Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

Sue Bohlin offers a quiz covering Bible basics rather than trivia. That's because we're not reading and studying the Bible. Who wrote the first five books of the Old Testament? .. Probe fulfills this mission through our Mind Games conferences for youth and adults, our 3-minute daily radio program, and.

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Christ has given himself for her to sanctify her and make her a source of sanctification. The Holy Spirit gives her life with charity. In the Church one finds the fullness of the means of salvation. Holiness is the vocation of each of her members and the purpose of all her activities. The Church counts among her members the Virgin Mary and numerous Saints who are her models and intercessors. The holiness of the Church is the fountain of sanctification for her children who here on earth recognize themselves as sinners ever in need of conversion and purification.

The Church proclaims the fullness and the totality of the faith; she bears and administers the fullness of the means of salvation; she is sent out by Christ on a mission to the whole of the human race. Every particular Church that is, a diocese or eparchy is catholic. All human beings in various ways belong to or are ordered to the Catholic unity of the people of God. Fully incorporated into the Catholic Church are those who, possessing the Spirit of Christ, are joined to the Church by the bonds of the profession of faith, the sacraments, ecclesiastical government and communion.

The baptized who do not enjoy full Catholic unity are in a certain, although imperfect, communion with the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church recognizes a particular link with the Jewish people in the fact that God chose them before all others to receive his Word. The Jewish faith, unlike other non-Christian religions, is already a response to the revelation of God in the Old Covenant. What is the bond that exists between the Catholic Church and non-Christian religions? There is a bond between all peoples which comes especially from the common origin and end of the entire human race.

The Catholic Church recognizes that whatever is good or true in other religions comes from God and is a reflection of his truth. As such it can prepare for the acceptance of the Gospel and act as a stimulus toward the unity of humanity in the Church of Christ. This means that all salvation comes from Christ, the Head, through the Church which is his body.

Hence they cannot be saved who, knowing the Church as founded by Christ and necessary for salvation, would refuse to enter her or remain in her. At the same time, thanks to Christ and to his Church, those who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ and his Church but sincerely seek God and, moved by grace, try to do his will as it is known through the dictates of conscience can attain eternal salvation.

The Church, guided by the Holy Spirit, continues the mission of Christ himself in the course of history. Christians must, therefore, proclaim to everyone the Good News borne by Christ; and, following his path, they must be ready for self-sacrifice, even unto martyrdom. She is apostolic in her teaching which is the same as that of the Apostles. She is apostolic by reason of her structure insofar as she is taught, sanctified, and guided until Christ returns by the Apostles through their successors who are the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter.

Jesus, the One sent by the Father, called to himself twelve of his disciples and appointed them as his Apostles, making them the chosen witnesses of his Resurrection and the foundation of his Church. Apostolic succession is the transmission by means of the sacrament of Holy Orders of the mission and power of the Apostles to their successors, the bishops. Thanks to this transmission the Church remains in communion of faith and life with her origin, while through the centuries she carries on her apostolate for the spread of the Kingdom of Christ on earth.

The Faithful: hierarchy, laity, consecrated life. There exists a true equality among them in their dignity as children of God. The other members of the Church are called the laity. In both the hierarchy and the laity there are certain of the faithful who are consecrated in a special manner to God by the profession of the evangelical counsels: chastity or celibacy, poverty, and obedience. Christ instituted an ecclesiastical hierarchy with the mission of feeding the people of God in his name and for this purpose gave it authority.

The hierarchy is formed of sacred ministers,; bishops, priests, and deacons. Thanks to the sacrament of Orders, bishops and priests act in the exercise of their ministry in the name and person of Christ the Head. Deacons minister to the people of God in the diakonia service of word, liturgy, and charity. Every bishop exercises his ministry as a member of the episcopal college in communion with the Pope and shares with him in the care of the universal Church.

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Priests exercise their ministry in the presbyterate of the local Church in communion with their own bishop and under his direction. Ecclesial ministry also has a personal character in as much as each minister, in virtue of the sacrament of Holy Orders, is responsible before Christ who called him personally and conferred on him his mission.

He is the vicar of Christ, the head of the College of bishops and pastor of the universal Church over which he has by divine institution full, supreme, immediate, and universal power. The college of bishops in union with the Pope, and never without him, also exercises supreme and full authority over the Church. Since they are authentic witnesses of the apostolic faith and are invested with the authority of Christ, the bishops in union with the Pope have the duty of proclaiming the Gospel faithfully and authoritatively to all. By means of a supernatural sense of faith, the people of God unfailingly adhere to the faith under the guidance of the living Magisterium of the Church.

Infallibility is exercised when the Roman Pontiff, in virtue of his office as the Supreme Pastor of the Church, or the College of Bishops, in union with the Pope especially when joined together in an Ecumenical Council, proclaim by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals. Infallibility is also exercised when the Pope and Bishops in their ordinary Magisterium are in agreement in proposing a doctrine as definitive. Every one of the faithful must adhere to such teaching with the obedience of faith. Bishops sanctify the Church by dispensing the grace of Christ by their ministry of the word and the sacraments, especially the Holy Eucharist, and also by their prayers, their example and their work.

Every bishop, insofar as he is a member of the college of bishops, bears collegially the care for all particular Churches and for the entire Church along with all the other bishops who are united to the Pope. A bishop to whom a particular Church has been entrusted governs that Church with the authority of his own sacred power which is ordinary and immediate and exercised in the name of Christ, the Good Shepherd, in communion with the entire Church and under the guidance of the Successor of Peter.

