For example, the seven deadly sins of the Catholic Church that are cleansed in Purgatory are joined by special realms for the Late repentant and the excommunicated by the church. The core seven sins within Purgatory correspond to a moral scheme of love perverted, subdivided into three groups corresponding to excessive love Lust , Gluttony , Greed , deficient love Sloth , and malicious love Wrath , Envy , Pride.
This exile, which lasted the rest of Dante's life, shows its influence in many parts of the Comedy, from prophecies of Dante's exile to Dante's views of politics, to the eternal damnation of some of his opponents. The poem begins on the night before Good Friday in the year , "halfway along our life's path" Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita. Conscious that he is ruining himself and that he is falling into a "low place" basso loco where the sun is silent ' l sol tace , Dante is at last rescued by Virgil, and the two of them begin their journey to the underworld.
Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a contrapasso , a symbolic instance of poetic justice ; for example, in Canto XX, fortune-tellers and soothsayers must walk with their heads on backwards, unable to see what is ahead, because that was what they had tried to do in life:.
La divine comédie - Tome 2 - Le Purgatoire
Allegorically, the Inferno represents the Christian soul seeing sin for what it really is, and the three beasts represent three types of sin: the self-indulgent, the violent, and the malicious. Added to these are two unlike categories that are specifically spiritual: Limbo, in Circle 1, contains the virtuous pagans who were not sinful but were ignorant of Christ, and Circle 6 contains the heretics who contradicted the doctrine and confused the spirit of Christ. Having survived the depths of Hell, Dante and Virgil ascend out of the undergloom to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of the world.
The Mountain is on an island, the only land in the Southern Hemisphere , created by the displacement of rock which resulted when Satan's fall created Hell  which Dante portrays as existing underneath Jerusalem . The mountain has seven terraces, corresponding to the seven deadly sins or "seven roots of sinfulness. It is also drawn primarily from Christian theology, rather than from classical sources.
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Love, a theme throughout the Divine Comedy , is particularly important for the framing of sin on the Mountain of Purgatory. While the love that flows from God is pure, it can become sinful as it flows through humanity. Humans can sin by using love towards improper or malicious ends Wrath , Envy , Pride , or using it to proper ends but with love that is either not strong enough Sloth or love that is too strong Lust , Gluttony , Greed.
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Below the seven purges of the soul is the Ante-Purgatory, containing the Excommunicated from the church and the Late repentant who died, often violently, before receiving rites. Thus the total comes to nine, with the addition of the Garden of Eden at the summit, equaling ten. Allegorically, the Purgatorio represents the Christian life.
Christian souls arrive escorted by an angel, singing In exitu Israel de Aegypto. In his Letter to Cangrande , Dante explains that this reference to Israel leaving Egypt refers both to the redemption of Christ and to "the conversion of the soul from the sorrow and misery of sin to the state of grace. The Purgatorio is notable for demonstrating the medieval knowledge of a spherical Earth.
During the poem, Dante discusses the different stars visible in the southern hemisphere , the altered position of the sun, and the various timezones of the Earth. At this stage it is, Dante says, sunset at Jerusalem, midnight on the River Ganges , and sunrise in Purgatory.
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After an initial ascension, Beatrice guides Dante through the nine celestial spheres of Heaven. These are concentric and spherical, as in Aristotelian and Ptolemaic cosmology. While the structures of the Inferno and Purgatorio were based on different classifications of sin, the structure of the Paradiso is based on the four cardinal virtues and the three theological virtues.
The seven lowest spheres of Heaven deal solely with the cardinal virtues of Prudence , Fortitude , Justice and Temperance. The final four incidentally are positive examples of the cardinal virtues, all led on by the Sun , containing the prudent, whose wisdom lighted the way for the other virtues, to which the others are bound constituting a category on its own. Mars contains the men of fortitude who died in the cause of Christianity; Jupiter contains the kings of Justice; and Saturn contains the temperate, the monks who abided by the contemplative lifestyle.
