pteridium esculentum or by manuka Leptospermum scoparium , for the most part caused by fire; yet as fire was a natural agency in primitive New Zealand in the vicinity of active volcanoes, there would be natural communities of the above character.

Both communities if left alone would in time change into forest. Manuka shrubland is a common feature of the Auckland gumlands, where also, in hollows, bogs are abundant, which, as for lowland New Zealand in general, are distinguished by pale hummocks of bog-moss Sphagnum , a small umbrella-fern Gleichenia circinata , and a wiry rushlike plant, the wire-rush Hypolaena lateriflora.

On these bogs grow several kinds of sundew Drosera and bladderwort Utricularia. The vegetation of the high mountains is both of great scientific interest and full of rare beauty. It is composed of no less than species, and it is certain that a good many more species will be discovered. How strongly of New Zealand origin is the flora is revealed by the fact that of the purely high-mountain species all except 16 are endemic, and probably 5 of those are endemic also.

The headquarters of the true high-mountain species is in the South Island, their total being , as compared with for the North Island, a matter which should cause no surprise since the area for plants above the forest-line is far and away less than in the South Island, where also the average height of the mountains is much greater.

Though the high mountains contain only 16 genera which do not descend to the lowlands, 8 of them are endemic.

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But there are 40 genera which, possessing but few truly lowland species, are well represented by purely high-mountain species, e. With but few exceptions the most beautiful flowers of New Zealand belong to the high-mountain flora, so that in due season many plant-communities are natural flower-gardens of extreme loveliness. There are the giant buttercups, white and yellow—but nearly all the flowers are of these colours—which may be seen by the acre; the lovely ourisias, with the flowers in whorls round the stem, tier above tier, as in some of the Asiatic primulas, or the glistening green leaves, as in O.

But above all other plants of the mountains, not only for their beauty of flower, leaf, and form, but for their abundance in all situations, come the various species of Celmisia. Their aromatic fragrance fills the air; from early till late summer some of their white heads of blossom may be seen, while in due season, gregarious species clothe both wet herb-field and dry, stony slopes with sheets of white. The life-forms of the high-mountain plants are in great variety and frequently of striking appearance.

Cushion-plants, rosette-plants, mat-forming plants, and stiff-stemmed shrubs are greatly in evidence. Hairiness, leathery texture, and surprising rigidity, perhaps accompanied by needle-like points, as in the giant spaniards Aciphylla Colensoi, A. There are many plant-communities composed of combinations of tussock-grasses, herbaceous plants, semi-woody plants, dwarf or creeping shrubs, and cushion-plants which are sometimes dense enough, and sometimes so open that there is more stony ground than vegetation. No loss than 33 species occupy this inhospitable station, 25 of which are confined thereto.

So far apart do the species grow—frequently many yards— that they bear no relation to each other. Their life-forms are clearly in harmony with the peculiar environment. All have thick fleshy or leathery leaves, frequently of the grey colour of the stones. In 16 species the part above the ground is annual; the shoots nearly always lie close to the stones, but if buried they have the faculty of growing upwards again.

One species, Cotula atrata, has a jet-black flower-head, with stamens like tiny golden pin-heads. Shrubland is common in the mountains, the most characteristic being the subalpine scrub, which on many mountains forms a dense belt above the timber-line. That typical of a wet climate consists of rigid or wiry-stemmed shrubs which grow into one another, and the main branches of many are parallel to the slope and project downwards.


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The scrub may be so dense that one must either crawl beneath it or walk on its treacherous roof. For the whole of the region the community consists of about species, belonging to 28 families and 49 genera. The chief groups of plants which compose the scrub are shrubby composites and epacrids, wiry shrubs with densely entangled twigs mainly species of Coprosma , species of Hebe, Phormium Colensoi, various podocarps, and giant spaniards. On river-terraces scrubs with species of Hebe dominant are frequent, and fringing stony river-beds there is often an open scrub of wild-irishman Discaria toumatou —one of the few spinous plants in the flora.

Rock-vegetation is always of interest, and this is particularly so in the high mountains. The number of species occurring on rocks is about families, 36; genera, About 44 species are virtually confined to rocks, and such include a dwarf fern Polypodium pumilum , certain rosette plants at present referred to the genus Nasturlium , one or two dwarf spaniards and a few forget-me-nots, hebes, celmisias, and raoulias.

The floras of the following groups of islands, far distant from the mainland, are distinctly part of that of New Zealand. The Kermadecs contain species of ferns, fern-allies, and seed-plants, 10 of which are endemic, while 89 belong also to New Zealand proper. The largest island Sunday Island is covered with forest in which a variety of Metrosideros collina, a near relative of the pohutukawa, is the principal tree.

The Chatham Islands possess at least species, of which 36 are endemic, though several of the latter are trivial varieties merely, while the remainder of the flora is, with one exception, found on the mainland. Forest, moor, and heath are the principal plant communities. The leading tree is the karaka, but by the Moriori called kopi. On the moors are great, thickets of a lovely purple-flowered shrub, Olearia semidentata. There are two remarkable endemic genera, Coxella and Myosotidium, the former belonging to the carrot family, and the latter a huge forget-me-not, now nearly extinct.

The subantarctic islands Snares, Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, Macquarie have a dense vegetation made up of species, no fewer than 60 of which are endemic, the remainder being found in New Zealand, but chiefly in the mountains. Forest is found only on the Snares and the Aucklands, with a species of Olearia and the southern-rata as the dominant trees respectively. Extremely dense scrubs occur on the Auckland and Campbell Islands, and moor sometimes with huge tussocks, is a characteristic feature of all the islands, thanks to the enormous peat deposits and the frequent rain.

Several herbaceous plants of stately form species of Pleurophyllum, Anisotome, Stilbocarpa , and Celmisia and with flowers of extreme beauty—some of them purple in colour—occur in great profusion. The Cook Islands, though a part of the Dominion, possess a Polynesian flora quite distinct from that of New Zealand, and are excluded form this notice, while, on the contrary, the flora of the Macquarie Islands belonging to Tasmania is a portion of that of New Zealand.

Besides the indigenous, an important introduced element, consisting of about species, mostly European, has followed in the wake of settlement. These aliens are in more or less active competition with the true natives. There is a widespread but quite erroneous opinion that the latter are being eradicated in the struggle.