The lay faithful have as their own vocation to seek the Kingdom of God by illuminating and ordering temporal affairs according to the plan of God. They carry out in this way their call to holiness and to the apostolate, a call given to all the baptized. In this way, even the laity, dedicated to Christ and consecrated by the Holy Spirit, offer to God the world itself. They participate in it by welcoming evermore in faith the Word of Christ and proclaiming it to the world by the witness of their lives, their words, their evangelizing action, and by catechesis.

This evangelizing action acquires a particular efficacy because it is accomplished in the ordinary circumstances of the world. The laity participate in the kingly function of Christ because they have received from him the power to overcome sin in themselves and in the world by self-denial and the holiness of their lives. They exercise various ministries at the service of the community and they imbue temporal activities and the institutions of society with moral values. The consecrated life is a state of life recognized by the Church. It is a free response to a special call from Christ by which those consecrated give themselves completely to God and strive for the perfection of charity moved by the Holy Spirit.

This consecration is characterized by the practice of the evangelical counsels. I believe in the communion of saints. This expression indicates first of all the common sharing of all the members of the Church in holy things sancta : the faith, the sacraments, especially the Eucharist, the charisms, and the other spiritual gifts. This expression also refers to the communion between holy persons sancti ; that is, between those who by grace are united to the dead and risen Christ. Some are pilgrims on the earth; others, having passed from this life, are undergoing purification and are helped also by our prayers.

Others already enjoy the glory of God and intercede for us. All of these together form in Christ one family, the Church, to the praise and glory of the Trinity. Mary, Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church. Even after her Assumption into heaven, she continues to intercede for her children, to be a model of faith and charity for all, and to exercise over them a salutary influence deriving from the superabundant merits of Christ.

The faithful see in Mary an image and an anticipation of the resurrection that awaits them and they invoke her as advocate, helper, benefactress and mediatrix. It is a singular kind of devotion which differs essentially from the cult of adoration given only to the Most Holy Trinity. This special veneration directed to Mary finds particular expression in the liturgical feasts dedicated to the Mother of God and in Marian prayers such as the holy Rosary which is a compendium of the whole Gospel.

Looking upon Mary, who is completely holy and already glorified in body and soul, the Church contemplates in her what she herself is called to be on earth and what she will be in the homeland of heaven. The first and chief sacrament for the forgiveness of sins is Baptism. For those sins committed after Baptism, Christ instituted the sacrament of Reconciliation or Penance through which a baptized person is reconciled with God and with the Church.

The resurrection of the flesh is the literal formulation in the Apostles Creed for the resurrection of the body. We believe in God the Creator of the flesh; we believe in the Word made flesh in order to redeem flesh; and we believe in the resurrection of flesh which is the fulfillment of both the creation and the redemption of the flesh. This means that the definitive state of man will not be one in which his spiritual soul is separated from his body. Even our mortal bodies will one day come to life again.

After death, which is the separation of the body and the soul, the body becomes corrupt while the soul, which is immortal, goes to meet the judgment of God and awaits its reunion with the body when it will rise transformed at the time of the return of the Lord. How the resurrection of the body will come about exceeds the possibilities of our imagination and understanding.

Dying in Christ Jesus means to die in the state of God's grace without any mortal sin. A believer in Christ, following his example, is thus able to transform his own death into an act of obedience and love for the Father. Eternal life is that life which begins immediately after death. It will have no end. It will be preceded for each person by a particular judgment at the hands of Christ who is the Judge of the living and the dead. This particular judgement will be confirmed in the final judgment.

It is the judgment of immediate retribution which each one after death will receive from God in his immortal soul in accord with his faith and his works. This retribution consists in entrance into the happiness of heaven, immediately or after an appropriate purification, or entry into the eternal damnation of hell.

Those who die in the grace of God and have no need of further purification are gathered around Jesus and Mary, the angels and the saints. They live in a communion of love with the Most Blessed Trinity and they intercede for us. Thanks to his mercy, we too, men that we are, have received the inalienable promise of eternal life. Because of the communion of saints, the faithful who are still pilgrims on earth are able to help the souls in purgatory by offering prayers in suffrage for them, especially the Eucharistic sacrifice.

They also help them by almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance. Hell consists in the eternal damnation of those who die in mortal sin through their own free choice. The principal suffering of hell is eternal separation from God in whom alone we can have the life and happiness for which we were created and for which we long. Therefore, it is the human person who freely excludes himself from communion with God if at the moment of death he persists in mortal sin and refuses the merciful love of God.

After the last judgment, the resurrected body will share in the retribution which the soul received at the particular judgment. The Celebration of the Christian Mystery. Section One The Sacramental Economy. The liturgy is the celebration of the mystery of Christ and in particular his paschal mystery. Through the exercise of the priestly office of Jesus Christ the liturgy manifests in signs and brings about the sanctification of humankind.

The public worship which is due to God is offered by the Mystical Body of Christ, that is, by its head and by its members. The liturgy as the sacred action par excellence is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed and it is likewise the font from which all her power flows.

Through the liturgy Christ continues the work of our redemption in, with and through his Church. The Paschal Mystery in the Age of the Church. At the same time, the Church blesses the Father by her worship, praise, and thanksgiving and begs him for the gift of his Son and the Holy Spirit. In the liturgy of the Church, it is his own paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present. By giving the Holy Spirit to his apostles he entrusted to them and their successors the power to make present the work of salvation through the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments, in which he himself acts to communicate his grace to the faithful of all times and places throughout the world.

