Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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Robert Frost. Leonard Cohen Poems. Leonard Cohen. Before any attempt can be made to straighten wood that has warped, you need to understand what caused it in the first place. Most of us underestimate the power behind warped wood. Straitening is not as simple as it may sometimes seem, and every action taken will have consequence.

Understanding warp is the key to reversing it permanently. The Furniture Refinishing Studio was created to help you with your furniture restoration, refinishing and repair projects through combined video demonstrations and articles using a collaboration of skilled and approved creators. The biggest problem isn't just the warping of wood itself, but our own selves that have become obsessed with instant gratification. We have become perpetually impatient people and that in and of itself just doesn't fit well with a warped table top that really doesn't care what else you have going on in your life.

We gotta fix it now, right now! One of the most common searches we get on our website concerns warped wood. Warping can be a really frustrating problem when we're confronted with it. I will take a wild guess that if you are reading this article, you are confronted with some type of warping issue. You probably expect to find a quick easy fix because that is the world we live in.

I have put this article together to include some quick fixes because they do exist Most readers have already skipped past this text looking to "get to it". I think before any attempt can be made to straighten wood that has warped, you really need to understand what caused it in the first place. The two wefts move toward each other in one shed, and move apart in the next shed. Header Tightly packed weft, often used at the beginning of and end of rugs and tapestry.

This weft-faced weave keeps the rug or tapestry weft intact, and strengthens the edge of the woven article. Heddle Polyester loop Texsolv heddle , suspended on the shafts, has a central eye through which an individual warp end passes. I have only Texsolv heddles on my looms, with the exception of my inkle, which has string heddles.

The number of heddles used varies depending on the width of the warp and the size of the thread. Warp ends are threaded through the heddles. When weaving, the weft passes through the warp ends wherever the pattern heddles are raised. Hemstitch Encircling warp ends with an extended weft thread or a supplemental thread to prevent weft from unravelling.

I do the hemstitching while the article is on the loom. Normally, it is used at the ends of articles that will have fringe, and adds a decorative element as well. I is for Ink the Warp. Ink the Warp Making marks on the warp to use as an outline or guide for tapestry weaving. I use a fine-point Sharpie to put dots on the warp that coincide with the cartoon underneath. Or, when weaving without a cartoon, I may mark the warp with a curved line or other shape to follow for the tapestry design.

An inkle loom is used for weaving narrow bands. I have woven bands that became shoe laces, hair ties, belts, purse straps, towel loops, jacket trim, Christmas ornaments, little dolls, package ties, bookmarks, and more. And there are plenty of inkle bands that are still waiting to be used. Inlay Supplementary weft that is placed into or over the ground weave. Kuvikas Summer and Winter Finnish word for pattern , the word is also used for this single two-tie unit weave.

Often referred to as Summer and Winter, this structure has one pattern shaft and two tie-down shafts per block. Complex to describe, but not complicated to weave. L is for Lace. Usually, the lace effect is not fully visible until after washing. Lamm Horizontal wooden rods below the shafts that attach the treadles to the shafts. On countermarch looms like mine, there are two sets of lamms — upper lamms and lower lamms. This enables the weaver to keep the correct arrangement of threads throughout the warping process. Lease Sticks A pair of beveled slats that are inserted into the lease cross to maintain the correct order of the warp ends.

The two slats are tied together through holes at each end so that the threads cannot escape, even if the lease sticks loose their balance. Leveling String A string that adjusts all the tied-on bundles on the front tie-on bar to an even level. The leveling string is tied securely through the hole at one end of the front tie-on bar, woven by hand under and over the tied-on bundles, tightened well, and then tied firmly to the other end of the front tie-on bar.

This simple procedure, together with small tied-on bundles, makes it possible to eliminate the weaving of waste yarn for evening out the ends, in most cases. Lingo A two-pound U-shaped weight that is suspended from each pattern unit on the drawloom. At times, during active weaving they swing into each other and sound like lovely wind chimes. Meet and Separate Tapestry technique where two butterflies of yarn move toward each other or away from each other, instead of moving together in the same direction.

Two blocks of pattern weft floats on four shafts are used to create traditional Swedish pattern designs. Supplementary weft is placed in between picks of plain weave. I created birds in a small tapestry with ojos that covered just three warps. The ground weave is plain weave, with weft that is the same or similar thread as the warp thread. The pattern weft is usually double the thickness of the warp thread. This is woven from the back side, so I keep a mirror handy to view the right side, which is underneath.

Opposites The shafts work in pairs to weave opposites. One weft pick is followed by treadling the opposite shed for the next weft pick. P is for Pick. Pick Shot One inserted row of the weft thread. Fabric is created with a pass of the shuttle, repeated over and over again. Pick and Pick In tapestry weaving, two colors of weft that are woven in alternating rows.