This is not the case. Where the vegetation has never been disturbed by man there are no foreign plants; but where man, with his farming operations, stock, and burning, has brought about European conditions, then certainly the indigenous plants have frequently given way before artificial meadows and arable land, with their economic plants and accompanying weeds.

But in many places associations not present in primitive New Zealand have appeared, owing to man's influence, composed principally, or altogether, of indigenous species. On the tussock-grassland invader and aboriginal have met, and though the original vegetation is changed there is no reason to consider the one class or the other as the conqueror. Finally, partly of exotic plants and partly of those indigenous to the soil, will occupy the land, and, save in the national parks and scenic reserves, but only if these and kept build up a vegetation different from that of primeval New Zealand.

The above brief sketch of the flora and vegetation is obviously most incomplete. Laing and E. Blackwell, ed. Cockayne and E. Dobbie, ed. Kirk, , must not be overlooked. The fauna of New Zealand is briefly described in the following article by Mr. James Drummond, F. New Zealand's native fauna has attracted the attention of investigators in nearly all parts of the world. Its special interest lies in its manifold peculiarities, V in the incongruous characters possessed by some of its members, and in the ancient types found in different classes of its animals.

Beginning with the mammalia, the Dominion is surprisingly inadequately represented. Its only land-mammals, except seals, are two bats. One of these, the long-tailed bat, belongs to a genus Chalinolobus which is found in the Australian and Ethiopian zoological regions, and to a species morio found in the south-east of Australia as well as in New Zealand; but the other, the short-tailed bat Mystacops tuberculatus , belongs to a genus peculiar to this Dominion. The dog was highly prized as a domestic pet, and the rat as an article of diet.

Both could easily be taken across the sea in the large canoes used in those days. The dog, without doubt, is extinct. Statements by Captain Cook, J. Forster, Sydney Parkinson the artist , the Rev. Colenso, and early visitors to New Zealand show that the Maori dog was a very ordinary animal. It was small, with a pointed nose, pricked ears, and very small eyes.

In colour it was white, black, brown, or parti-coloured, and it had long hair, short legs, a short bushy tail, and no loud bark, but only a whine. The Maoris lavished upon it an abundance of affection. When dead its flesh was used for food, its skin for clothing, and its hair for ornaments. It is probable that the pure Maori dog became extinct about The Maori rat, a forest-dweller, is not as plentiful as it was when Europeans first came to New Zealand, but it still lives in the forests. The long-tailed species of bat was once fairly plentiful, especially in the forests, where it makes its home in hollow trees.

Large numbers also at one time were found under old bridges across streams, notably at the River Avon, in Christchurch. It is not very rare now, and specimens sometimes are found in the forests and in caves. The short-tailed species is not extinct, but rare. Most bats are exceptionally well adapted for life in the air, feeding on flying insects, and even drinking on the wing. But the short-tailed species of New Zealand possesses peculiarities of structure which enable it to creep and crawl with ease on the branches and leaves of trees, and probably it seeks its food there as well as in the air.

Few naturalists, however, have had opportunities to observe it, and little is known of its habits. The addition of the three principal rounds to the symbolism, is wholly modern and incongruous. There were seven heavens and seven spheres of these planets; on all the monuments of Mithras are seven altars or pyres, consecrated to the seven planets, as were the seven lamps of the golden candelabrum in the Temple. That these represented the planets, we are assured by Clemens of Alexandria, in his Stromata, and by Philo Judaeus.

To return to its source in the Infinite, the human soul, the ancients held, had to ascend, as it had descended, through the seven spheres. The Ladder by which it reascends, has, according to Marsilius Ficinus, in his Commentary on the Ennead of Plotinus, seven degrees or steps; Jacob saw the Spirits of God ascending and descending on it; and above it the Deity Himself. The Mithraic Mysteries were celebrated in caves, [later Mithraism was noteably corrupted] where gates were marked at the four equinoctial and solstitial points of the Zodiac; We learn this from Celsus, in his book Origen, who says that the symbolic image of this passage among the stars, used in the Mithraic Mysteries, was a ladder reaching from earth to Heaven, divided into seven steps or stages, to each of which was a gate, and at the summit an eighth one, that of the fixed stars.

The symbol was the same as that of the seven stages of Borsippa, the Pyramid of vitrified brick, near Babylon, built of seven stages, and each of a different colour. In the Mithraic ceremonies, the candidate went through seven stages of initiation, passing through many fearful trials --and of these the high ladder with seven rounds or steps was the symbol.

You see the Lodge, its details and ornaments, by its Lights. You have already heard what these Lights, the greater and lesser, are said to be, and how they are spoken of by our Brethren of the York Rite. The Holy Bible, Square, and Compasses, are not only styled the Great Lights in Masonry, yet they are also technically called the Furniture of the Lodge; and, as you have seen, it is held that there is no Lodge without them.

This has sometimes been made a pretext for excluding Jews from our Lodges, because they cannot regard the New Testament to be a holy book. The Bible is an indispensable part of the furniture of Christian Lodges, only because it is the sacred book of the Christian religion. The oath of the candidate is always to be taken on the sacred book or books of his religion, that he may deem it more solemn and binding; and therefore it was that you were asked of what religion you were. We have no other concern with your religious creed. The Square is a right angle, formed by two right lines.

It is adapted only to a plane surface, and belongs only to geometry, earth-measurement, that trigonometry which deals only with planes, and with the earth, which the ancients supposed to be a plane. The Compass describes circles, and deals with spherical trigonometry, the science of the spheres and-heavens.

The former, therefore, is an emblem of what concerns the earth and the body; the latter of what concerns the heavens and the soul. Yet the Compass is also used in plane trigonometry, as in erecting perpendiculars; The nations are not bodies politic alone, yet also souls-politic; and woe to that people that, seeking the material only, forgets that it has a soul. Then we have a race, petrified in dogma, -which presupposes the absence of a soul and the presence only of memory and instinct, -or demoralized by lucre. Such a nature can never lead civilization. Genuflexion before the idol or the dollar atrophies the muscle which walks and the will which moves.

Hieratic or mercantile absorption diminishes the radiance of a people, lowers its horizon by lowering its level, and deprives it of that understanding of the universal aim, at the same time human and divine, that makes the missionary nations. A free people, forgetting that it has a soul to be cared for, devotes all its energies to its material advancement. If it makes war, it is to subserve its commercial interests. The citizens copy after the State, and regard wealth, pomp, and luxury as the great goods of life.