The very closest cooperation is at work in the liturgy between the Holy Spirit and the Church. The Holy Spirit prepares the Church to encounter her Lord. He recalls and manifests Christ to the faith of the assembly. He makes the mystery of Christ really present. He unites the Church to the life and mission of Christ and makes the gift of communion bear fruit in the Church.

The sacraments, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, are efficacious signs of grace perceptible to the senses. Through them divine life is bestowed upon us. Christ has entrusted the sacraments to his Church. It is a promise and guarantee of divine protection. By virtue of this seal the Christian is configured to Christ, participates in a variety of ways in his priesthood and takes his part in the Church according to different states and functions.

He is, therefore, set apart for divine worship and the service of the Church. Because this character is indelible the sacraments that impress it on the soul are received only once in life. The sacraments not only presuppose faith but with words and ritual elements they nourish, strengthen, and express it. By celebrating the sacraments, the Church professes the faith that comes from the apostles.

The efficacy of the sacraments does not depend upon the personal holiness of the minister. However, the fruits of the sacraments do depend on the dispositions of the one who receives them. For believers in Christ the sacraments, even if they are not all given to each of the faithful, are necessary for salvation because they confer sacramental grace, forgiveness of sins, adoption as children of God, conformation to Christ the Lord and membership in the Church. The Holy Spirit heals and transforms those who receive the sacraments. Sacramental grace is the grace of the Holy Spirit which is given by Christ and is proper to each sacrament.

This grace helps the faithful in their journey toward holiness and so assists the Church as well to grow in charity and in her witness to the world. The Sacramental Celebration of the Paschal Mystery. As our High Priest he celebrates with his body, which is the Church in heaven and on earth. When we celebrate the mystery of our salvation in the sacraments we participate in this eternal liturgy. The Church on earth celebrates the liturgy as a priestly people in which each one acts according to his proper function in the unity of the Holy Spirit.

The baptized offer themselves in a spiritual sacrifice; the ordained ministers celebrate according to the Order they received for the service of all the members of the Church; the bishops and priests act in the Person of Christ the Head. The celebration of the liturgy is interwoven with signs and symbols whose meaning is rooted in creation and in human culture. It is determined by the events of the Old Testament and is fully revealed in the Person and work of Christ.

Some come from created things light, water, fire, bread, wine, oil ; others come from social life washing, anointing, breaking of bread. Still others come from the history of salvation in the Old Covenant the Passover rites, the sacrifices, the laying on of hands, the consecrations. These signs, some of which are normative and unchangeable, were taken up by Christ and are made the bearers of his saving and sanctifying action.

What is the link between the actions and the words in the celebration of the sacraments? Actions and words are very closely linked in the celebration of the sacraments. Indeed, even if the symbolic actions are already in themselves a language, it is necessary that the words of the rite accompany and give life to these actions.

The liturgical words and actions are inseparable both insofar as they are meaningful signs and insofar as they bring about what they signify. What are the criteria for the proper use of singing and music in liturgical celebrations? Since song and music are closely connected with liturgical action they must respect the following criteria. They should conform to Catholic doctrine in their texts, drawn preferably from Sacred Scripture and liturgical sources. They should be a beautiful expression of prayer. The music should be of a high quality. Song and music should encourage the participation of the liturgical assembly.

They should express the cultural richness of the People of God and the sacred and solemn character of the celebration. The image of Christ is the liturgical icon par excellence. Other images, representations of Our Lady and of the Saints, signify Christ who is glorified in them. They proclaim the same Gospel message that Sacred Scripture communicates by the word and they help to awaken and nourish the faith of believers. The center of the liturgical season is Sunday which is the foundation and kernel of the entire liturgical year and has its culmination in the annual celebration of Easter, the feast of feasts.

In the liturgical year the Church celebrates the whole mystery of Christ from his Incarnation to his return in glory. The Church also keeps the memorials of saints who lived for Christ, who suffered with him, and who live with him in glory. The Liturgy of the Hours, which is the public and common prayer of the Church, is the prayer of Christ with his body, the Church. Through the Liturgy of the Hours the mystery of Christ, which we celebrate in the Eucharist, sanctifies and transforms the whole of each day.

It is composed mainly of psalms, other biblical texts, and readings from the Fathers and spiritual masters. Through him Christians and the whole Church become temples of the living God by the action of the Holy Spirit. Nonetheless, the people of God in their earthly condition need places in which the community can gather to celebrate the liturgy. They are the houses of God, a symbol of the Church that lives in that place as well as of the heavenly Jerusalem.

Above all they are places of prayer in which the Church celebrates the Eucharist and worships Christ who is truly present in the tabernacle. They are: the altar, the tabernacle, the place where the sacred Chrism and other holy oils are kept, the chair of the bishop cathedra or the chair of the priest, the ambo, the baptismal font, and the confessional.

Why is the one Mystery of Christ celebrated by the Church according to various liturgical traditions? The answer is that the unfathomable richness of the mystery of Christ cannot be exhausted by any single liturgical tradition. From the very beginning, therefore, this richness found expression among various peoples and cultures in ways that are characterized by a wonderful diversity and complementarity. It is fidelity to the Apostolic Tradition, that is, the communion in the faith and in the sacraments received from the apostles, a communion that is both signified and guaranteed by apostolic succession.

The Church is Catholic and therefore can integrate into her unity all the authentic riches of cultures. In the liturgy, particularly in that of the sacraments, there are unchangeable elements because they are of divine institution. The Church is the faithful guardian of them. There are also, however, elements subject to change which the Church has the power and on occasion also the duty to adapt to the cultures of diverse peoples. The sacraments are divided into: the sacraments of Christian initiation Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Eucharist ; the sacraments of healing Penance and Anointing of the Sick ;, and the sacraments at the service of communion and mission Holy Orders and Matrimony.