Topping them all is the Empyrean , which contains the essence of God, completing the 9-fold division to The Paradiso is consequently more theological in nature than the Inferno and the Purgatorio. However, Dante admits that the vision of heaven he receives is merely the one his human eyes permit him to see, and thus the vision of heaven found in the Cantos is Dante's personal vision.
In a flash of understanding that he cannot express, Dante finally understands the mystery of Christ 's divinity and humanity, and his soul becomes aligned with God's love: . But already my desire and my will were being turned like a wheel, all at one speed, by the Love which moves the sun and the other stars. The original printing press is on display in the Oratorio della Nunziatella in Foligno.
The Divine Comedy can be described simply as an allegory : each canto, and the episodes therein, can contain many alternative meanings. The structure of the poem is also quite complex, with mathematical and numerological patterns distributed throughout the work, particularly threes and nines, which are related to the Holy Trinity. The poem is often lauded for its particularly human qualities: Dante's skillful delineation of the characters he encounters in Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise; his bitter denunciations of Florentine and Italian politics; and his powerful poetic imagination.
Dante's use of real characters, according to Dorothy Sayers in her introduction to her translation of the Inferno , allows Dante the freedom of not having to involve the reader in description, and allows him to "[make] room in his poem for the discussion of a great many subjects of the utmost importance, thus widening its range and increasing its variety.
Dante called the poem "Comedy" the adjective "Divine" was added later, in the 16th century because poems in the ancient world were classified as High "Tragedy" or Low "Comedy". Dante was one of the first in the Middle Ages to write of a serious subject, the Redemption of humanity, in the low and "vulgar" Italian language and not the Latin one might expect for such a serious topic.
Boccaccio 's account that an early version of the poem was begun by Dante in Latin is still controversial. Although the Divine Comedy is primarily a religious poem, discussing sin, virtue, and theology, Dante also discusses several elements of the science of his day this mixture of science with poetry has received both praise and blame over the centuries .
The Purgatorio repeatedly refers to the implications of a spherical Earth , such as the different stars visible in the southern hemisphere , the altered position of the sun , and the various timezones of the Earth. For example, at sunset in Purgatory it is midnight at the Ebro , dawn in Jerusalem, and noon on the River Ganges: . A little earlier XXXIII, — , he queries the existence of wind in the frozen inner circle of hell, since it has no temperature differentials.
Inevitably, given its setting, the Paradiso discusses astronomy extensively, but in the Ptolemaic sense. Yet an experiment, were you to try it, could free you from your cavil and the source of your arts' course springs from experiment. Taking three mirrors, place a pair of them at equal distance from you; set the third midway between those two, but farther back.
Then, turning toward them, at your back have placed a light that kindles those three mirrors and returns to you, reflected by them all. Although the image in the farthest glass will be of lesser size, there you will see that it must match the brightness of the rest. A briefer example occurs in Canto XV of the Purgatorio lines 16—21 , where Dante points out that both theory and experiment confirm that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. Galileo Galilei is known to have lectured on the Inferno , and it has been suggested that the poem may have influenced some of Galileo's own ideas regarding mechanics.
Palacios argued that Dante derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter from the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi and from the Isra and Mi'raj or night journey of Muhammad to heaven. The latter is described in the ahadith and the Kitab al Miraj translated into Latin in or shortly before  as Liber Scalae Machometi , "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder" , and has significant similarities to the Paradiso , such as a sevenfold division of Paradise , although this is not unique to the Kitab al Miraj or Islamic cosmology.
The Resalat Al-Ghufran describes the journey of the poet in the realms of the afterlife and includes dialogue with people in Heaven and Hell, although, unlike the Kitab al Miraj , there is little description of these locations,  and it is unlikely that Dante borrowed from this work. Philosopher Frederick Copleston argued in that Dante's respectful treatment of Averroes , Avicenna , and Siger of Brabant indicates his acknowledgement of a "considerable debt" to Islamic philosophy.