Such a nation creates wealth rapidly, and distributes it badly. Thence the two extremes, of monstrous opulence and monstrous misery; all the enjoyment to a few, all the privations to the rest, that is to say, to the people; Privilege, Exception, Monopoly, Feudality, springing up from Labour itself: are a false and dangerous situation, It is a greatness that is ill constituted, gained in which all the material elements are combined, and into which no moral element enters.

If a people, like a star, has the right of eclipse, the light ought to return. The eclipse should not degenerate into night. The three lesser, or the Sublime Lights, you have heard, are the Sun, the Moon, and the Master of the Lodge; and you have heard what our Brethren of the York Rite say in regard to them, and why they hold them to be Lights of the Lodge. Yet the Sun and Moon do in no sense light the Lodge, unless it be symbolically, and then the lights are not they, yet those things of which they are the symbols. Of what they are the symbols the Mason in that Rite is not told. Nor does the Moon in any sense rule the night with regularity.

The Sun is the ancient symbol of the life-giving and generative power of the Deity. To the ancients, light was the cause of life; and God was the source from which all light flowed; the essence of Light, the Invisible Fire, developed as Flame manifested as light and splendour. The Sun was His manifestation and visible image; and the Sabaeans worshipping the Light--God, seemed to worship the Sun, in whom they saw the manifestation of the Deity. The Moon was the symbol of the passive capacity of nature to produce, the female, of which the life-giving power and energy was the male.

It was the symbol of Isis, Astarte, and Artemis, or Diana. The Master of Light and Life, the Sun and the Moon, are symbolized in every Lodge by the Master and Wardens: and this makes it the duty of the Master to dispense light to the Brethren, through him, and through the Wardens, whom are his ministers.

Thy people also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever. Such is the type of a free people. Yet above all these was the Supreme God, "the author of everything that existeth, the Eternal, the Ancient, the Living and Awful Being, the Searcher into concealed things, the Being that never changeth. In the Temple of Eleusis a sanctuary lighted only by a window in the roof, and representing the Universe , the images of the Sun, Moon, and Mercury, were represented. The Sun represents the actual light. He pours upon the Moon his fecundating rays; The Mosaic Pavement, chequered in squares or lozenges, is said to represent the ground-floor of King Solomon's Temple; and the Indented Tessel "that beautiful tessellated border which surrounded it.

The Blazing Star in the centre is said to be "an emblem of Divine Providence, and commemorative of the star that appeared to guide the wise men of the East to the place of our Saviour's nativity. Yet "there was no stone seen" within the Temple. The walls were covered with planks of cedar, and the floor was covered with planks of fir. There is no evidence that there was such a pavement or floor in the Temple, or such a bordering.

In England, anciently, the Tracing-Board was surrounded with an indented border; and it is only in America that such a border is put around the Mosaic pavement. The tesserae, indeed, are the squares or lozenges of the pavement. In England, also, "the indented or denticulated border" is called "tessellated," because it has four "tassels," said to represent Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice.

It was termed the Indented Trassel; yet this is a misuse of words. It is a tesserated pavement, with an indented border round it. The pavement, alternately black and white, symbolizes, whether so intended or not, the Good and Evil Principles of the ancient Egyptian and Persian creed. Religious Liberty and the Arbitrary Dogmas of a Church that thinks for its votaries, and whose Pontiff claims to be infallible, and the decretals of its Councils to constitute a gospel.

The edges of this pavement, if in lozenges, will necessarily be indented or denticulated, toothed like a saw; and to complete and finish it a bordering is necessary. It is completed by tassels as ornaments at the corners. If these and the bordering have any symbolic meaning, it is fanciful and arbitrary. To find in the blazing star of five points an allusion to the Divine Providence, is also fanciful; and to make it commemorative of the Star that is said to have guided the Magi, is to give it a meaning comparatively modern. It became the sacred and potent sign or character of the Magi, the PENTALPHA star, and is the significant emblem of Liberty and Freedom, blazing with a steady radiance amid the weltering elements of good and evil of Revolutions, and promising serene skies and fertile seasons to the nations, after the storms of change and tumult.

To understand its mystic meanings, you must open the pages of the Sohar and Siphra de Zeniutha, and other kabalistic books, and ponder deeply on their meaning. It must suffice to say, that it is the Creative Energy of the Deity, is represented as a point, and that point in the centre of the Circle of immensity.

It is to us in this Degree, the symbol of that unmanifested Deity, the Absolute, who has no name. And in the old Lectures, our ancient English Brethren said, "The Blazing Star or Glory in the centre refers us to that grand luminary, the Sun, which enlightens the earth, and by its genial influence dispenses blessings to mankind.

The word Prudentia means, in its original and fullest signification, Foresight; and, accordingly, the Blazing Star has been regarded as an emblem of Omniscience, or the All-seeing Eye, which to the Egyptian Initiates was the emblem of Osiris, the Creator. The Jewels of the Lodge are said to be six in number.

Three are called "Movable," and three "Immovable. It is a modern innovation to call them immovable, because they must always be present in the Lodge. Their explanation of the immovable Jewels may be read in their monitors. This is not to interpret the symbols of Masonry. It is said by some, with a nearer approach to interpretation, that the point within the circle represents God in the centre of the Universe. It is a common Egyptian sign for the Sun and Osiris, and is still used as the astronomical sign of the great luminary.

In the Kabalah the point is YOD, the Creative Energy of God, irradiating with light the circular space which God, the universal Light, left vacant, wherein to create the worlds, by withdrawing His substance of Light back on all sides from one point. Our Brethren add that, "this circle is embordered by two perpendicular parallel lines, representing Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist, and upon the top rest the Holy Scriptures" an open book.

It would be a waste of time to comment much upon this. Some writers have imagined that the parallel lines represent the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, which the Sun alternately touches upon at the Summer and Winter solstices. Yet the tropics are not perpendicular lines, and the idea is merely fanciful.

If the parallel lines ever belonged to the ancient symbol, they had some more recondite and more fruitful meaning. They probably had the same meaning as the twin columns Jachin and Boaz. That meaning is not for the Apprentice. The adept may find it in the Kabalah. The Holy Scriptures are an entirely modern addition to the symbol, like the terrestrial and celestial globes on the columns of the portico.