The sacraments touch all the important moments of Christian life. The sacraments of Christian initiation. Christian initiation is accomplished by means of the sacraments which establish the foundations of Christian life. The faithful born anew by Baptism are strengthened by Confirmation and are then nourished by the Eucharist. In the Old Covenant Baptism was pre-figured in various ways: water, seen as source of life and of death; in the Ark of Noah , which saved by means of water; in the passing through the Red Sea, which liberated Israel from Egyptian slavery; in the crossing of the Jordan River, that brought Israel into the promised land which is the image of eternal life.

All the Old Covenant prefigurations find their fulfillment in Jesus Christ. At the beginning of his public life Jesus had himself baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan. On the cross, blood and water, signs of Baptism and the Eucharist, flowed from his pierced side. From the day of Pentecost, the Church has administered Baptism to anyone who believes in Jesus Christ.

The essential rite of this sacrament consists in immersing the candidate in water or pouring water over his or her head while invoking the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. The Church baptizes infants because they are born with original sin.

Bible References to the 144,000

They need to be freed from the power of the Evil One and brought into that realm of freedom which belongs to the children of God. Everyone who is to be baptized is required to make a profession of faith. This is done personally in the case of an adult or by the parents and by the Church in the case of infants.

Also the godfather or the godmother and the whole ecclesial community share the responsibility for baptismal preparation catechumenate as well as for the development and safeguarding of the faith and grace given at baptism. The ordinary ministers of Baptism are the bishop and the priest. In the Latin Church the deacon also can baptize. In case of necessity any person can baptize provided he has the intention of doing what the Church does.

Baptism is necessary for salvation for all those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament. Since Christ died for the salvation of all, those can be saved without Baptism who die for the faith Baptism of blood. Catechumens and all those who, even without knowing Christ and the Church, still under the impulse of grace sincerely seek God and strive to do his will can also be saved without Baptism Baptism of desire. The Church in her liturgy entrusts children who die without Baptism to the mercy of God. Baptism takes away original sin, all personal sins and all punishment due to sin.

It makes the baptized person a participant in the divine life of the Trinity through sanctifying grace, the grace of justification which incorporates one into Christ and into his Church. It gives one a share in the priesthood of Christ and provides the basis for communion with all Christians. It bestows the theological virtues and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. A baptized person belongs forever to Christ. He is marked with the indelible seal of Christ character. The name is important because God knows each of us by name, that is, in our uniqueness as persons.

In Baptism a Christian receives his or her own name in the Church.

It should preferably be the name of a saint who might offer the baptized a model of sanctity and an assurance of his or her intercession before God. In the Old Testament the prophets announced that the Spirit of the Lord would rest on the awaited Messiah and on the entire messianic people.

The whole life and mission of Jesus were carried out in total communion with the Holy Spirit. They gave the gift of the same Spirit to the newly baptized by the laying on of hands. Down through the centuries, the Church has continued to live by the Spirit and to impart him to her children.

It is called Chrismation in the Eastern Churches: Anointing with holy myron or chrism because the essential rite of the sacrament is anointing with chrism. It is called Confirmation because it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace. The essential rite of Confirmation is the anointing with Sacred Chrism oil mixed with balsam and consecrated by the bishop , which is done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite.

The effect of Confirmation is a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit like that of Pentecost. This outpouring impresses on the soul an indelible character and produces a growth in the grace of Baptism. It roots the recipient more deeply in divine sonship, binds him more firmly to Christ and to the Church and reinvigorates the gifts of the Holy Spirit in his soul.

It gives a special strength to witness to the Christian faith. Only those already baptized can and should receive this sacrament which can be received only once. To receive Confirmation efficaciously the candidate must be in the state of grace. The original minister of Confirmation is the bishop. In this way the link between the confirmed and the Church in her apostolic dimension is made manifest. When a priest confers this sacrament, as ordinarily happens in the East and in special cases in the West, the link with the bishop and with the Church is expressed by the priest who is the collaborator of the bishop and by the Sacred Chrism, consecrated by the bishop himself.

The Eucharist is the very sacrifice of the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus which he instituted to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the ages until his return in glory.

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Thus he entrusted to his Church this memorial of his death and Resurrection. It is a sign of unity, a bond of charity, a paschal banquet, in which Christ is consumed, the mind is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us. After he had gathered with his apostles in the Cenacle, Jesus took bread in his hands. This is the cup of my Blood, the Blood of the new and everlasting covenant. It will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgive.

It is the source and summit of all Christian life. In the Eucharist, the sanctifying action of God in our regard and our worship of him reach their high point. It contains the whole spiritual good of the Church, Christ himself, our Pasch. Communion with divine life and the unity of the People of God are both expressed and effected by the Eucharist. Through the eucharistic celebration we are united already with the liturgy of heaven and we have a foretaste of eternal life. The unfathomable richness of this sacrament is expressed in different names which evoke its various aspects.

The Eucharist was foreshadowed in the Old Covenant above all in the annual Passover meal celebrated every year by the Jews with unleavened bread to commemorate their hasty, liberating departure from Egypt. Jesus foretold it in his teaching and he instituted it when he celebrated the Last Supper with his apostles in a Passover meal.

