Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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A reception for the group will be held on February 26 at West 26th Street. The concept was to create a chair without making use of conventional chair-manufacturing assumptions. Without processing or assistance, the work illicits an organic simplicity and carries messages of re-invention, human ingenuity, and delicate beauty. Along with nendo and other young designers, Miyake juxtaposed inspirational works by pioneers Isamu Noguchi, Ron Arad, and Tim Hawkinson.

Thirteen Chairs

It will also be included in the inaugural design exhibition at the Holon Museum in Tel Aviv, Fall Bambi table. This is a deceptive impression. They have been fabricated for subversive purposes. Hoare, in Harry Zohn ed. In the hall was placed, as was customary in those times, the sedan-chair which the master of the house occasionally used, covered with stamped leather, and studded with gilt nails, and with its red silk blinds down. In this case, the doors of this old-fashioned conveyance were locked, the windows up, and.

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Earlier in the story old Harbottle has had a grisly dream-trial while he waits, dozing in his carriage, for his drinking- companions. In both cases the terror intrudes upon him even though he has shut himself up in the security of his private domain. Neither his house nor his carriage turns out to be proof against the invasion, which lies in wait within the very conveyance which is the sign of his exalted status.

In both cases the signs of apparent order and authority are revealed as a sham. The real interest of the story, however, does not lie in the moral come-uppance he gets, but rather in the projected sense of the infestation of a series of apparently secure interiors by alien energies, variously manifested. These interiors are ostensibly domestic and material. On the level of the story, they are settings and possessions; but on the level of discourse the reader is impelled by the persistent foregrounding of what seem like mere details of decor, in tale after tale, to discover in them the trace of a theme.

The concept of the interior has a domestic, but also a psychic, referent. Within is within the conscience, the mind, the consciousness, as well as within the cupboard, the chest, the bed. It is set in the studio of the seventeenth-century Dutch realist painter Gerard Douw, a highly successful painter of still-lifes, interiors and commissioned portraits. The suitor Douw favours turns out to be Death, clinking with gold but bluish-white about the face, presumably with putrefaction.

She is the price paid by Douw for his financial security. The events of the fabula story are framed within this painting, unfolding from it and leading back to it at the end. Thus there are two descriptions of Rose, smiling and silent. Veiled and carrying a lamp, like a Truth- figure in traditional iconography, she leads Schalken towards the dreadful vision in the church crypt, which is itself done up like a Douw painting.

But by the end the image of Rose, Schalken and the bridegroom Death has ceased to be a flat, possessable thing: the initial tableau with figures, complete with coyly mysterious gesture, has been invested with an intense and terrifying alien energy: 12 See J.

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Rosenberg, ed. By the light of the lamp. Terror in his work is a domestic matter, usually set back, to be sure, by a couple of generations, and mostly located in the countryside, whether of Ireland or Cumberland, but without the cosmic sweep of Melmoth the Wanderer, and eschewing exoticism of setting. The strangeness in his work is achieved by other means, and has largely different effects or purposes: it is to be met, as we have seen, inside the house, beneath the apparently straightforward surface and within the self. This invasion may come from within, like the ghost sitting in the sedan-chair, or it may break or creep in from without by rationally inexplicable means.

The double motif can take various forms. If one can isolate the main idea underlying the motif in its nineteenth-century versions, it is perhaps that the self is non-unitary and does not therefore present a single smooth surface to experience. Tucker, Jr. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, The conscience-double, the gruesome phantom-double, and the Mephistophelean sidekick- double all embody the unsettling notion that whether by wickedness, or suffering, or as a result of a moment of inattention to some social or moral taboo, the self may undergo a process of fragmentation, and be ever after impossible to reunify.

Wilde combined the legend of eternal youth with a double motif in The Picture of Dorian Gray Le Fanu shows interest in several varieties of doubling, with a particular emphasis on sibling- or cousin-doubling, on the Faust- Mephistopheles type, and on phantom doubles. His doubles are peculiar within the tradition of the motif in being often complementary halves of a notional pair rather than the more usual mirror-images; but they are perhaps all the more eerie for that.