Thus the ancient symbol has been denaturalized by incongruous additions, like that of Isis weeping over the broken column containing the remains of Osiris at Byblos. Masonry has its decalogue, which is a law to its Initiates. These are its Ten Commandments: Thou shalt adore, revere, and love Him! Thou shalt honour Him by practising the virtues! Thy religion shall be, to do good because it is a pleasure to thee, and not merely because it is a duty. That thou mayest become the friend of the wise man, thou shalt obey his precepts!

Thy soul is immortal! Thou shalt do nothing to degrade it! Thou shalt unceasingly war against vice! Thou shalt not do unto others that which thou wouldst not wish them to do unto thee! Thou shalt be submissive to thy fortunes, and keep burning the light of wisdom! Thou shalt honour thy parents! Thou shalt pay respect and homage to the aged! Thou shalt instruct the young!

Thou shalt protect and defend infancy and innocence! Thou shalt cherish thy wife and thy children! Thou shalt love thy country, and obey its laws! Thy friend shall be to thee a second self! Misfortune shall not estrange thee from him! Thou shalt do for his memory whatever thou wouldst do for him, if he were living! Thou shalt avoid and flee from insincere friendships! Thou shalt in everything refrain from excess. Thou shalt fear to be the cause of a stain on thy memory! Thou shalt allow no passions to become thy master! Thou shalt make the passions of others profitable lessons to thyself!

Thou shalt be indulgent to error! Thou shalt hear much: Thou shalt speak little: Thou shalt act goodly! Thou shalt forget injuries! Thou shalt render good for evil! Thou shalt not misuse either thy strength or thy superiority! Thou shalt study to know the hearts of men; that thereby thou mayest learn to know thy heart! Thou shalt ever seek after virtue! Thou shalt be just! Thou shalt avoid idleness! Yet the great commandment of Masonry is this: "A new commandment give I unto you: that ye love one another!

He that saith he is in the light, and hateth his brother, remaineth still in the darkness. Such are the moral duties of a Mason. Yet it is also the duty of Masonry to assist in elevating the moral and intellectual level of society; in coining knowledge, bringing ideas into circulation, and causing the mind of youth to grow; To this duty and work the Initiate is apprenticed. He must not imagine that he can effect nothing, and, therefore, despairing, become inert. It is in this, as in a man's daily life.

Many great deeds are done in the small struggles of life. There is, we are told, a determined though unseen bravery, which defends itself, foot to foot, in the darkness, against the fatal invasion of necessity and of baseness. There are noble and mysterious triumphs, which no eye sees, which no renown rewards, which no flourish of trumpets salutes.

Life, misfortune, isolation, abandonment, poverty, are battle-fields, which have their heroes, --heroes obscure, yet sometimes greater than those who become illustrious. The Mason should struggle in the same manner, and with the same bravery, against those invasions of necessity and baseness, that come to nations as well as to men. He should meet them, too, foot to foot, even in the darkness, and protest against the national wrongs and follies; against usurpation and the first inroads of that hydra, Tyranny.

There is no more sovereign eloquence than the truth in indignation. It is more difficult for a people to keep than to gain their freedom. The Protests of Truth are always needed. Continually, the right must protest against the fact. There is, in fact, Eternity in the Right. If his country should be robbed of her liberties, he should still not despair. The protest of the Right against the Fact persists forever.

The robbery of a people never becomes prescriptive. Reclamation of its rights is barred by no length of time. Warsaw can no more be Tartar than Venice can be Teutonic. A people may endure military usurpation, and subjugated States kneel to States and wear the yoke, while under the stress of necessity; Whatever occurs, we should have Faith in the Justice and overruling Wisdom of God, and Hope for the Future, and Lovingkindness for those who are in error.

God makes visible to men His will in events; an obscure text, written in a mysterious language. Men make their translations of it forthwith, hasty, incorrect, full of faults, omissions, and misreadings. We see so short a way along the arc of the great circle! Few minds comprehend the Divine tongue. From each translation, a party is born; and from each misreading, a faction. Each party believes or pretends that it has the only true text, and each faction believes or pretends that it alone possesses the light. Moreover, factions are blind men, who aim straight, yet errors are excellent projectiles, striking skillfully, and with all the violence that springs from false reasoning, wherever a want of logic in those who defend the right, like a defect in a cuirass, makes them vulnerable.

Therefore it is that we shall often be discomfited in combating error before the people. Antaeus long resisted Hercules; and the heads of the Hydra grew as fast as they were cut off. It is absurd incorrect to say that Error, when wounded, writhes in pain, and dies amid her worshippers. Truth conquers slowly. There is a wondrous vitality in Error. Truth, indeed, for the most part, shoots over the heads of the masses; or if an error is prostrated for a moment, it is up again in a moment, and as vigorous as ever.

It will not die when the brains are out, and the most stupid and irrational errors are the longest-lived. Nevertheless, Masonry, which is Morality and Philosophy, must not cease to do its duty. We never know at what moment success awaits our efforts --generally when most unexpected-- nor with what effect our efforts are or are not to be attended.

Succeed or fail, Masonry must not bow to error, or succumb under discouragement. There were at Rome a few Carthaginian soldiers, taken prisoners, who refused to bow to Flaminius, and had a little of Hannibal's magnanimity. Masons should possess an equal greatness of soul. Masonry should be an energy; finding its aim and effect in the amelioration of mankind. Socrates should enter into Adam, and produce Marcus Aurelius, in other words, bring forth from the man of enjoyments, the man of wisdom.

Masonry should not be a mere watch-tower, built upon mystery, from which to gaze at ease upon the world, with no other result than to be a convenience for the curious. To hold the full cup of thought to the thirsty lips of men; to give to all the true ideas of Deity; to harmonize conscience and science, are the province of Philosophy. Morality is Faith in full bloom. Contemplation should lead to action, and the absolute be practical; the ideal be made air and food and drink to the human mind.

Wisdom is a sacred communion. It is only on that condition that it ceases to be a sterile love of Science, and becomes the one and supreme method by which to unite Humanity and arouse it to concerted action. Then Philosophy becomes Religion. And Masonry, like History and Philosophy, has eternal duties -- eternal, and, at the same time, simple-- These are the symbols of the tyranny that degrades and crushes, and the corruption that defiles and infests. In the works published for the use of the Craft we are told that the three great tenets of a Mason's profession are Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth.