The Eucharist unfolds in two great parts which together form one, single act of worship. The Liturgy of the Word involves proclaiming and listening to the Word of God. The Liturgy of the Eucharist includes the presentation of the bread and wine, the prayer or the anaphora containing the words of consecration, and communion. The celebrant of the Eucharist is a validly ordained priest bishop or priest who acts in the Person of Christ the Head and in the name of the Church.

The Eucharist is a memorial in the sense that it makes present and actual the sacrifice which Christ offered to the Father on the cross, once and for all on behalf of mankind. The sacrifice of the cross and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one and the same sacrifice. The priest and the victim are the same; only the manner of offering is different: in a bloody manner on the cross, in an unbloody manner in the Eucharist. In the Eucharist the sacrifice of Christ becomes also the sacrifice of the members of his Body. The lives of the faithful, their praise, their suffering, their prayers, their work, are united to those of Christ.

In as much as it is a sacrifice, the Eucharist is likewise offered for all the faithful, living and dead, in reparation for the sins of all and to obtain spiritual and temporal benefits from God. The Church in heaven is also united to the offering of Christ. Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist in a unique and incomparable way. He is present in a true, real and substantial way, with his Body and his Blood, with his Soul and his Divinity.

In the Eucharist, therefore, there is present in a sacramental way, that is, under the Eucharistic species of bread and wine, Christ whole and entire, God and Man. This change is brought about in the eucharistic prayer through the efficacy of the word of Christ and by the action of the Holy Spirit. The breaking of the bread does not divide Christ.

He is present whole and entire in each of the eucharistic species and in each of their parts. The worship due to the sacrament of the Eucharist, whether during the celebration of the Mass or outside it, is the worship of latria , that is, the adoration given to God alone. The Church guards with the greatest care Hosts that have been consecrated. She brings them to the sick and to other persons who find it impossible to participate at Mass. She also presents them for the solemn adoration of the faithful and she bears them in processions. The Church encourages the faithful to make frequent visits to adore the Blessed Sacrament reserved in the tabernacle.

The Holy Eucharist is the paschal banquet in as much as Christ sacramentally makes present his Passover and gives us his Body and Blood, offered as food and drink, uniting us to himself and to one another in his sacrifice. The altar is the symbol of Christ himself who is present both as sacrificial victim the altar of the sacrifice and as food from heaven which is given to us the table of the Lord. The Church obliges the faithful to participate at Holy Mass every Sunday and on holy days of obligation. She recommends participation at Holy Mass on other days as well. The Church recommends that the faithful, if they have the required dispositions, receive Holy Communion whenever they participate at Holy Mass.

However, the Church obliges them to receive Holy Communion at least once a year during the Easter season. To receive Holy Communion one must be fully incorporated into the Catholic Church and be in the state of grace, that is, not conscious of being in mortal sin. Anyone who is conscious of having committed a grave sin must first receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before going to Communion.

Also important for those receiving Holy Communion are a spirit of recollection and prayer, observance of the fast prescribed by the Church, and an appropriate disposition of the body gestures and dress as a sign of respect for Christ. Holy Communion increases our union with Christ and with his Church.

It preserves and renews the life of grace received at Baptism and Confirmation and makes us grow in love for our neighbor. It strengthens us in charity, wipes away venial sins and preserves us from mortal sin in the future. Catholic ministers may give Holy Communion licitly to members of the Oriental Churches which are not in full communion with the Catholic Church whenever they ask for it of their own will and possess the required dispositions.

Catholic ministers may licitly give Holy Communion to members of other ecclesial communities only if, in grave necessity, they ask for it of their own will, possess the required dispositions, and give evidence of holding the Catholic faith regarding the sacrament. Through poetry these knights in the desert keep their traditions alive. The lifetime of ministry unto the Lord by Dr. Lester Sumrall left a significant legacy of faith. This is a minute video that chronicles the life of Dr. Sumrall and includes an inspirational message by him that may very well renew and inflame your passion for ministry.

This series is autobiographical. Please join Dr. Lester Sumrall as he recounts his own life of profound miracles and blessings experienced while seeking to fulfill the Great Commission. One of the most fascinating persons in Scripture is Simon Peter. Lester Sumrall as we follow the life of this man Peter, who went from being as shakable as a reed in the wind to a rock who served as a powerful minister for Christ.

The Lord is still extending a second call to His followers who are willing to move into a deeper relationship with Him and the ministry.

Angels of Death - A News24 documentary

In our modern society nothing is so under attack by Satan as the home. This is a one-of-a-kind series as Dr. Sumrall and Sister Sumrall dialogue with one another to give us insight on how to have a happy home. Together, they made this series to encourage you to make your home a place of love and happiness. Love can be likened to a cut diamond which emits light 58 ways. Love emits God in every direction. When you fully comprehend love, you will know God, for the total essence of love is God.

Luzon Headhunter Luzon Headhunter is one the most unusual films yet produced. Produced in the 's, much of this minute video was filmed in the rugged highlands of the Mountain Province of Luzon, in the Philippines. It is a record of how Christ was presented to the aborigines of this area and how they received Him and became transformed into Bible-believing Christians. Mary of Magdala Mary of Magdala - Filmed on location by the Sea of Galilee, this minute video is about one of Christ's most ardent followers, out of whom Jesus cast seven devils Mark Lester Sumrall as he explores the biblical account of this often misunderstood disciple of Christ.

When man comes to the end of himself and his own possibilities and he cries out to God, He will untangle your problems and show you mercy. This is a study of the nine gifts of the Holy Spirit listed in 1 Corinthians , as well as a study of the ministry gifts of Christ given to believers as listed in 1 Corinthians and Ephesians Christ still wants these ministries to operate in the Church today.