The first modern masters of the motif, Hoffmann, and Chamisso, were fond of using the shadow—also a folktale motif—or the reflection in a mirror as doubles. GSM, p. This seems to draw on the primitive idea of the soul-double, as the wraith or visible counterpart of the person, seen just before or just after, or at the moment of, his death. Hastings, ed. So says Monsieur Buffon, in his big book, in the next room.

Carmilla is of an age with the heroine. They share, and have shared before Carmilla arrived, the same dreams. It is never made clear in the story whether Carmilla is conscious of her vampire being; there are hints that she well understands it and is deceitful and cunning, and also indications that she is quite unaware of it, and is its prisoner. This uncertainty is one of the finest effects in the tale, and raises it well above the normal crude simplicity of vampire plots. It would seem that what Le Fanu is investigating is the recesses of consciousness, Carmilla and Laura are twin fragments of a complete personality, which it is somehow difficult to join or keep together.

This effect recalls the lost shadows and reflections of the German Romantic. The point is that Carmilla stands for the suppressed, or perhaps unrealized, half of Laura. The story frames reality within unreality: because of the apparent remoteness from everyday social life of the supernatural and particularly of the vampire tale, Le Fanu could give Carmilla, seduction speeches and extraordinary directness. The sexual pleasure she promises to Laura involves an exquisite mutual yielding up of consciousness.

This is to enable the metamorphosis from grub to butterfly: a clear metaphor for the 18 Loc.

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One might, that is, but for the cross-strand which links Carmilla on the other hand to death, and makes when the summer comes a moment in the other world. The saved one, Alice, has nocturnal visions of the seduction the doomed one, Una. My dreams crossing your brain; only dreams, dreams.

Get you to bed, and sleep.

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Bale and Philip, like Laura and Carmilla, appear to the reader as two halves of a self which have somehow come adrift from each other: feeling and yielding in Philip, harshness and moral stupidity in Bale. At the beginning of the story there is a frame-passage set in the local village inn, all good English cheer and honest country folk. It seems that he is not quite fully an individual, but as well as being himself, in some sense is also his ancestor. This sinister and intriguing device was, significantly, dropped by Le Fanu in the later, more famous and more sentimental version, Uncle Silas.

In these stories it is as if the psychology of the protagonist is objectified, whether in a double-motif of some kind, or in the domestic interior, or, as we shall see, in the landscape. Le Fanu shows little interest in producing the effect of depth, or interiority, in characterization; his haunted characters do not reflect on their condition, or if they do we are not told about it.

Instead their whole houses, or demesnes, be come the ground of their inner conflicts, the stages of which are represented by haunting-episodes of growing intensity. Finally he has it shot by his gamekeeper. On story level, to him and his servants, the dog resembles his dead father, who thus seems to be accusing him; but to the reader, it seems the embodiment of the guilt he feels but will not acknowledge. In Le Fanu the past, both personal and historical, leaves stains or traces in the world, or in our consciousness of the world two things not easy to separate.

Such traces are initially encountered as a residue, but actively lead back into that past. The unwilling but desperate Sir Bale crosses the lake to seek the man he thinks is a gipsy fortune-teller.

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BGS, When he carries out the instructions and stares at the stone it seemed not as if a shadow fell upon the stone, but rather as if the stone became semi-transparent, and just under its surface was something dark—a hand, he thought it—and darker and darker it grew, as if coming up towards the surface, and after some little wavering, it fixed itself movelessly, pointing, as he thought, towards the forest BGS, Perception has the task of interpreting such scars and traces.

A hanging tuft of yellow and red ivy nodded queerly in place of the face, some broken and discoloured masonry in perspective took up the outline and colouring of the arms and figure, and two imperfect red and yellow lichen streaks carried out the curved tracing of the long spindle shanks. Larry blessed himself, and drew his hand across his damp forehead, over his bewildered eyes, and could not speak for a minute.