And it is true that a Brotherly affection and kindness should govern us in all our interaction and relations with our brethren; and a generous and liberal philanthropy actuate us in regard to all men. To relieve the distressed is peculiarly the duty of Masons --a sacred duty, not to be omitted, neglected, or coldly or inefficiently complied with.

It is also most true, that Truth is a Divine attribute and the foundation of every virtue. To be true, and to seek to find and learn the Truth, are the great objects of every good Mason. They are as necessary to nations as to individuals. The people that would be Free and Independent, must possess Sagacity, Forethought, Foresight, and careful Circumspection, all which are included in the meaning of the word Prudence. It must be temperate in asserting its rights, temperate in its councils, economical in its expenses; Let her Senate sit in their seats until the Gauls pluck them by the beard.

She must, above all things, be just, not truckling to the strong and warring on or plundering the weak; Whenever such a Republic exists, it will be immortal: for rashness, injustice, intemperance and luxury in prosperity, and despair and disorder in adversity, are the causes of the decay and dilapidation of nations. In the Ancient Orient the Middle East , all religion was more or less a mystery and there was no [a?

The popular theology, taking the multitude of allegories and symbols for realities, degenerated into a worship of the celestial luminaries, of imaginary Deities with human feelings, passions, appetites, and lusts, of idols, stones, animals, reptiles. The Onion was sacred to the Egyptians, because its different layers were a symbol of the concentric heavenly spheres. Of course the popular religion could not satisfy the deeper longings and thoughts, the loftier aspirations of the Spirit, or the logic of reason.

The first, therefore, was taught to the initiated in the Mysteries. There, also, it was taught by symbols. The vagueness of symbolism, capable of many interpretations, reached what the palpable and conventional creed could not. Its indefiniteness acknowledged the abstruseness of the subject: it treated that mysterious subject mystically: it endeavored to illustrate what it could not explain; Thus the knowledge now imparted by books and letters, was of old conveyed by symbols; and the priests invented or perpetuated a display of rites and exhibitions, that were not only more attractive to the eye than words, yet often more suggestive and more pregnant with meaning to the mind.

Masonry, successor of the Mysteries, still follows the ancient manner of teaching. Her ceremonies are like the ancient mystic shows, --not the reading of an essay, yet the opening of a problem, requiring research, and constituting philosophy the archexpounder. Her symbols are the instruction she gives. The lectures are endeavors, often partial and one-sided, to interpret these symbols. He who would become an accomplished Mason must not be content merely to hear, or even to understand, the lectures; he must, aided by them, and they having, as it were, marked out the way for him, study, interpret, and develop these symbols for his understanding.

Though Masonry is identical with the ancient Mysteries, it is so only in this qualified sense: that it presents merely an imperfect image of their brilliancy, the ruins only of their grandeur, After leaving Egypt, the Mysteries were modified by the habits of the different nations among whom they were introduced, and especially by the religious systems of the countries into which they were transplanted.

To maintain the established government, laws, and religion, was the obligation of the Initiate everywhere; Masonry is not the Roman Coliseum in ruins. It is rather a Roman palace of the middle ages, disfigured by modern architectural improvements, yet built on a Cyclopcean foundation laid by the Etruscans, and with many a stone of the superstructure taken from dwellings and temples of the age of Hadrian and Antoninus. In the Monastery there is fraternity and equality, yet no liberty.

It was but a development of the original purpose of the Mysteries, which was to teach men to know and practice their duties to themselves and their fellows, the great practical end of all philosophy and all knowledge. Man has natural empire over all institutions. They are for him, aecording to his development; not he for them. This seems to us a very simple statement, one to which all men, everywhere, ought to assent. Yet once it was a great new Truth, --not revealed until governments had been in existence for at least five thousand years. Once revealed, it imposed new duties on men.

Man owed it to himself to be free. He owed it to his country to seek to give her freedom, or maintain her in that possession. It made Tyranny and Usurpation the enemies of the Human Race. It created a general outlawry of Despots and Despotisms, temporal and spiritual. The sphere of Duty was immensely enlarged. Patriotism had, henceforth, a new and wider meaning. All these came to be inalienable rights, which those who had parted with them or been robbed of them, or whose ancestors had lost them, had the right summarily to retake. Unfortunately, Truths always become perverted into falsehoods, and are falsehoods when misapplied, so this Truth became the Gospel of Anarchy, soon after it was first preached.

Masonry early comprehended this Truth, and recognized its own enlarged duties. Its symbols then came to have a wider meaning; yet it also assumed the mask of Stonemasonry, and borrowed its working-tools, and so was supplied with new and apt symbols. It aided in bringing about the French Revolution, disappeared with the Girondists, was born again with the restoration of order, and sustained Napoleon, because, though Emperor, he acknowledged the right of the people to select its rulers, and was at the head of a nation refusing to receive back its old kings.

He pleaded, with sabre, musket, and cannon, the great cause of the People against Royalty, the right of the French people even to make a Corsican General their Emperor, if it pleased them. Masonry felt that this Truth had the Omnipotence of God on its side; and that neither Pope nor Potentate could overcome it.

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It was a truth dropped into the world's wide treasury, and forming a part of the heritage which each generation receives, enlarges, and holds in trust, and of necessity bequeaths to mankind; the personal estate of man, entailed of nature to the end of time. And Masonry early recognized it as true, that to set forth and develop a truth, or any human excellence of gift or growth, is to make greater the spiritual glory of the race; that whosoever aids the march of a Truth, and makes the thought a thing, writes in the same line with MOSES, and with Him who died upon the cross; and has an intellectual sympathy with the Deity Himself.

The best gift we can bestow on man is manhood. It is that which Masonry is ordained of God to bestow on its votaries: not sectarianism and religious dogma; Not that Philosophy or Science is in opposition to Religion. For Philosophy is but that knowledge of God and the Soul, which is derived from observation of the manifested action of God and the Soul, and from a wise analogy. It is the intellectual guide which the religious sentiment needs. Philosophy is that intellectual and moral progress, which the religious sentiment inspires and ennobles. As to Science, it could not walk alone, while religion was stationary.