This produces vertical stripes in the weaving. Pick-up Individual, or groups, of warp threads are lifted, often with a pick-up stick, to create a pattern. Pick-up Stick Thin slat or stick used for picking up a pattern from the warp threads. The stick is tapered, and sometimes pointed, at one or both ends to be able to slip easily under the pattern threads. Each weft pick interlaces over and under each warp end. Q is for Quill. Quill A paper or cardboard tube on which weft threads are wound for use in a boat shuttle. Paper, such as brown craft paper, can be cut into a circle the diameter a little shorter than the size of the boat shuttle shank and rolled around the bobbin winder shank to form a surprisingly sturdy, reusable quill.


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R is for Reed. Reed A comb-like tool that fits into the beater, and spaces the warp threads evenly. The spacing of the threads in the reed determines the density of the weave. I have several sizes of reeds, from 6 dents per inch to Reed Hook Sley Hook A tool that has a hook that fits through the dents on a reed. The hook is used to pull ends through the reed dents. My reed hook has a wooden handle and metal hook. I have another reed hook that is smaller, plastic, has a hook at both ends, and fits right into the palm of my hand.

Rep Weave Warp-faced or weft-faced weave.

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Warp rep typically has a densely-sleyed warp, and often uses a thick and a thin weft. Rigid Heddle A wooden tool with slot and holes, used for weaving bands. Mine has pattern slots, which makes it easier to pick up pattern threads. Rigid Heddle Loom A frame loom that has a plastic rigid heddle with slots and holes. The weaver lifts and lowers the heddle to move the threads. The rigid heddle also serves to spread the warp, and is used to beat in the weft.

Depending on the size, the loom may sit on a stand, or lean up against a table for weaving. Rosepath can be woven in different structures, such as rosepath on opposites, or bound rosepath. I have also woven rosepath borders on towels and rosepath designs in rag rugs.

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The rosepath motif often appears in Scandinavian textiles. Rya Inlay technique that forms knots over pairs of warp ends, producing a pile surface. I have made rya weavings with thick wool yarns, combination of wool and linen strands, and with short strips of fabric. S is for Sample. Sample The practice of using the first part of the warp to verify that everything is working together as needed.

I always plan on a minimum of 8 inches for sampling, but often add 18 inches or more to the warp because I enjoy trying out various weft options and treadling patterns. It feels like play time.

Ending the bending - on the straightening of warped wood

I also check to see that the fabric density is what I want, check for threading and sleying errors, and make an overall assessment before beginning the actual piece. Satin A weave with warp floats on one side and weft floats on the other.

The sheen of linen makes it a desirable thread for this cloth that naturally reflects light because of the floats. A good selvedge is a sign of a good weaver. On the other hand, many beginning weavers pay too much attention to their selvedges, which can have an adverse effect. Eventually, practice pays off and good selvedges just happen, right? The sett is the density of warp threads per inch; as such, it is one of the key factors for producing fabric that works as designed for a specific use.


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Shaft Two rods with heddles hung between them. The shafts are suspended by cords from the jacks in the countermarch at the top of the loom. My Glimakra Standard loom has twelve shafts 12 pairs of rods ; I have used as few as two shafts, and as many as twelve. My convertible Glimakra Ideal has four shafts, and there is no shortage of beautiful weaves you can create on just four shafts. Shaft, Ground The drawloom has two sets of shafts.

Fixes For Warped Wood On Furniture

The ground shafts are the usual shafts that are directly behind the beater, in front of the pattern shafts. The threading of the ground shafts determines the structure of the cloth, such as broken twill, 5-shaft satin, or 6-shaft irregular satin. Shaft, Pattern The drawloom has this second set of shafts for the pattern heddles with the pattern warp ends. The pattern shafts barely rest on the long pattern shaft holders that hang on each side of the loom, behind the ground shafts. Each pattern shaft is attached to a drawcord the ends with a small wooden handle at the front of the drawbridge.

Pulling a handle raises that pattern shaft. Shed The opening between raised and lowered warp threads, where the weft passes through. Perfect sheds make me very happy. I have a variety of boat shuttles, stick shuttles, ski shuttles, inkle shuttles, and band loom shuttles. Each kind serves a purpose. Holding it with my left hand, keeping my thumb above the warp threads, I pass the little shuttle back and forth in rhythm with the changing shed and beating in of the weft. Shuttle, Double Bobbin This boat shuttle holds two separate bobbins that empty simultaneously when passed through the shed.

I have wound a single bobbin with two threads, but with this double bobbin shuttle the threads are much less likely to twist around each other in the shed. Shuttle, Ski A shuttle with upturned ends that is used for weaving rugs. My husband crafted a beautiful cherrywood ski shuttle for me.

It is beautiful to the eyes and to the touch.

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I usually wind about a five-yard length of fabric strip on my ski shuttle when weaving a rag rug. Strategically omitting some of the shafts in the tie-up make it possible to press two treadles at the same time. Sley Pulling the warp ends through the reed using a thin, flat tool made for this purpose, called a sley hook. This spaces the threads evenly across the width of the warp.