At last, sure enough, he saw the castle plain as plain could be. But though the disappearing castle and the appearing ghost are motivated sketchily, as usual, at the end as historical retribution, the interest of such spellbinding moments in these stories surely does not lie in such motivation. When their editor, E. The numinous Other in nature and the past —the final motif we shall identify—usually functions retributively, it is true, at the level of fabula story material.

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The haunted protagonists are evil, in the majority of cases. But the reader of more than one or two stories quickly sees that the working out of each individual damnation is hardly the point. James was quite right to say that whatever the cause of such repetition, it was not poverty of invention. This piece opens with a prefatory reminiscence by the narrator, in which he recounts his first hearing of the tales.

The structure of this reminiscence is important: it presents the past as three successive levels, in a pattern strikingly replicated at least twice more in these stories. The third stratum is that of the Earl of Desmond, paradigm of the old ruined Norman-Irish aristocracy whose rule was supplanted by the English claim to sovereignty. In his folklore existence this Earl subsumes at least two, and probably more, figures from actual history the chief two are Gearoid Iarla, the fourteenth-century Desmond who is also an important Irish poet, and the last Earl, around whom gathered the resistance in Munster to the Elizabethan conquest of Ireland.

The lake is the central symbol of this group of stories: And beneath its waters lie enchanted, the grand old castle of the Desmonds, the great earl himself, his beautiful young countess, and all the retinue that surrounded him in the years of his splendour, and at the moment of his catastrophe. Out of those waters, it is said, he can emerge every seven years and attempt converse with the human world.

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Thus the reader is left with two incompatible versions of events, one history, one romance. But these sedimentary layers, too, can be penetrated, as can those of the personal and historical forgetfulness whose action they mime, and as can the thick coverings and concealments of plush and tapestry and oak chests.

When Sir Bale needs reliable racing tips, and ready cash with which to bet in order to save his estates, his half-double, half-sibling Philip Feltram leads him, as we have seen, to a source of both. To get there Bale must cross the lake and enter the forest. This forest, which is usually of aboriginal oak, makes repeated appearances in Le Fanu.

Man In The Chair

To reach the forest Sir Bale must cross the lake. This he is extremely reluctant to do, for reasons he does not state in so many words, but which to the reader are both clear and full of metaphorical implication. The village people believed the lake is haunted by the drowned woman; but to Bale it represents another kind of barrier: he has not visited the woods on the far side since childhood, when they were his playground.

Here again the personal and the ancestral past are made to coincide, as are the outer and inner scenery. When eventually he is forced by his pressing debts to make the journey, the landscape prompts in him an outpouring of reminiscence: He looked round him as if in a dream. He had not been there since his childhood.

There were no regrets, no sentiment, no remorse; only an odd return of the associations and fresh feelings of boyhood, and a long reach of time suddenly annihilated. The little hollow in which he stood; the three hawthorn trees at his right; every crease and undulation of the sward, every angle and crack in the lichen-covered rock at his feet, recurred with a sharp and instantaneous recognition to his memory. That bramble has not grown an inch since, not a leaf altered.

In Irish folklore, lakes, like caves in hills, are frequently seen as otherworld entrances. We fancy the shore must look very pretty from a boat; and when we try it, we find we have only got down into a pit and can see nothing rightly. After this event, when Bale sees him one evening standing on the steps of the house, in the evening sun, he is throwing a long shadow that was lost in the lake. Then it is yours—you lend it? This landscape symbolically objectifies human consciousness; in it all the fragments of the Mardyke family are unified: Sir Bale, thinking himself safe behind the wainscot and stone of the great house; his malevolent ancestor, waiting within the forest and on the old canvas to be released into power; and Philip, who goes to encounter, within the lake waters, the slighted woman from whom he is descended.