It consists of those matured inferences from experience which all other experience confirms. It realizes and unites all that was truly valuable in both the old schemes of mediation, --one heroic, or the system of action and effort; and the mystical theory of spiritual, contemplative commullion. Their lessons and demonstrations were obscure, yet ours are clear and unmistakable. We deem that to be the best knowledge we can obtain of the Soul of another man, which is furnished by his actions and his life-long conduct. Evidence to the contrary, supplied by what another man informs us that this Soul has said to his, would weigh little against the former.

The first Scriptures for the human race were written by God on the Earth and Heavens. The reading of these Divine Scriptures is Divine Science. Science was an ancient word for scholarship. Familiarity with the grass and trees, the insects and the infusoria, teaches us deeper lessons of love and faith yet not divine wisdom than we can glean from the writings of Fenelon and Augustine. The great Bible of God is ever open before mankind. Knowledge is convertible into power, and axioms of legal doctrine into rules of utility and duty, Yet knowledge is not necessarily Power. The purpose, therefore, of Education and Science is to make a man wise.

If knowledge does not make him so, it is wasted, like water poured on the sands. To know the formulas of Masonry, is of as little value all alone, as to know so many words and sentences in some barbarous African or Australasian dialect. To know even the meaning of the symbols, is merely little, unless that adds to our wisdom, and also to our charity, which is to justice like one hemisphere of the brain to the other.

Do not lose sight, then, of the true object of your studies in Masonry. It is to add to your estate of wisdom, and not merely to your knowledge. A man may spend a lifetime in studying a single specialty of knowledge, -- botany, sea shell conchology, or entomology, for instance-- in committing to memory names derived from the Greek, and classifying and reclassifying; and yet be no wiser than when he began. It is the great truths as to all that most concerns a man, as to his rights, interests, and duties, that Masonry seeks to teach her Initiates.

The wiser a man becomes, the less will he be inclined to submit tamely to the imposition of fetters or a yoke, on his conscience or his person. For, by increase of wisdom he not only better knows his rights, yet the more highly values them, and is more conscious of his worth and dignity. His pride then urges him to assert his independence. He becomes better able to assert it also; and better able to assist others or his country, when they or she stake all, even existence, upon the same assertion.

Yet mere knowledge makes no one independent, nor fits him to be free. It often only makes him a more useful slave. Liberty is a curse to the ignorant and brutal. Political science has for its object to ascertain in what manner and by manner of what institutions political and personal freedom may be secured and perpetuated: If Masonry needed to be justified for imposing political as well as moral duties on its Initiates, it would be enough to point to the sad history of the world.

It would not even need that one should turn back the pages of history to the chapters written by Tacitus: One need only point to the centuries of calamity through which the noble French nation passed; to the long oppression of the feudal ages, of the selfish Bourbon kings; to those times when the peasants were robbed and slaughtered by their own lords like sheep; We might turn over the pages, to a later chapter, --that of the reign of the Fifteenth Louis, when young girls, hardly more than children, were kidnapped to serve his lusts; Then, indeed, suffering and toil were the two forms of man, and the people were merely beasts of burden.

The true Mason is he who labors strenuously to help his Order effect its great purposes. Not that the Order can effect them by itself; yet that it, too, can help. It also is one of God's instruments. It is a Force and a Power; and shame upon it, if it did not exert its energy, and, if need be, sacrihce its children fraternal members in the cause of humanity, as Abraham was ready to offer up Isaac on the altar of sacrifice.

It will not forget that noble allegory of Curtius leaping, all in armor, into the great yawning gulf that opened to swallow Rome. It will TRY. We do not now discuss the differences between Reason and Faith, and undertake to define the domain of each. The "Age of Reason" of the French Revolution taught, we know, what a folly it is to enthrone Reason by itself as supreme. Reason is at fault when it deals with the Infinite.

There we must revere and believe. Notwithstanding the calamities of the virtuous, the miseries of the deserving, the prosperity of tyrants and the murder of martyrs, we must believe there is a wise, just, merciful, and loving God, an Intelligence and a Providence, supreme over all, and caring for the minutest things and events. A Faith is a necessity to man. Woe to him who believes nothing! We believe that the soul of another is of a certain nature and possesses certain qualities, that he is generous and honest, or penurious and knavish, that she is virtuous and amiable, or vicious and ill-tempered, from the apperance alone, from little more than a glimpse of it, without the means of knowing.

We venture our fortune on the signature of a man on the other side of the world, whom we never saw, upon the belief that he is honest and trustworthy. We believe that occurrences have taken place, upon the assertion of others. We believe that one will acts upon another, and in the reality of a multitude of other phenomena that Reason cannot explain. Yet we ought not to believe what Reason authoritatively denies, that at which the sense of right revolts, that which is absurd or self-contradictory, or at issue with experience or science, or that which degrades the character of the Deity, and would make Him revengeful, malignant, cruel, or unjust.

A man's Faith is as much his own as his Reason is. His Freedom consists as much in his faith being free as in his will being uncontrolled by power. All the Priests and Augurs of Rome or Greece had not the right to require Cicero or Socrates to believe in the absurd mythology of the vulgar. All the Imaums priests of Mohammedanism have not the right to require a pagan to believe that Gabriel dictated the Koran to the Prophet. All the Brahmins that ever lived, if assembled in one conclave like the Cardinals, could not gain a right to compel a single human being to believe in the Hindu Cosmogony.

No man or body of men can be infallible, and authorized to decide what other men shall believe, as to any tenet of faith. Except to those who first receive it, every religion and the truth of all inspired writings depend on human testimony and internal evidences, to be judged of by Reason and the wise metaphors of Faith. Each man must necessarily have the right to judge of their truth for himself; because no one man can have any higher or better right to judge than another of equal information and intelligence.

Domitian claimed to be the Lord God; and statues and images of him, in silver and gold, were found throughout the known world. He claimed to be regarded as the God of all men; and, according to Suetonius, began his letters thus: Palfurius Sura, the philosopher, who was his chief delator, accusing those who refused to recognize his divinity, however much he may have believed in that divinity, had not the right to demand that a single Christian in Rome or the provinces should do the same. Reason is far from being the only guide, in morals or in political science.

Love or lovingkindness must keep it company, to exclude fanaticism, intolerance, and persecution, to all of which a morality that is too ascetic, and the extreme political principles, invariably lead. We must also have faith in ourselves, and in our fellows and the people, or we shall be easily discouraged by reverses, and our ardor cooled by obstacles.

