One explains past climate indicators e. The other chapters address to climates and climate zones of several major geological time slices, namely the Carboniferous—Permian, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, the Precambrian—Devonian, and the Quaternary listed in the same order as appear in the book. The above-mentioned indicators are reviewed for each slice. However, the book is not just a summary of the knowledge, but a product of its intellectual reworking. The reconstructed palaeoclimate zones are plotted against the continental reconstructions in order to find agreement.
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As for the Quaternary, much is told also about the findings of M. Milankovitch, and these are used to explain the significant climate fluctuations. Three general reflections are possible. First, this book demonstrates the efficiency of the almost philosophical approach in geoscience. The authors reconstructed the past climate zones and compared them with their palaeoreconstructions, and the established coincidence of two interpretations strengthens the proof of each of them.
A good approach for making theories from hypotheses! Second, the book is very rich in facts. The evidence from a lot of places is collected. Neither remote areas of Russia, nor Australia are omitted. And this is done for all analyzed time slices!
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Surprisingly, this is not linked to the lack of arguments. The problem is the consideration of the too big time slices, but only this was allowed by the stratigraphical resolution available in two first decades of the 20th century. If so, the increase in this resolution, the improvement of the geologic time scale, and the refining of the correlation tools have facilitated our geological knowledge.
Now, we can make similar interpretations for epochs and stages.
Is this enough? Of course, not! And, thus, the reading of this book teaches us to focus on the stratigraphical research, which, unfortunately, seems to be in crisis now. No, this is described as a full-scale theory considered seriously by the contemporary geologists. This was a well-though and well-argued concept. The main impression of the reviewer after reading this book is it sounds modern and employs the general principles that are often used nowadays: for instance, just look at the well-known Palaeozoic reconstructions of Cocks e.
Technically, the reviewed book is wonderful. The quality of reproduction of the original German version is exceptional, and the English translation is also excellent. The book is organized so that it is clear what is where and how diff erent parts are related to one another. Two orders of page numbers are given: the first refers to the page numbering in the original version and its translation, and the second refers to the actual pages of the entire book.
The subject indices one for the original German version and one for the English translation are as well as necessary. However, the full biographies of the both figures would also be given if even in abridged form. The publisher should be thanked for the design of this book. It looks as impressive as should be such an important monograph.
And even more exciting and important is to dream about the present gives us two additional lessons: The first lesson is about how to write a really convincing text; the second lesson is about the care of the geoscience literature heritage. Well, this book will be excellent gift to each geoscientist, especially working with the subjects of palaeogeography, Quaternary geology, and, of course, history of geology.
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Krieg, Ernährung, Völkermord: Forschungen zur deutschen Vernichtungspolitik im Zweiten Weltkrieg
Customer account Login Register account. RSS feeds All publications more feeds Home Publications The Climates of th IX, pages, 97 figures, num. Sample pages. Jahrgang, Nr. Stephen K. Ulrich Wutzke Ahrensfelde Geohistor. Book Review: Zentralblatt f.
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Geologie u. Dmitry A. Kapitel II. Eisspuren Kohle Die Pflanzenwelt Die Tierwelt Kalkriffbildner 59; Reptilien Kapitel III. Trias Jura Kreide Kapitel IV. Kapitel V. Die Klimate in den vorkarbonischen Zeiten A. Devon ; Old Red Silur ; Salzformation Nordamerikas ; Silurkorallen Kambrium ; Eisspuren ; kambrische Salzlager in Vorderindien Kapitel VI. Kapitel VII. Die Gliederung des Eiszeitalters, ihre Ursachen und Zeitrechnung The determinants of growth will be included in the next part.
This part is dedicated to the extent of growth. Figure 1 shows that Germany grew at an average of 6. However, in there was also a moderate Recession which can be attributed to lower public and private investment in the previous years Borowski, The Gross Capital Formation increased with an average of 7. After the unification, until , average growth slowed even further.
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The worker productivity increased by 5. This implies that, as Solow Model explains, growth is strongly correlated with investment and productivity in this case. From these figures we can conclude that Germany reached its steady state around Figure 3 also shows the growth of real wages from Wages rise when productivity grows. This is one of the most important determinants of economic growth and in the case of Germany, it was partly due to the movement of labour from agricultural sector to industries Eichengreen, The share of employment in agriculture decreased from Marshall fund played an important role to reinstall basic infra-structures that were crucial to stimulate growth.
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The economic policy of newly appointed finance minister and later chancellor Dr. Ludwig Erhard stimulated a take-off. He reformed the currency from 'Reichmark' to German Mark. The new currency was devalued at the initial phase which gave a boost in exports by increasing competitive advantage. German mark slowly appreciated in mid 50s increasing the purchasing power of workers.
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Consequently, it gave rise to tourism industries and 'life-style economy' as the Germans became able to save a part of their earnings. One of the German strengths in the early 20th century, the Auto-mobile industry experienced a sharp rise in production level. By mid 50s, all of car industries that existed in pre-WWII period were continuing their operation Abelshauser, Other than Automobile, machineries, electric goods and chemical industries grew rapidly and were able to boost their export.
Figure-4 shows that from , Germany started with a trade surplus of 1 billion which reached 24 billion in and today it stands at billion. The role of institutions in economic growth is vital. They are the rules of the game in a society. Prevailing economic institutions affects distribution of resources Acemoglu et al The development of institutions like European Payment Union to liberalize trade, establishment of the central bank called ' Bundesbank ' to maintain currency stability and a subsequent law which allows it to oversee other credit institutions was enforced.
It is equally indisputable that trade increases employment and it was also the case with Germany.