Lester Sumrall as he defines them and shows how we can fully benefit from their operation. Miracles of Jesus Miracles of Jesus - Jesus taught spiritual lessons through miracles. As an example, when He helped Peter bring in a miraculous catch of fish, Study with Dr. Sumrall as he also explores the feeding of the 5,, the healing of the ten lepers, the turning of water into wine, miracles of raising the dead, miracles of deliverance, and others.

The human mind cannot fully comprehend God, but the Bible reveals characteristics that help paint a picture of His magnificence and love for mankind. He is almighty, all-knowing, all-present, and does not change. It is the desire of Dr. Under the leadership of Nehemiah, the walls surrounding Jerusalem were rebuilt in fifty-two days, an incredible feat.

Sumrall and discover the characteristics that made Nehemiah a champion. In their quest for fame and power, men and women have conquered nations in order to rule over mankind. The Bible clearly states that heaven and earth will pass away, but the Word of God shall stand forever. In this series, recorded on location in Israel, Dr. One World One World. Man is making a last and violent thrust for One World, and he will hand it over to a super-person known in the Bible as the Antichrist. Sumrall as he discusses some of the many obstacles to a One World Government and how a lasting and successful One World Government can only be achieved through the Lord Jesus Christ.

Panorama of Prophecy Panorama of Prophecy. Our world staggers from crisis to crisis. Do they have prophetic significance? Lester Sumrall in the early s is designed to encourage and challenge. As the world grows darker, the light of the believer will shine brighter and brighter until the coming of the Lord. Person of Jesus Christ Person of Jesus.

Jesus is the only begotten Son of the Almighty who, because of His great love for humanity, volitionally became the Son of Man in order to transform the sons of men into adopted sons of God. Lester Sumrall explores the reality of the Person who the world views as a total mystery man. Ultimately, what you think about Christ will reveal your eternal destiny. These are studies dealing with the Holy Spirit, as God, with all His attributes of personality and idiosyncrasies of rational behavior on the divine level. When Jesus returned to heaven He sent the Holy Spirit to be our guide and comforter.

One of the greatest needs of the Church today is to understand and possess a personal confrontation with the Holy Spirit. Prayer Prayer unto God is beautiful: It draws us close to our beloved Creator. Prayer is powerful: It opens the door for God to help us in our time of need. These are in-depth studies of the therapeutic and supernatural powers of prayer and of the methods that have been proven to be effective for the believer and disciple of Christ.

Hosea and Gomer were a living illustration of God's relationship to Israel. Gomer's adulterous pursuits of her lovers and Israel's unfaithfulness to God were the same. By marrying Gomer, Hosea learned to know the deep feelings God had for His people. Sumrall is an illustrated sermon explaining the great love God has for His people. Promises of God Promises of God. Prophet Elijah Prophet Elijah. The story of Elijah is one of the greatest in the Bible. Sumrall at this site as he lectures on the life of this great prophet.

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As the book of Genesis is the alpha of the Bible, so the book of Revelation is the omega. As you study this book you will see that it deals with conclusions: the termination of evil transgressions, sickness, sorrow, separation, darkness, and death , the destruction of the devil, and the end of time. Sumrall as he leads us through this fascinating book of the Bible. Like no other book in Scripture, the book of Romans gives a systematic treatment of the plan of salvation. It reveals to us the very heart of the Gospel of Grace.

Moses had 70 elders and Jesus had 12 apostles, but even though Samson was a judge over Israel, he never had a close friend among his people. Being a loner can be dangerous for anyone. Wise men surround themselves with godly people of ability. The Bible records the incredible strength that Samson had as the Spirit of the Lord came upon him. Secrets of Prosperity Secrets of Prosperity can mean different things to different people.

Sumrall takes a look at how God views prosperity in relation to nations, families, and individuals. Seven Steps Seven Steps into and out of a Crisis. This series by Lester Sumrall shows us seven steps to leadership, prosperity, miracles, killing your giants, achievement, and renewed youth.

Lester Sumrall telling him of things to come in America. He spoke of a departure from the faith of our fathers, and an escalation of paganism, rebellion, and homosexuality. He also promised an outpouring of His Spirit in the last days that will surpass all the revivals of history, and charged His people to lift up their heads and rejoice when these things come to pass. A tree is known by its fruit.

We too shall be known by our fruit. If we are righteous we shall yield good works, but if we are corrupt we shall produce evil deeds. Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments. This teaching series by Lester Sumrall is a study on the foundations of truth. The Ten Commandments are a summary of our duties toward God and toward man. They were written by God on the table of testimony of stone and instituted the Old Covenant. Jesus reaffirmed the Ten Commandments, and they are still relevant today. This is the case of Cornelio Closa, Jr.

Cornelio became invisible under its power. Sumrall gives an account of this strange encounter and prayer of deliverance for this tormented boy. This exciting message by Dr. Lester Sumrall deals with the three prophetic ministries of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit joining together in the last-day revival to equip the saints, gather a harvest and bring judgment on the earth.

Total Man The total Man. A most important fact is that he is a three-fold person. Rather than admit him to a nursing facility, we decided that I would care for him at home. My day consisted of bathing George, caring for his bed sores, administering his medications, and transferring him from bed to chair, then back again.

It was incredibly humiliating to him that he could not take care of himself anymore, and I took the brunt of his frustration. My husband and I planned a weekend getaway and arranged for a young man to care for George while we were gone. The night before we were to leave, I tucked George into bed, kissed him on the forehead, and reminded him that we would leave in the morning for the weekend. You have no right to leave me with someone else!