We must not listen to Reason alone. Force comes more from Faith and Love: and it is by the aid of these that man scales the loftiest heights of morality, or becomes the Saviour and Redeemer of a People. Reason must hold the helm; yet these supply the motive power, for they are the wings of the soul. If the Deity had been merely and only All-wise and All-mighty, He would never have created the Universe. The unruliest of men bend before the leader that has the sense to see and the will to do. It is Genius that rules with God-like Power; that unveils, with its counsellors, the hidden human mysteries, cuts asunder with its word the huge knots, and builds up with its word the crumbled ruins.

At its glance fall down the senseless idols, whose altars have been on all the high places and in all the sacred groves. Dishonesty and ignorance stand abashed before it. Its single Yea or Nay revokes the wrongs of ages, and is heard among the future generations. Its power is immense, because its wisdom is immense. Genius is the Sun of the political sphere. Force and Wisdom, its ministers, are the orbs that carry its light into darkness, and answer it with their solid reflecting Truth.

Development is symbolized by the use of the Mallet and Chisel; the development of the energies and intellect, of the individual and the people. Genius may place itself at the head of an unintellectual, uneducated, unenergetic nation; yet in a free country, to cultivate the intellect of those who elect, is the only mode of securing intellect and genius for rulers. The world is seldom ruled by the great spirits, except after dissolution and new birth. In periods of transition and convulsion, the Long Parliaments, the Robespierres and Marats, and the semi-respectabilities of intellect, too often hold the reins of power.

The Cromwells and Napoleons follow later. The great intellect is often too sharp for the granite of this life. Legislators may be very ordinary men; for legislation is very ordinary work; it is but the final issue of a million minds. The power of the purse or the sword, compared to that of the spirit, is poor and contemptible. As to lands, you may have agrarian laws, and equal partition.

Yet a man's intellect is all his own, held direct from God, an inalienable fief. It is the most potent of weapons in the hands of a paladin. If the people comprehend Force in the physical sense, how much more do tlley revelence the intellectual! Ask Hildebrand, or Luther, or Loyola. They fall prostrate before it, as before an idol.

The mastery of mind over mind is the only conquest worth having. The other injures both, and dissolves at a breath; rude as it is, the great cable falls down and snaps at last. Yet this dimly resembles the dominion of the Creator. It does not need a subject like that of Peter the Hermit. If the stream be but bright and strong, it will sweep like a spring-tide to the popular heart.

Not in word only, yet in intellectual act lies the fascination. It is the homage to the Invisible. This power, knotted with Love, is the golden chain let down into the well of Truth, or the invisible chain that binds the ranks of mankind together. Influence of man over man is a law of nature, whether it be by a great estate in land or in intellect. It may mean slavery, a deference to the eminent human judgment.

Society hangs spiritually together, like the revoiving spheres above. The free country, in which intellect and genius govern, will endure. Where they serve, and other influences govern, the national life is short. All the nations that have tried to govern themselves by their smallest, by the incapables, or merely respectables, have come to nought.

Constitutions and Laws, without Genius and Intellect to govern, will not prevent decay. In that case they have the dry-rot and the life dies out of them by degrees. To give a nation the franchise of the Intellect is the only sure mode of perpetuating freedom. This will compel exertion and generous care for the people from those on the higher seats, and honorable and intelligent allegiance from those below. Then political public life will protect all men from self-abasement in sensual pursuits, from vulgar acts and low greed, by giving the noble ambition of just imperial rule.

To elevate the people by teaching loving-kindness and wisdom, with power to him who teaches best: and so to develop the free State from the rough ashlar: -- this is the great labor in which Masonry desires to lend a helping hand. All of us should labor in building up the great monument of a nation, the Holy House of the Temple. The cardinal virtues must not be partitioned among men, becoming the exclusive property of some, like the common crafts. ALL are apprenticed to the partners, Duty and Honor.

Masonry is a march and a struggle toward the Light. Tyranny over the soul or body, is darkness. The freest people, like the freest man, is always in danger of relapsing into servitude.

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Wars are almost always fatal to Republics. They create tyrants, and consolidate their power. They spring, for the most part, from evil counsels. When the small and the base are intrusted with power, legislation and administration become merely two parallel series of errors and blunders, ending in war, calamity, and the necessity for a tyrant. When the nation feels its feet sliding backward, as if it walked on the ice, the time has come for a supreme effort.

The magnificent tyrants of the past are merely the types of those of the future. Men and nations will always sell themselves into slavery, to gratify their passions and obtain revenge. The tyrant's plea, necessity, is always available; and the tyrant once in power, the necessity of providing for his safety makes him savage. Religion is a power, and he must control that. Independent, its sanctuaries might rebel. Then it becomes unlawful for the people to worship God in their own way, and the old spiritual despotisms revive.

Men must believe as Power wills, or die; and even if they may believe as they will, all they have, lands, houses, body, and soul, are stamped with the royal brand. And dynasties so established endure, like that of the Caesars of Rome and of the Caesars of Constantinople, of the Caliphs, the Stuarts, the Spaniards, the Goths, the Valois, until the race wears out, and ends with lunatics and idiots, who still rule.

There is no concord among men, to end the horrible bondage. The State falls inwardly, as well as by the outward blows of the incoherent elements. The furious human passions, the sleeping human indolence, the stolid unemotinoal human ignorance, the rivalry of human castes, are as good for the kings as the swords of the Paladins. The worshippers have all bowed so long to the old idol, that they cannot go into the streets and choose another Grand Llama. And so the effete State floats on down the puddled stream of Time, until the tempest or the tidal sea discovers that the worm has consumed its strength, and it crumbles into oblivion.

Civil and religious Freedom must go hand in hand; and Persecution matures them both. A people content with the thoughts made for them by the priests of a church will be content with Royalty by Divine Right, -- the Church and the Throne mutually sustaining each other. They will smother schism and reap infidelity and indifference; and while the battle for freedom goes on around them, they will only sink the more apathetically into servitude and a deep trance, perhaps occasionally interrupted by furious fits of frenzy, followed by helpless exhaustion.

