Wundervölker, Monstrosität und Hässlichkeit im Mittelalter (German Edition)

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The oldest surviving complete architectural text is Vitruvius ' ten books collectively titled De architectura , which discuss some carpentry. Some of the oldest surviving wooden buildings in the world are temples in China such as the Nanchan Temple built in , the Greensted Church , parts of which are from the 11th century, and the stave churches in Norway from the 12th and 13th centuries.

By the beginning of the Ming dynasty, emperor Taizu categorized people into different occupations. At this time, all the carpenters throughout the state were registered by the imperial court, and the occupation remained strictly hereditary, according to the notes from historian Klaas Ruitenbeek [9]. In later times of the Ming dynasty, roughly in the s, however, people broke such restrictions, and the path into the occupation in the case of the carpentry became less fixed.

Although the restriction regarding the path into the occupation dissolved in later times of the Ming dynasty, approximately starting from s [10]. Lu Ban lived in the Zhou dynasty, 2, years from modern day and nearly 2, years from the beginning of the Ming dynasty. According to the biography, Lady Yun was "blessed with heavenly skills" [11] and she could produce products with higher quality than those produced by Lu Ban. Being a carpenter requires a set of techniques, especially for the household carpenters. From the first to the last day of the construction, sometimes even long before the beginning of construction, carpenters must treated their work with a lot of care.

With their meticulousness and perseverance, their products were so sophisticated that it appeals to the untrained peoples as impossible. Moreover, in Ming times, people believed that certain behaviors bring good or bad fortunes, and the carpenters were responsible for helping their customer to make decisions. Questions like when to build the house, and which direction should the house face toward were among some of the most frequently asked.

As a result, the techniques were both practical and metaphysical, include accurate calculation, using proper tools, avoiding ominous actions, singing for good fortunes, and choosing ideal locations for houses [12]. Interestingly is that the carpenters in China will sing prayer songs for their customer to pray for good fortune.

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The good fortunes involve a series of good things, including wealth, reputation, social ranking, and the sustainability of families. Historian Ronald Knapp recorded one of them in his book China's Living Houses: The Phoenix does not light where there are no treasures. Today it perches at the end of the ridgepole. With one swing of my axe, the house will be solid forever. The carpenters in Ming China, and particularly the first century of Ming China, experienced the division of labor process.

The resident artisans, according to Ruitenbeek, lived in the capital of Ming China first Nanjing, then Beijing because of the forced immigration launched by Ming Taizu.

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They were required to do ten days for each month in the imperial palace. According to the difference of their household register, these resident artisans were further categorized as military carpenters and civil carpenters. The military carpenters belong to the division of defense, and were required to produce the military arm forces like bows and cannon supports.

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The civil carpenters belong to the Board of Work [15]. The shift artisans, on the other hand, did not need to reside in capital regions, but they were required to complete service on behalf of the Board of Work. Meanwhile, carpenters in Ming China also avoided intrinsic competitions by establishing guilds. Guilds were long-lasting in premodern China, and by the late Ming times, it developed into institutions with complete regulations seek to minimize intrinsic competitions.

Ruitenbeek provides a framework for the guilds of carpentry in Ming times: There was a system of apprentice, jourjourneyman andter. Welfare was an important task of the guilds; it ensured for example a decent burial for its poorer members [16]. Speaking of the codes among the carpenters in the Ming dynasty, it includes a set of rituals or taboos generated by people within the occupation.

The Lu Ban Jing also set the rituals for the carpenters when they were given magical spells. Those magical spells, according to Lu Ban Jing, requires a complicated process of preparing the materials and praying for its effectiveness. For instance, carpenters can deliver a cursethat forced people to die in river or in water wells.

Such curse needs a wooden boat, and the carpenters have to turn the boats upside and bury the wooden boat at the northern corner of the house [17]. By the 16th century sawmills were coming into use in Europe. The founding of America was partly based on a desire to extract resources from the new continent including wood for use in ships and buildings in Europe.

In the 18th century part of the Industrial Revolution was the invention of the steam engine and cut nails. The 19th century saw the development of electrical engineering and distribution which allowed the development of hand-held power tools, wire nails and machines to mass-produce screws.

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In the 20th century, portland cement came into common use and concrete foundations allowed carpenters to do away with heavy timber sills. Also, drywall plasterboard came into common use replacing lime plaster on wooden lath.

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Plywood, engineered lumber and chemically treated lumber also came into use. For types of carpentry used in America see American historic carpentry. Carpentry requires training which involves both acquiring knowledge and physical practice. In formal training a carpenter begins as an apprentice , then becomes a journeyman , and with enough experience and competency can eventually attain the status of a master carpenter.

Today pre-apprenticeship training may be gained through non-union vocational programs such as high school shop classes and community colleges. Informally a laborer may simply work alongside carpenters for years learning skills by observation and peripheral assistance. While such an individual may obtain journeyman status by paying the union entry fee and obtaining a journeyman's card which provides the right to work on a union carpentry crew the carpenter foreman will, by necessity, dismiss any worker who presents the card but does not demonstrate the expected skill level.

Carpenters may work for an employer or be self-employed. No matter what kind of training a carpenter has had, some U. Formal training in the carpentry trade is available in seminars, certificate programs, high-school programs, online classes, in the new construction, restoration, and preservation carpentry fields. In the modern British construction industry, carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where general certificates of secondary education GCSE in Mathematics , English, and Technology help but are not essential.

However, this is deemed the preferred route, as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification. There are two main divisions of training: construction-carpentry and cabinetmaking. During pre-apprenticeship, trainees in each of these divisions spend 30 hours a week for 12 weeks in classrooms and indoor workshops learning mathematics, trade terminology, and skill in the use of hand and power tools.

Construction-carpentry trainees also participate in calisthenics to prepare for the physical aspect of the work. Upon completion of pre-apprenticeship, trainees who have successfully passed the graded curriculum taught by highly experienced journeyman carpenters are assigned to a local union and to union carpentry crews at work on construction sites or in cabinet shops as First Year Apprentices. The 4 bus stops within a block of the ReBuilding Center. Do I have to bring my printed ticket? No - we'd prefer to save a few trees!

We can look up registration details electronically if need be. Is there an age limit? Other questions? Email us at education rebuildingcenter. Add to Calendar. View Map View Map. Find out more about how your privacy is protected.

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Jun Sales Ended. Event description. Description Miter cuts mean more than just picture frames. Read more Read less. Map and Directions View Map. Intro to Carpentry: Picture Frames. View Details. Follow this organizer to stay informed on future events. ReBuilding Center Event creator. Following Follow. Events you might like:. Hobbies Class. Students benefit from having completed the Level 1 Carpentry course.

All units in this qualification are mandatory and learners must attain at least a pass in each unit in order to achieve the overall qualification. Achievement of this qualification will be assessed via a combination of knowledge testing and practical assessments that can be combined for synoptic delivery. You will be required to undertake some self-study in your own time of around hours per week. A work placement will be organised and undertaken as part of the Level 2 Diploma in Carpentry.

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There may be a small cost to purchase a textbook which will aid you in passing your theory exams. You will need suitable work wear and safety footwear which will be explained by your teacher. In most cases students aged years old on a substantial study programme will NOT be required to pay fees and most course-specific equipment and materials will be funded by the College. Students aged 19 years and over may be required to pay fees. For details of fee remission and loans for students over the age of 19 click here. Where we have been unable to provide these additional costs in this information, they will be discussed with you prior to enrolment.

If you think you may be entitled to financial support or fee remission, or you would like more information on the additional costs associated with your chosen course, please contact us.