Instantly, I was convicted that my actions were wrong and very un-Christlike. Weeping, I ran to my room and fell onto my bed. Are you really working in my life? I am answering your prayer to be more like Me. You are resentful of George. He takes up your time, leaving you feeling overwhelmed with no way out. Resentment is sin, and if you give it to Me, I will give you grace to continue caring for George. I saw what resentment looked like, and I did not want it to be in my heart. I confessed my sin and resolved to live for God.

I asked Him to wash me and give me a new heart. I got up from my bed, dried my eyes, and asked George for his forgiveness. Peace filled my heart, and my defeat was turned into victory. We eventually had to place George in a nursing facility as his care became impossible for me to provide. We received a call one evening telling us to come because George had suffered a stroke. In his last moments, I believe that he accepted Jesus as His Savior.

His siblings were much older and had lives of their own; his father and mother were preoccupied managing a tavern in the small town where they lived. Eddie was often left to care for himself. The local movie theater was his babysitter on weekends, and many times he came home after the double feature to an empty house. Sometimes he sat in the family car well after other seven-year-old children were asleep in their beds and cried for his mother to come out of the tavern and take him home. When Eddie was 14, his mother became a born-again Seventh-day Adventist Christian, and things dramatically changed.

Instead of patronizing the tavern, his mother began attending prayer meeting and church services. Eddie joined the Seventh-day Adventist Church with his mother and enrolled in church school. By the time he was 17, however, he lost interest in church. Two years later, he was drafted into military service. His pastor encouraged him to get re-baptized before facing the dangers of battle. This sounded like a great plan, and Eddie agreed to do so when he came home on leave.

He studied the fundamental beliefs of the Adventist Church for a second time. Eddie found that trying to meet church standards on his own was a challenge. He was tired of trying to be a Christian, playing church, trying to obey. He was powerless to maintain the Christian life and fell back into his old ways. What was wrong? Their hearts are not moved by any deep sense of the love of Christ, but they seek to perform the duties of the Christian life as that which God requires of them in order to gain heaven.

Such religion is worth nothing. They prayed specifically for Eddie. They saw the answer to their prayers over the next few weeks when things started to go wrong for him. He lost his girlfriend, his job, and his car. Why is my world falling apart?

The Dead Are Dead Until the Rapture or Resurrection

After a night of drinking with friends, Eddie came home in a drunken stupor. I know a lot about you, but now I want to know you! Please make me a true Christian. He believed by faith that his sins were forgiven and that he was a new creature in Christ Jesus; old things were passed away. Through this simple act of believing the promise of God, the Holy Spirit began a work in his heart.

A new life emerged, and Eddie did not turn back. As it is by giving yourself to God, and believing Him, that you become His child, so you are to live in Him. Eddie began to read the Bible and learned to pray. As he studied the Scriptures and learned more about the love of God through the life of Jesus, his own life became transformed. The drinking, smoking, and other lifestyle choices that once made him happy were no longer part of his life.

He found it difficult to read at first—his mind wandered many times—but as he persevered, taking one page at a time, the book became precious to him. He found in its pages the love of God, and by faith accepted that the promises of God were meant for him. He finally found peace. When I gave my heart to Jesus at age 19, my whole life changed. Bible study and prayer became my daily companions.

I looked forward to attending prayer meeting, Bible study groups, Sabbath School, and church—anywhere that the Word of God was presented and testimonies were shared. I hungered for more and still more of Jesus. The more Christ filled me, the more my taste in music, entertainment, clothing, everything, changed! I found this to be true.

A desire bloomed in my heart to tell everyone I could that Christ loved me and forgave my sins, that I was clean and precious to Him. If we are clothed with the righteousness of Christ, and are filled with the joy of His indwelling Spirit, we shall not be able to hold our peace. Where could I begin? This was easier said than done. What do I tell them? I thought. They could tell what they knew; what they themselves had seen, and heard, and felt of the power of Christ.

This is what everyone can do whose heart has been touched by the grace of God. We can tell how we have tested His promise, and found the promise true. We can bear witness to what we have known of the grace of Christ. I waited for the Lord to give me opportunities to witness for Him.

I was working as an office receptionist when breaking news came across the television screen, alerting us that a terrible hurricane had struck the U. Things are just crazy! I quickly made my way back to my desk. Soon, Ginger came to the front where my desk was and plopped herself down in a chair.

I want to know! I then extended the invitation to her to do the same. The Lord opened a door, and I chose to walk through it. God has given me the privilege of working with Him for nearly 40 years. These have all been wonderful opportunities to share what God has done, but the most effective way to win souls for the Master is by coming close to people through the tender touch of compassion, by meeting their needs and winning their confidence.


Then you can invite them to follow Jesus. The children of God are to manifest His glory. G was a respected teacher at a small boarding academy in the rolling hills of Eastern Washington in the United States. This school taught not only the principles of reading, writing, math, and vocational skills but also the fundamentals of practical Christian living. Students learned to give Bible studies, preach evangelistic meetings, and lead out in their home churches by teaching the Sabbath School lesson, preaching the sermon, and doing community outreach.

G was a vital part of that education. G taught from the book Steps to Christ for his eleventh-grade Bible class. His life was a testimony to the power of God, and he stressed upon the minds of his students the importance of starting the day with Christ. I lay all my plans at Thy feet. Use me today in Thy service. G taught not only upper grade Bible class but also carpentry to ninth-grade boys. The class was divided into two sections. First, they studied a book; next, they applied what they had learned in a practical way. One day during class, Mr. G was helping three of the boys build a supporting wall, while the other three played on a pile of lumber.