Although this philosophical influence is generally acknowledged, many scholars have not been satisfied that Dante was influenced by the Kitab al Miraj. The 20th century Orientalist Francesco Gabrieli expressed skepticism regarding the claimed similarities, and the lack of evidence of a vehicle through which it could have been transmitted to Dante. Even so, while dismissing the probability of some influences posited in Palacios' work,  Gabrieli conceded that it was "at least possible, if not probable, that Dante may have known the Liber Scalae and have taken from it certain images and concepts of Muslim eschatology".
Corti speculates that Brunetto may have provided a copy of that work to Dante. The Divine Comedy was not always as well-regarded as it is today. Although recognized as a masterpiece in the centuries immediately following its publication,  the work was largely ignored during the Enlightenment , with some notable exceptions such as Vittorio Alfieri ; Antoine de Rivarol , who translated the Inferno into French; and Giambattista Vico , who in the Scienza nuova and in the Giudizio su Dante inaugurated what would later become the romantic reappraisal of Dante, juxtaposing him to Homer.
Later authors such as T. Lewis and James Joyce have drawn on it for inspiration. Merwin , and Stanley Lombardo , have also produced translations of all or parts of the book. In Russia, beyond Pushkin 's translation of a few tercets,  Osip Mandelstam 's late poetry has been said to bear the mark of a "tormented meditation" on the Comedy. Eliot's estimation, "Dante and Shakespeare divide the world between them. There is no third. New English translations of the Divine Comedy continue to be published regularly. Notable English translations of the complete poem include the following. A number of other translators, such as Robert Pinsky , have translated the Inferno only.
The Divine Comedy has been a source of inspiration for countless artists for almost seven centuries. There are many references to Dante's work in literature. In music , Franz Liszt was one of many composers to write works based on the Divine Comedy. In sculpture , the work of Auguste Rodin includes themes from Dante, and many visual artists have illustrated Dante's work, as shown by the examples above.
There have also been many references to the Divine Comedy in cinema, television , digital arts , comics and video games. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see The Divine Comedy disambiguation. For other uses, see Commedia disambiguation. Dante 's Divine Comedy. People by era or century. Desert Fathers. Contemporary papal views. Aspects of meditation Orationis Formas , Main article: Inferno Dante. Main article: Purgatorio. Main article: Paradiso Dante. Main article: English translations of Dante's Divine comedy. Main article: Dante and his Divine Comedy in popular culture.
Series of woodcuts illustrating Dante's Hell by Antonio Manetti — : From Dialogo di Antonio Manetti, cittadino fiorentino, circa al sito, forma, et misure dello inferno di Dante Alighieri poeta excellentissimo Florence: F. Giunta, ? In world literature it is ranked as an epic poem of the highest order. The Western Canon. See also Western canon for other "canons" that include the Divine Comedy. The Italian Language Today.
Bondanella, The Inferno , Introduction, p. Sayers , Hell , notes on page XL, Dec. Slade, Carole. Mais nous voudrions revenir sur un autre aspect du livre de M. Le manuscrit Bibl. Le manuscrit pourrait venir de n'importe quel coin de la France, de l'Espagne ou de l'Italie, par exemple. C'est malheureusement un nom qui ne livre aucune indication sur son origine.
La Divine Comedie - L'Enfer, le Purgatoire, le Paradis.
Armoiries et devise sont celles de la famille berrichonne de Sauzay- Contremoret. On peut sans doute identifier le manuscrit du Vatican Vat. Par exemple, p. Ainsi de suite. Il n'entrait pas dans le plan de M. Ayant sous les yeux une photographie du premier feuillet du manuscrit qui contient le texte Bodl. Cerulli, parato ; cf. Alfuoilles Alfollia pi.
Noter les formes preign ind. Noter l'ind. Sur quoi repose-t-elle? Le prologue l'affirme explicitement Cerulli, p.
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Cerulli, p. Voir aussi des discordances, p. Il y a donc contradiction entre les faits et les indications du prologue. Si la forme du nom ne nous.