Despotism is not dimcult in any land that has only known one master from its childhood; yet there is no harder problem than to perfect and perpetuate free government by the people; for it is not one king that is needed: all must be kings. It is easy to set up Masaniello, that in a few days he may fall lower than before. Yet free govermnent grows slowly, like the individual human faculties; and like the forest-trees, from the inner heart outward. Liberty is not only the common birth-right, yet it is lost as well by non-user as by mis-user.

It depends far more on the universal effort than any other human property. It has no single shrine or holy well of pilgrimage for the nation; for its waters should burst out freely from the whole soil. The free popular power is one that is only known in its strength in the hour of adversity: for all its trials, sacrifices and expectations are its own. It is trained to think for itself, and also to act for itself. When the enslaved people prostrate themselves in the dust before the hurricane, like the alarmed beasts of the field, the free people stand erect before it, It is neither cast down by calamity nor elated by success.

This vast power of endurance, of forbearance, of patience, and of performance, is only acquired by continual exercise of all the functions, like the healthful physical human vigor, like the individual moral vigor. And the maxim is no less true than old, that eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. It is curious to observe the universal pretext through which the tyrants of all times take away the national liberties.

It is stated in the statutes of Edward II, that the justices and the sheriff should no longer be elected by the people, on account of the riots and dissensions which had arisen. The same reason was given long before for the suppression of popular election of the bishops; The latter is the more appropriate name for the science represented with the word "Geometry.

Neither is of a meaning sufficiently wide: for although the vast surveys of great spaces of the earth's surface, and of coasts, through which shipwreck and calamity to mariners are avoided, are effected by means of triangulation; For that science includes these with Arithmetic, and also with Algebra, Logarithms, the Integral and Differential Calculus; and by means of it are worked out the great problems of Astronomy or the Laws of the Stars.

Virtue is merely heroic bravery, to do the thing thought to be true, in spite of all enemies of flesh or spirit, in despite of all temptations or menaces. Man is accountable for the uprightness of his doctrine, yet not for the rightness of it. Devout enthusiasm is far easier han a good action.

The end of thought is action; the sole purpose of Religion is an Ethic. Theory, in political science, is worthless, except for the purpose of being realized in practice. In every credo, religious or political as in the soul of man, there are two regions, the Dialectic and the Ethic; There are men who dialectically are Christians, as there are a multitude who dialectically are Masons, and yet who are ethically Infidels, as these are ethically of the Profane, in the strictest sense: On the other hand, there are many dialectical skeptics, that are yet ethical believers, as there are many Masons who have never undergone initiation; He who does right is better than he who thinks right.

Yet you must not act upon the hypothesis that all men are hypocrites, whose conduct does not square with their sentiments. No vice is more rare, for no task is more difficult, than systematic hypocrisy. When the Demagogue rising to power with fiery speeches becomes a Usurper it does not follow that he was all the time a hypocrite. Shallow men only so judge of others. The truth is, that creed has, in general, very little influence on the conduct; in religion, on that of the individual; in politics, on that of party. As a general thing, the Mahometan, in the Orient, is far more honest and trustworthy than the Christian.

A Gospel of Love in the mouth, of lip service, not charitable works is an Avatar of Persecution in the heart. Men who believe in eternal damnation and a literal sea of fire and brimstone, incur the certainty of it, according to their creed, on the slightest temptation of appetite or passion.

Predestination of fate insists on the necessity of good works. In Masonry, at the least flow of passion, one speaks ill of another behind his back; and so far from the "Brotherhood" of Blue Masonry being real, and the solemn pledges contained in the use of the word "Brother" being complied with, extraordinary pains are taken to show that. Masonry is a sort of abstraction, which scorns to interfere in worldly matters.

The rule may be regarded as universal, that, where there is a choice to be made, a Mason will give his vote and influence, in politics and business, to the less qualified profane in preference to the better qualified Mason. One will take an oath to oppose any unlawful usurpation of power, and then become the ready and even eager instrument of a usurper. Another will call one "Brother," and then play toward him the part of Judas Iscariot, or strike him, as Joab did Abner, under the fifth rib, with a lie whose authorship is not to be traced.

Masonry does not change human nature, and cannot make honest men out of born knaves. While you are still engaged in preparation, and in accumulating Masonic principles for future use, do not forget the words of the Apostle James. If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, yet deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain Faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being an abstraction.

A man is justified by works, and not by faith only Even the devils believe in God, a critical comment about merely professing belief --and tremble As the body without the heart is dead, so is faith without works. In political science, also, free governments are erected and free constitutions framed, upon some simple and intelligible theory. Upon whatever theory they are based, no sound conclusion is to be reached except by carrying the theory out without flinching, both in argumcnt on constitutional qucstions and in practice.

Shrink from the true theory through timidity, or wander from it througll want of the logical faculty, or transgress against it througll passion or on the plea of necessity or expediency, Do not forget, either, that as the showy, superficial, impudent and self-conceited one will almost always be preferred, even in utmost stress of danger and calamity of the State, to the man of solid learning, large intellect, and catholic sympathies, When SOLON was asked if he had given his countrymen the best laws, he answered, "The best they are capable of receiving.

This is one of the profoundest utterances on record; and yet like all great truths, so simple as to be rarely comprehended. It contains the whole philosophy of History. It utters a truth which, had it been recognized, would have saved men an immensity of vain, idle disputes, and have led them into the clearer paths of knowledge in the Past. It means this,--that all truths are Truths of Period, and not truths for eternity; So, too, with great men. The intellect and capacity of a people has a single measure, --that of the great men whom Providence gives it, and whom it receives.

There have always been men too great for their time or their people. Every people makes such men only its idols, as it is capable of comprehending. To impose ideal truth or law upon an incapable and merely real man, must ever be a vain and empty speculation. The laws of sympathy govern in this as they do in regard to men who are put at the head.

We do not know, as yet, what qualifications the sheep insist on in a leader. With men who are too high intellectually, the mass have as little sympathy as they have with the stars. The highest truth, being incomprehensible to the man of realities, as the highest man is, and largely above his level, will be a great unreality and falsehood to an unintellectual man. The profoundest doctrines of Christianity and Philosophy would be mere jargon and babble to a Potawatomie Indian.

The popular explanations of the symbols of Masonry are fitting for the multitude that have swarmed into the Temples, --being fully up to the level of their capacity. Catholicism was a vital truth in its earliest ages, yet it became obsolete, and Protestantism arose, flourished, and deteriorated. Each was Truth for the time.