G asked the boys to stay off the lumber since it could fall and injure someone. The boys continued to wrestle on the wood, and when he went over to talk with them, a large plank fell on his foot. He danced around in pain, clutching his foot. The boys, thinking this was very funny, laughed and pointed at him. Instantly, Mr. G became angry. Heated words flowed from his lips. Like Moses, who lost his temper with the children of Israel, he lost his temper in front of his students.

Running into a nearby office, Mr. Rest in God. He is able to keep that which you have committed to Him. Everyone does it. The next class period for Mr. G that day was Bible. The students came in and took their seats, and one of the girls put her assignment on his desk. That one sentence was just what he needed.

Years later, he received a letter from one of those boys. Now that I am a father, I have had to ask my children many times to forgive me for when I failed, and because of your example, it has helped me be a better father. You made a huge mistake this time! I want to work for You, but not here!

Many of these children were homeless, victims of abuse, or involved in gangs, drugs, and even prostitution. I had spent over 20 years teaching in a sheltered Christian school environment, and this new assignment seemed like more than I could endure.

Who Are the 144,000 and What Is Their Purpose?

Students entered the classroom on the first day holding up their pants and wearing hoodies that covered their faces. Trouble broke out within the first hour as one boy began to shout threatening obscenities toward two other young men. Here I was, totally out of my comfort zone, with a fight about to begin. I was intimidated. Their crude language, music, and explicit images displayed on their computer screens made me long for my protective environment. Sending up a prayer for help, I pressed the Lord to fulfill His word given to Jeremiah and bring calm into the room.

Each of you must take your seats and quietly begin working on your assignments. I glorified God in my heart, praising Him for His goodness and mercy. Over the next few weeks, I continued to plead with the Lord to take me out of my work situation. He answered my prayer in an unusual way—by showing me the condition of my own heart. Not until you move beyond your built-in prejudice and fear will you be able to reveal My love to these children.

You are here to make a difference in their lives, to reveal My character to them. Later that afternoon, the same scenario happened, this time with a young girl. What difference could I make? It began with little things, such as providing a healthy breakfast so they could start the day with at least one good meal. I won their confidence by listening to their stories and entering into their sufferings and by becoming a friend and mentor.

When the tsunami struck Asia, the students wanted to find out what I thought of the tragedy. The students were very sober when I explained that Jesus was warning the world to get ready. We were on a two-week mission trip in Iloilo City, Philippines, when I was called to the business office of the church. What happened? My youngest brother, Frank, broke the news to me that our oldest brother, Danny, an alcoholic and drug addict, was found with a needle in his arm in a motel room. He overdosed on a deadly cocktail of heroin mixed with alcohol.

During the long flight home, childhood memories flooded my mind. I remembered special moments playing with my brother. I remembered how protective he had been of me. My heart had ached for him to have a better life, to know God and find peace and contentment. Danny always found it easy to make friends.

But when he entered high school, his friends were the ones who partied, drank alcohol, and experimented with drugs. It was not long until Danny became an alcoholic and drug addict, which made him a frequent visitor to the county jail and court-ordered detox centers. So Danny came to live with my husband and me for a while. While he was in our home, Danny showed an interest in spiritual things. He participated in our family worship and even enrolled in a correspondence Bible study course. He knew all the right answers and completed his lessons in record time.

His life was taking a different course and, believing himself to be stable, he returned home. Soon, he was back with his old friends and into the drugs—this time deeper, using stronger drugs, which eventually took his life. I felt sorry for Danny. Watching his struggle with addiction was devastating to our family.

Many times he took advantage of our parents, stealing from them to support his addiction and lying to cover it up. They could not allow him to keep living in their home, so then he became homeless. He died alone. I often wonder if Danny believed that God loved him. I wonder what was going through his mind in those last moments of his life.

Did he call out to God? Will he be saved? I will never know the answer in this life, but I am confident that our Heavenly Father had His hand over Danny from the time he was born. Our daughter was almost two, and this pregnancy would space the children perfectly. Our joy turned into sadness, however, not once, but twice.

Later that same day I experienced some pain in my lower abdomen and ended up in the hospital. One of my fallopian tubes had ruptured, causing life-threatening internal bleeding. Surgery repaired the physical damage, but not my disappointed heart. After many years of unsuccessful attempts to get pregnant, my physician told me that it was impossible due to the tissue damage caused by the hemorrhaging. I was determined to prove him wrong!

God answered my prayer! We were so excited. My husband and I were walking along a peaceful river on a sunny Sabbath afternoon when I felt a familiar pain in my side. I had felt this way before, but quickly dismissed it. Later that evening, the pain intensified, and again, I ended up in the hospital. Tests confirmed my fears—it was a second ectopic pregnancy, and I needed emergency surgery.

What happens when a Christian puts all of his faith in the promises of God, only to be disappointed? Where is the good spoken of in Romans ? Clouds of doubt covered me. I wondered, Why, God? Why did you answer my prayer, then take it away? Why did You let me down? I lay in my hospital bed feeling very discouraged.

I was physically in pain and emotionally drained. My nurse assured me that hot water would help me feel better and helped me into the shower. Tears streamed down my face. I felt totally abandoned by God. The steam from the shower was like the dark clouds of a storm. Is this how He shows His love? But God had not left me. I returned to my bed totally exhausted and wanted to be alone.

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I know whom I have believed! I have given my life to Christ, and what He decides to do with me is OK, because my life is hid in Christ.